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CHC / Psychology / PSY 111 / What is lifespan human development?

What is lifespan human development?

What is lifespan human development?

Description

School: Crafton Hills College
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111
Professor: Sandra moore
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Theroies, approaches, and HumanDevelopment
Cost: 25
Name: Psyc 111, Chapter 1 Notes
Description: Notes for "Understanding Human Development: Theories and Approaches". 5 pages, front and back, of color coded notes. Pink highlighter: vocabulary from the text Pink pen: vocabulary that's not highligh
Uploaded: 09/23/2016
10 Pages 26 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter


What is lifespan human development?



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UNDERSTANDING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:

THEORIES AND APPROACHES 2-39 What is lifespan Human Development I Lifespan human development is the growth Ep and maturation of

the human from conception through death

• Develop muntal sunce is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with describing change and constancy in growth and maturation


What is the difference between normative events and non-normative events?



throughout the lifespam

• cognitive domain of development is the domain that refers to the underlying mental fianctions, such as thinking memory, attention, and pervention physical domain of develoyment is the domain that refers to the biological systems that make up a human being, incinding the nervous, muscular, and skietal systems ! isocioemotional comaind development is the domain that refers to the


What is emperical study?



We also discuss several other topics like What is law of parismony?
Don't forget about the age old question of Where is voodoo originated?

scual, cultural, and emotional components of development, such as the family solicty, schools, and other social institutions olamid duelonmental Scientists study the way human development shapes and is shaped by the contexts we live in- family, school, communities countries, - to describe, explain & optimize human development

- teachers, for example I. The Developmental Perspective

A. Charles Darwin Don't forget about the age old question of What is piaget- stage model?

1. On the Origin of the spaces, 1959. ayolution any perspective

a evolutionary theory lis the assumption that specific

human traits and behaviors develop over the lifespan and are maintained throughout history becaur those

Characteristiy are adaptive for survival Birthe developmental pus active is the approach and basic set of If you want to learn more check out What is the basic purpose of any economic system?

assumptions that guide the scientific study of growth & maturation tharina the human lifespon

Developmental psychologylis the subfuld of psychology concerned with Storlying I understanding human growth and maturation We also discuss several other topics like Why is having an accurate measure of the true nature of crime important?

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m. E. Stanley Hall

1. Adolescence (1904) i triagured researchon adolescent development

*ie. Why tuns behave & think the way they do Dni1960's a clear distinction bit childhood & adolescence

*Adolescentspecialists

-help parints & tuins understand puberty, etc, OR- conduct researchon how sleep patterns

vary based on life stage 2.1 lite staguts a period of time wl a beginning & an end within If you want to learn more check out How one can use renal mechanisms to cause a sodium deficit and water loss?

which distinct developmental changes occur.

D. kemerging adulthoodles the develop nuental stage between

adolesance and adulthood during which individuals are Searching for a sense of identity and maturity b. W ten bulturelis the beliefs, Iwtoms, arts, etc, eta

Particular society, group, and place II key issues of Human Developmnt

A. Nature & Nurture

1. Wature is the hereditary influences that are passed from the

genes of biological parents to their offspring 2. Nurturedis the environmental intrunues that have an impact

endevelopment, including social, geographic, &economic factors B.continuity & Discontinuity

Il Developmental confinitulis acharacteristic or Feature of an individual

that stays the same as a person matures through the lifespan 2. Dunlop mental discontinuityks a characteristic or feature of an individual

that changes as a person matuves through the lifespan C. Developmental stability instability

I Develop mintai stability is when everyone is developing at the

samirate 7. Developmental instability is when ihaividuals are changing

in different ways compared to one another

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D. