Review of Exam #1
Review of Exam #1 POLS 2312 - 008
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POLS 2312 - 008
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Xavier Ramirez on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2312 - 008 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Richard E Millsap in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Important Doc. (1) Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, (2) Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence, (3) the Federalist Papers authored by several, (4) the United States Constitution, (5) the Bill of Rights, (6) President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address 11/19/1863, and (7) Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Address 3/4/1865. Isms Vocab. classical liberalism: belief in a minimal role for government and maximum individual rights and protection of property rights; government that governs least governs best. Classical liberalism is the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson and authors of the Constitution and later the likes of Andrew Jackson. Those who opposed slavery and those who fought for equal rights for women were classical liberals. It is a belief in liberty found in Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Classical liberals would agree with British philosopher John Locke, who stated that people have natural rights apart from government. Government's purpose is to protect these natural rights. Classical liberals believed in economic liberties and modern liberals would not agree. modern or contemporary liberalism: belief in big enough government to solve people problems relating to justice and social issues and to blunt defects in capitalism. They want government to solve social problems caused by industrialization (progressive liberals) because they believe no one else will and that if government does not intervene people will be hurt. Modern liberals say it is OK for government to regulate the work place and the economy, but classical liberals would oppose it. (Consider the problem that lack of adequate government regulations was a significant cause of our economic crisis). Modern liberals are still influenced by classical liberalism's respect for civil liberties. Both would support groups like the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the phrase "civil libertarian." Modern conservatives would disagree with its positions on social issues. They want private corporate power limited, increased voter decision making, and improved public services. Redistribution of wealth (taxing & spending) makes society more fairer such as a minimum wage, child labor laws, 8 hour work day, and overtime. They want government to protect the weak and the environment because of its impact on society; they are for the EPA protecting the environment clean air, water, and soil from corporate entities that pollute it in the name of profit. In the classic movie It's a Wonderful Life, the small town bank president is the Jimmy Stewart character the "dogooder" named George Bailey, who during the "Great Depression" and WWII sees his role as helping people in the community stay in their homes, while the competitor Henry Potter, a corporate raider viewed as a predatory vulture, wishes to foreclose on home owners behind in mortgage payments and wants to take over George Bailey's bank. Liberals side with George Bailey and conservatives side with Potter. Like libertarians, modern liberals believe that various life styles such as gay rights is no business of government. They believe that government should not prohibit women from birth control or deciding whether to have a baby. They are generally opposed to unnecessary foreign wars and prefer a smaller defense department so those surplus dollars can be used on domestic programs, like health and education. Critics argue that they place too much faith in government, laws and regulations, taxes, and spending to solve problems. Liberals side with workers on collective bargaining issues that affect employees which infuriates management. While President GW Bush was conservative on most issues, he was a liberal on big government spending policy as his spending was the highest and most generous in all history (TARP bailouts); hardly a conservative trait. Bush was also supportive of the biggest government in history and pushed laws into effect that restricted personal liberties in the name of war on terror. Congress ultimately decides these issues and under President Obama beginning in 2009 spending & borrowing continued to increase both argued to stop a depression on the horizon. progressive liberalism: neoliberalism: seek creation of wealth, not redistribution, and they are for reform of entitlement programs, and they are for free trade (some jobs may go over seas) and they are for a strong national defense in the most cost effective manner. Populism: in the 1880s wanted more citizen voter involvement in decision making, and they wanted economic reforms that would strengthen government. When today I think of a populist elected leader I think of one who listens to such gripes by the majority voters and who attempts to give them a greater voice in the decision making process to act on their concerns. traditional conservatism: belief in a minimal role for government; they distrust government and believe private efforts are more likely to improve society. They do not wish government to be very powerful or be very active, they wish low taxes to control government and its programs, and they are opposed to most restrictions on corporations and management. Laissezfair economics. Unlike classical liberals, they did support slavery and opposed women's rights. They side with business management on issues opposed by workers like opposition to collective bargaining, which is supervisors and employees sitting down to negotiate conditions in the workplace. They are opposed to any worker minimum wage and a variety of laws mandating overtime, compensation for injuries on the job, sick leave, retirement believing employee benefits should be determined only by business management. Management is always right. Conservatives