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Exam # 2 Study guide - BIOL 102

by: Kaeli

Exam # 2 Study guide - BIOL 102 BIOL 102 001

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Everything you need to know for exam 2
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Exam # 2 BIOL 102 Study Guide Chapter 25  Homeotic genes control development o Hox genes are sets of homeotic genes that provide the position for growth o May have contributed to Cambrian explosion o Regulation of these genes may lead to new morphologies  Exaptions  o Features evolve in one context but are used for another o Natural selection is based on current use of said feature  Evolutionary trends should be examined in a broad context Chapter 26   Phylogeny o Evolutionary history of an organism o Homology vs Analogy  Shared ancestors indicate homology   Genotypic and phenotypic similarities  Coincidental characteristics are analogous  Convergent evolution  Analogous structures – homoplasies  Determined by computer analysis of DNA o Shared characters  Ancestral  Originated from an ancestor  Derived  Shared by a clade  Taxonomy o Classification of organisms o Identification based on evolutionary relationships  Reproduction is horizontal gene transfer Chapter 28  Protists are mostly unicellular eukaryotes.   Diversity  o Energy  Photoautotrophs  Heterotrophs  Mixotrophs o Reproduction  Sexual or asexual   Endosymbiosis o Symbiont lives inside a host  Original symbionts thought to be…  Mitochondria  Chloroplast o Secondary endosymbiosis   One cell living inside another inside another  Endosymbiosis­inception  Smallest organism still has a nucleus  Categories / supergroups o Excavata  Have cytoskeleton o SAR clade  Apicomplexans  Parasites  Sexual and asexual  Diatoms  Two part cell wall of silicon dioxide  Includes a lot of phytoplankton  Sink to the ocean floor  o Create sediments and oil  Brown algae  Multicellular  “Seaweeds”   Largest and most complex algae o Archeaplastida  Red algae  Usually unicellular  Green algae  Paraphyletic group o Unikonta  Amoebas   Closer to fungi than animals  Chapter 29  General plant stuff o Very diverse o Land plants have terrestrial ancestors o Do not include photosynthetic protists o Fix CO2 into Oxygen  Related to charophytes o Cellulose o Flagellated sperm o Sporopollenin  Protects zygotes  Allowed colonization of land  Distinct plant features o Alternation of generations o Multicellular, dependent embryos o Walled spores o Multicellular gametangia  (Wall around gametes) o Apical meristems  (Continual growth) o Cuticle  o Stomata o Mycorrhizae  Symbiotic relationships with fungi  Vascular plants o Plants with vascular tissue o Life cycles are prominently sporophytes  o First to grow very tall  Seed plants o Heterosporous  Mega spores  Female gametophytes  Micro spores  Male gametophytes


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