Exam # 2 Study guide - BIOL 102
Exam # 2 Study guide - BIOL 102 BIOL 102 001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Exam # 2 BIOL 102 Study Guide Chapter 25 Homeotic genes control development o Hox genes are sets of homeotic genes that provide the position for growth o May have contributed to Cambrian explosion o Regulation of these genes may lead to new morphologies Exaptions o Features evolve in one context but are used for another o Natural selection is based on current use of said feature Evolutionary trends should be examined in a broad context Chapter 26 Phylogeny o Evolutionary history of an organism o Homology vs Analogy Shared ancestors indicate homology Genotypic and phenotypic similarities Coincidental characteristics are analogous Convergent evolution Analogous structures – homoplasies Determined by computer analysis of DNA o Shared characters Ancestral Originated from an ancestor Derived Shared by a clade Taxonomy o Classification of organisms o Identification based on evolutionary relationships Reproduction is horizontal gene transfer Chapter 28 Protists are mostly unicellular eukaryotes. Diversity o Energy Photoautotrophs Heterotrophs Mixotrophs o Reproduction Sexual or asexual Endosymbiosis o Symbiont lives inside a host Original symbionts thought to be… Mitochondria Chloroplast o Secondary endosymbiosis One cell living inside another inside another Endosymbiosisinception Smallest organism still has a nucleus Categories / supergroups o Excavata Have cytoskeleton o SAR clade Apicomplexans Parasites Sexual and asexual Diatoms Two part cell wall of silicon dioxide Includes a lot of phytoplankton Sink to the ocean floor o Create sediments and oil Brown algae Multicellular “Seaweeds” Largest and most complex algae o Archeaplastida Red algae Usually unicellular Green algae Paraphyletic group o Unikonta Amoebas Closer to fungi than animals Chapter 29 General plant stuff o Very diverse o Land plants have terrestrial ancestors o Do not include photosynthetic protists o Fix CO2 into Oxygen Related to charophytes o Cellulose o Flagellated sperm o Sporopollenin Protects zygotes Allowed colonization of land Distinct plant features o Alternation of generations o Multicellular, dependent embryos o Walled spores o Multicellular gametangia (Wall around gametes) o Apical meristems (Continual growth) o Cuticle o Stomata o Mycorrhizae Symbiotic relationships with fungi Vascular plants o Plants with vascular tissue o Life cycles are prominently sporophytes o First to grow very tall Seed plants o Heterosporous Mega spores Female gametophytes Micro spores Male gametophytes
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