believe that government’s appropriate role is to provide aggressive domestic and international law and order, strong defense, promote capitalism and family values. President Truman criticized conservatives for “taking care of the privileged few who argue that by doing so the rich will take care of the poor and disadvantaged.” President Reagan said: “government is the problem.” Critics say they place too much trust in business practices opposed by workers and consumers that has caused an environment of corruption, such as the collapse of savings and loans and banks, like Enron and World Com. social conservatism: also known as the “religious right” or “radical right,” place less emphasis on economics and capitalism and more on morals. They want to regulate individual behavior. Stop pornography, illegal drugs, abortion, homosexuals, affirmative action, school busing, job quotas, public secular schools in favor of public funded religious schools. They wish to censor all media content. They are vehemently opposed to any contraception in any form. Doing anything to prevent human life is a crime, and in the case of abortion is murder even at the point that sperm meets egg. They want government used to mandate prayer in public schools, and they believe this is a Christian country and often show intolerance of other religions. This agenda is under their umbrella called "family values." They want a strong defense to aggressively advance the American agenda abroad. But until recently, you saw conservatives seeking an expanded role for government and supporting record budgets and record red ink spending and reductions in civil liberties that would have been alien to conservatives of the past. Conservatives would disagree with liberals view of civil liberties. neoconservatism: is skeptical of government's ability to solve social and economic problems. It believes in strong defense and aggressive foreign policy, and is opposed to racial affirmative action. It focuses on creating wealth and is opposed to redistribution of wealth through welfare programs. Libertarianism: it has some elements of anarchism and it wishes little to no government and opposes moral crime laws (prostitution, abortion, pornography and illegal drugs would be legal). Libertarians are opposed to welfare social safety net programs such as unemployment benefits, health, and retirement protections. They oppose most laws and regulations on business (buyer beware), support a military only used if attacked and are considered "isolationists," they would return to a gold standard, would end foreign aid, and would withdraw from the United Nations. See the USA Libertarian Party to learn about their views. Congressman Ron Paul of Texas views himself to be both a libertarian (1988 libertarian candidate for President of the USA) and a (a 2012 republican candidate for president). Anarchism: varies in thought, but is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state is undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. It opposes authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations, and advocate stateless societies based on nonhierarchical voluntary associations. They are called "anarchists." The individualist anarchist supports a market economy and private property, and morally unrestrained egoism. Some are socialists or communists. Communism: Belief in a classless society found in the writings of Karl Marx and a belief that government should own business and totally control the economy and is usually authoritarian (belief there is no limit to a leader's power) and blended with totalitarianism (belief that leaders should assert complete dominance over all individuals and institutions even religions and the press). Since government owns everything, then it is responsible for providing social services like health care. The hospital is owned by the government the doctors and nurses are employees of the government. I have never heard any elected USA official advocate for such. They do advocate they be privately owned (capitalism), but regulated licensing, meeting codes, standards of care and so forth. This is called regulation. Did you know there is a Communist Party in the USA? They cannot get candidates elected to office but it is a legal entity in a free country. The above are political philosophies, but now I want you to understand something about the "economic" systems capitalism and socialism. Authoritarianism: Totalitarianism: Capitalism: an economic system where most property and businesses are privately owned and people work where ever they want and for whoever they want your choice. There are many forms of capitalism but in our form there is a considerable amount of government interference with businesses, but government does not own and manage the business. Our capitalism is about private ownership of the means of production, for profit competitive markets, and a regulatory system, government (Article 1 of the US Constitution), which helps correct capitalism's frequent dysfunctions and erratic behavior we observed before the Constitution. The government accomplishes that by serving as a referee to adjudicate disputes based on rules of fair play and laws and regulations having the force of law. In capitalism there is often as little government interference as possible unless there is a higher public good. Some argue that capitalism can do no wrong while others recognize weaknesses. Many believe that corporations that are too big and powerful (bigger than most governments of the world) are just as dangerous as governments that are too big and powerful. Conservatives argue that government (laws & regulations) get in the way of business and its ability to make a profit and create jobs. There is no doubt that can be true, but an important question is it necessary? Burke – “All the forces of darkness need to succeed … is for the people to do nothing.” Clay – "Do not despise compromise, for it is the cement that keeps this country together." Jefferson – "In questions of power, then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him from mischief by the chains of the Constitution." "I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but to inform their discretion by education," Jordan – “Government is too important to be a spectator sport.” Holmes – "Taxes are what we pay for civilized society." Kennedy – “… and so, my fellow Americans, ask NOT what your country can do for you; ask what YOU can do for your country.” Lincoln – "The legitimate object of government, is to do for a community of people, whatever they need to have done, but cannot do, at all, or cannot so well do, for themselves in their separate, and individual capacities." "It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to open one's mouth and remove all doubt." Madison – “if the people are to be our governors, they must arm themselves with knowledge.” "A popular government, without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a prologue to a farce or a tragedy... a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives," John Stuart Mill – "A man who has nothing for which he willing to fight; nothing he cares about more than his own personal safety, is a miserable creature who has no chance of being free, unless made and kept so by the exertions of better men than himself.” Santayana – “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Roosevelt – "Citizenship in a Republic," Collier Chapter 11 Review (There are missing numbers because I deleted questions) 3. The phenomena of legislators and members of the executive branch moving easily from government office to lucrative positions with lobbying firms is called b. the revolving door. 4. The idea that a greater number of organized interests means wider participation and a healthier democracy is called a. the pluralist perspective. 5. The idea that a greater number of narrow interests makes it difficult to formulate public policy that will serve the broader public interest is called b. hyperpluralism. 7. Which of the following describes public interest groups? a. organizations that pursue noneconomic policies on behalf of the general populace 8. Which of the following describes trade associations? b. organizations of similar businesses working together to advance shared goals 9. Which of the following describes labor unions? a. organizations that represent the interests of working people seeking better pay and better working conditions 10. _________ is the method used by organized interests to try to shape public policy by influencing those elected or appointed to office, often through facetoface meetings. c. Electioneering 12. How does the parttime nature of Texas government create greater opportunity for the influence of organized interests than in states with fulltime government? e. Legislators rely upon interests for the information they provide. 13. Organized interests can best overcome the freerider problem to join by providing d. selective incentives that only group members can enjoy. 14. A benefit for joining a group that is merely the good feelings one enjoys from voicing his or her support for a worthy cause is a(n) ____________ benefit. d. solidary 16. Contributing funds to candidates through a political action committee (PAC) is an example of organized interest a. lobbying. b. electioneering. c. caucusing. d. propagandizing. 17. Organized interests represent constituents in all but which of the following ways? a. Groups can speak for voters whose representatives are of the rival party. b. Groups can be a collection of practitioners of specific professions to voice their concerns. c. Interests groups provide a forum for those who share a position on a certain policy. d. Organized interests focus most centrally on equal representation across geographical areas. e. Organized interests bring party leaders’ attention to important policy issues. 20. Which of the following is true about Texas law on lobbyists and political contributions to legislators? a. Restrictions on contributions to Texas legislators are enforced by the federal government. b. There are no restrictions so long as the contributor registers with the state government. c. Contributions are prohibited during the legislative session. d. Lobbyists must report their exact earnings for their lobbying efforts to the state. e. Lobbyists are only permitted to represent one organized interest per calendar year. 33. Trade associations represent a. businesses within the same industry. 38. Organizations that pursue noneconomic policies on behalf the citizens of Texas are known as b. public interest groups. 44. PAC stands for a. political action committee 54. Money spent by a nonprofit to support a candidate which does not have to be reported is called c. dark money. 56. A group that can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money is called a d. super PAC 58. Lobbying is a technique designed to a. influence the shape and passage of law. 59. Direct contact with legislatures and executive branch employees for the purpose of influencing policy is called c. lobbying 60. Grassroots lobbying focuses on b. influencing public opinion. 64. Which organization is responsible for overseeing lobbying in the state of Texas? a. Texas Ethics Commission 65. This perspective supports the idea that citizens participating through interest groups is positive. d. pluralist Collier Chapter 10 Review (There are missing numbers because I deleted questions) 2. Which of the following most accurately describes patronage? e. rewards from elected officials for campaign supporters 3. Which of the following is not a function of political parties? d. to build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the national party 6. The theoretical view that each party should hold firmly to a clear and consistent set of policies refers to a. the responsible party model. 9. Political party planks are b. the individual issue positions of the party platform. 12. Which of the following best describes a grassroots organization? c. a group in which decision making resides with average citizens 14. Which two party officers do primary voters elect? b. the precinct chair and county chair 15. Which of the following accurately describes the “Texas TwoStep?” d. Texas Democrats allocate presidential nominating delegates both by election and caucus. 