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COMM Midterm Study Guide

by: Jessica Su

COMM Midterm Study Guide COMM 1100

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Intro to Public Speaking
John Banister
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Su on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1100 at University of Georgia taught by John Banister in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
COMM 1100 Midterm Study Guide Ch.1 Models of Communication  The Transmission Model/ Linear Model o Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver 1949 o Information source­­> (Message) Transmitter, using words ­­> Channel ­­> Receiver,  read the words and think what's the meaning ­­> Destination  o Limitations: One person communicating  The Interactive Model o Wilbur Schramm, 1955 o Takes the transmission model and make it two ways o Message ­­> Decoder, Interpreter, encoder ­­> Message ­­> Encoder, interpreter,  decoder ­­> Message  (a circular model) o Limitations: assumes only two people o Encoding: what a source does when "creating a message, adapting it to the receiver,  and transmitting it across some channels" o Decoding: a process of interpreting the source's message, evaluating the source's  message, and responding it   Responding to a source's message has 3 types  Direct: directly talks to the source  Moderately direct; Ex. audience smile and nod their heads, texting during the speech  Indirect; Ex. You are running for student body president and you received only one vote   The Transactional Model o Dean Barnlund, 1970, best model  o Speaker encoding a channel/message ­­> Audience decoding the channel/message ­­> Audience encoding channel back (feedback) ­­> Speaker decoding the channels of the audience  o Four Primary Types of Noises  Physical noises; ex. Someone's phone goes off  Psychological noise; ex. If an exam is coming up next class  Physiological noise; ex. Temperature in the room is too hot  Linguistic noise; ex. Audience is having a difficult time understanding the  speaker  o Dynamic: to a lot of people, not just one person, continuous, circular, unrepeatable  (the speech you give again will never be the same), irreversible (the speaker cannot  take back what he said), and complex Ch.2­Free Speech/Ethics  Freedom of Speech is protected under the 1  Amendment o Snyder v. Phelps (2011)   The Westboro Baptist Church, led by Fred Phelps, believes that God  punishes the US for tolerating homosexuality   The court ruled that the protest is constitutional bc the protest addressed  "matters of public concerns" o Morse et al. v. Frederick (2007)  Joseph Fredrick held up a banner with the “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” sign, a  slang reference to marijuana smoking   The principal took away the banner and suspended Fredrick  The court ruled that the principal has the right to suspend students for  using peech allocating illegal freedom of speech  College Campuses Protest o 1970, 4 students were killed in Ohio when they were protesting the Viet. War o Self­censorship (getting suspended when making offending comments) o Therefore, we have what it’s called "e spaces", "rigger warnings " and "free  speech zones"  Ch.3­ Communication Apprehension (CA) o Def.: an individual’s fear or anxiety when speaking in front of the crowd  o Myths  People who suffer from speaking anxiety are neurotic  It is completely normal to feel nervous when giving a speech  Telling a joke or two is always a good way to begin a speech  No, some people may not find it funny. Nothing is worse than  waiting for a laugh   Imagine the audience is naked  No, the audience is someone who you are trying to connect with  through your material   Any mistake means that you have "blown it"  Its okay, everyone makes mistake   Avoid speaking anxiety by writing your speech out word for word and  memorizing it  No, your audience want you to talk naturally rather than recite a  written script  Audiences are out to get you   You will look to the audience as nervous as you feel.  No research has shown that the speaker thinks he was super  nervous on stage, but the audience did not think he was as nervous  A little nervousness helps you give a better speech   TRUE!! Professional speakers say that the day they stop feeling  nervous is the day they should stop speaking in public. The goal is  to control those nervous and channel them into your presentation o Types of CA  Audience Anxiety ­ get more nervous during a job interview  Context Anxiety­ anxiety prompted by specific communication contexts  Trait Anxiety­ some people feel more uncomfortable than average people when speaking in front of the crow  Situational Anxiety­ created by “the unique combination of influences  generated by audience, time, and context” Ch.4­ Listening  Hearing v. Listening  Hearing: accidental, involuntary, and effortless  Listening: focused, voluntary, and intentional  Listening Styles  People­oriented listeners  They listen to the message in order to learn how the speaker