Study Guide PHI 151
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Ellzey on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 151 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Paula Smithka in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in Philosophical / Religious / Ethical Perspectives at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Inductive Arguments 09/12/16 I. Inductive arguments a. Strength and cogency b. Kinds of & the criteria for strength i. Enumerative ii. Analogical iii. Abductive: inference to the best explanation II. When arguments go wrong: informal fallacies Page 19 Cogent: strong with all true premises Enumerative Induction o Conclusion—generalization or a prediction 1.Sample size 2.Unbiased or representative Analogical 1.More similarities the better 2.Consider important dissimilarities Abduction: inference to the best explanation o Data/evidence that leads to a hypothesis RR x ww = Rw – pink Rw x Rw = RR (25%) Rw(50%) ww(25%) 1 Conservatism 2 Simplicity – parsimony –Ockham’s razon Informal Fallacies Appeal to force: o Physical force o Blackmail Appeal to pity (argumentum ad misericordium) o Make someone of authority feel bad and give pity Appeal to the people (popularity) o Direct—“mob” mentality o Indirect—bandwagon, vanity Appeal to snobbery – only the best will have/do this (dos eqis) Argument against the person (appeal to the person) o Argumentum ad hominem o Name calling o Abusive o Circumstantial o Tu quoque (you, too) – 2 wrongs make a right fallacy Straw man: misrepresentation of a person’s views Appeal to unqualified authority Appeal to ignorance: tries to prove something Hasty generalizations: a sample size is too small to determine if a conclusion is true False cause o Slippery slope o Superstitions Gamblers fallacy Begging the question o Circular reasoning o Restating the premise Complex question o Can be incriminating False dichotomy/false dilemma o Either…or… Equicoation o Love is blind, stevie wonder is blind, therefore stevie wonder is love Amphiboly o The way it is put together o Wording is key Composition [parts—whole] Division [whole—parts] 2
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