16. At national conventions today, a. state delegations focus most prominently on representation of local interests. b. the national party is able to force state parties to adopt policy positions. c. the state parties’ roles are of increasing strength. d. state parties are assured equal representation e. the presidential campaign organization tends to dominate. 17. Which is held on the same day as the party primary? d. the precinct party convention 18. Which parties may choose to use conventions to nominate candidates rather than primary elections? b. parties that won less than 20 percent in the last gubernatorial election 33. Voter turn out in primary elections has ________________ since 1972. d. dramatically decreased 40. What is one reason that V.O. Key identified as a barrier to strong political parties in Texas? d. the large geographic size of the state 41. What is one consequence of weak political parties in Texas? c. Political outsiders often gain statewide office. 42. What is a modern source of influence that has weakened political parties in Texas? a. national politics b. television media c. social media d. Texas Ethics Commission 44. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) allowed __________ to purchase political advertising directly. d. corporations 52. Precinct and county chairs in Texas are elected for a period of ______ years. c. two 64. V.O. Key said that “as institutions, parties enjoy a general a. disrepute.” Chapter 09 Lone Star 4 edition Exam Review (I have deleted a number of questions and is why many question numbers are missing) 1. Which of the following accurately describes voter registration requirements in Texas? b. Citizens must register to vote at least thirty days before an election. 2. Which of the following barriers to voting in postReconstruction Texas was rarely used? b. grandfather clause 3. Which of the following was a contribution to eliminating barriers to voting for African Americans? e. the Voting Rights Act of 1965 4. Which of the following barriers to voting was primarily used against Hispanics in Texas? e. red lining 5. Texas extended voting rights to which of the following groups even before federal laws were passed? c. African American women 6. Which of the following is a way of getting one’s name on the ballot in Texas? c. through obtaining sufficient signatures 7. Electronic voting in Texas b. is financially costly but perceived as a necessary investment. 8. Which of the following statements describes early voting in Texas? d. Early voting is permitted without giving a specific reason since 1998. 9. In a closed primary election, b. the election contest excludes supporters of other political parties. 10. In an open primary election, e. voters do not have to declare party affiliation to participate. 11. Which of the following is not an example of direct democracy? d. general elections 12. Suffrage refers to b. the right to vote. 13. What eliminated the use of white primaries in Texas? e. a U.S. Supreme Court decision 14. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 a. was initiated by the U.S. federal government, not the Texas state government. 15. An electoral candidate without a political party affiliation c. is called an independent candidate. 16. Which of the following accurately describes the Help America Vote Act? a. It effectively standardized election procedures. 17. On what day are national elections held? d. the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November 18. The candidate who already holds the office up for election is called the a. incumbent. 19. Secondorder elections refer to e. an election in which offices below the national chief executive are elected. 20. Voter turnout refers to a. the number of people casting ballots in a given election. 31. Which candidates do not receive votes in a roll off? d. county 33. If used as it was intended, what does the long ballot require that voters ignore? b. incumbency 35. Partyline voting is a normal outcome of a. closed primaries. b. long ballots. c. open primaries. d. anonymous ballots. 36. Historically, voters who wished to cast a vote before election day had to qualify for c. an absentee ballot. 37. One reason that states began to pass laws to mirror HAVA rules was because c. federal elections occurred at the same time. 38. Early voting has ______________ since 1996. d. increased 39. The Help America Vote Act was created following irregularities in Florida during the ________ presidential election. c. 2000 40. When the Help America Vote Act was passed into law, approximately ______ of Texas counties still used paper ballots. d. onethird 43. Voter registration in Texas has ___________ since 1970. d. slightly increased 44. Which state lacks any form of voter registration? d. North Dakota 48. Texas voter turnout is _________ the United States as a whole. c. lower than in 49. Which demographic group turns out to vote in higher percentages in Texas than in Minnesota? a. African Americans 50. Political parties that have won more than ______ percent of the vote in the previous gubernatorial election must hold primaries. c. 20 51. Parties with less than 5 percent of the vote in the last gubernatorial election a. cannot run in the current election. b. must pay a registration fee to the comptroller. c. must first register with the secretary of state. d. are given public finance dollars. 52. A candidate who runs for office without seeking a party nomination is known as a(an) b. independent candidate. 53. What is credit claiming? a. an advantage derived from the incumbents record 55. When a representative assists a voter with finding the correct office to file a workforce complaint, the representative has engaged in ________. c. casework 58. In 2010, Rick Perry spent ______ million on his reelection campaign. d. $50 59. Why will voters not know how much was spent during the 2014 election cycle until 2015? c. Candidates are given several months to report to the Texas Ethics Commission. 60. A system in which the government covered the costs of campaigns is known as d. public financing. 63. Voluntary spending limits may be adopted by. d. PACs.
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