thinks and  how they feel about their message  Ex. When they listen to an interview with a famous rap artist, they will be  more interested in the artist than the music   Action­oriented listeners  Interested in finding out what the speaker wants   Content­oriented listeners  Interested in the message itself, whether it makes sense, what it means,  and whether it's accurate  Time­oriented listeners   Prefer a message that gets to the point quickly  Speeches to young audiences must be shorter bc they are less patient   Types of Noises  Physical noise : construction noises right outside a window  Psychological noise: distraction to a speaker's message caused by a receiver's  internal thoughts  Cannot focus before an exam  Physiological noise: distraction to a speaker's message caused by a listener's own  body   Semantic noise: a receiver experiences confusion over the meaning of a source's  word choice  Ch.5­ Audience Analysis  Demographics Information­ most helpful with large audience, but it can also be misled  when we assume audiences are homogenous  Audience is very diverse  Ex. age, gender, culture  Psychographic information­ the study of personality, values, opinions, attitudes,  interests, and lifestyles  Situational information­  characteristics related to speaking situation  Ex. audience size, occasion  Lloyd Bitzer’s “The Rhetorical Situation”  Exigence­ a problem or issue that speech must play a role in changing for the  better  Constraints­ “beliefs, values, attitudes, and expectations”  Audience­ consist only of those people who are capable of being influenced by  discourse and of being mediators of change Ch.8­ Support Material (8.2)  Facts­ a truth that is arrived at through the scientific process  Speakers usually cite statistics numbers  Definition­ give definitions if the words are high­leveled  Lexical definition­ states how a word is used within a specific language   Persuasive definition­  motivate an audience to think in a specific manner about a word  Ex. oil drillin  energy exploring  Gives another sense of the word  Stipulative definition­  a definition assigned to a word by the person who coins  that word for the first time  Theoretical definition­ vague words  Ex. peace, falling in love (different people define falling in love  differently)  Narratives  Examples­ a specific situation, problem, or story designed to help illustrate an idea  Positive example, negative example, nonexample (explain something that is not)  Testimony­ expert opinion or direct accounts of witness to provide support for your  speech  APA Style (know all the required parts of bibliographic citation) Ch.9­Introductions  A good introduction states the purpose of your speech, so your audience will remember  this ONE idea when you are finished with your speech  Attention grabber  Needs to be appropriate or relevance to audience, prepare your audience  for your speech, speech occasion, quotation, historical reference, anecdote, question, and humor  Use ethos to build credibility, trustworthiness, thesis, preview, time  Link to topic, gives reason to listen  Only 10­15%  of the speech Ch.10­ Organization Patterns  Casual ­ explain cause­and­effect relationships  Chronological­ time order  Spatial­ organizes information according to how things fit together  Use it when main points are oriented to different locations that can exist  independently   Comparative­ state the similarity and differences  Topical/Categorical­ organize information in a consistent fashion  The most common   Problem­Cause­Solution­ describe a problem, identify what you believe is causing the  problem, and recommend a solution  Techniques to prevent the audience getting lost  Transitions, internal preview, internal summaries (remind the audience what they  just heard), and signposts  Ch.12­Outlining   Outline­ purpose is to help you framing a clear, concrete thesis statement, excluding  irrelevant info, and focusing only on the info that directly bears on your thesis  Helps you to stay organized in front of the audience   Equal time to each of your three main points  Coordination/Subordination Ch.14­ Modes of Delivery  Impromptu Speaking­ presentation of a short message without advance preparation  Asked to “say to few words”  Extemporaneous speaking­ presentation of a carefully planned and rehearsed speech,  spoken in a conversational manner using brief notes  Manuscript speaking­ word­to­word iteration of a written message   Speaker maintains his or her attention on the printed page except when using  visual aids  Adv.: exact repetition of original words  Oratory/Memorized speaking­ reciting a written message that the speaker has  memorized  Adv: speaker maintains eye contact with the audience throughout the speech  Actors  Elements of Good Delivery  Conversational style, eye contact, effective use of vocalic (speak loudly enough  for all audience members), volume, rate, pitch, pauses, vocal variety,  pronunciation, posture, body movement, facial expression, etc.


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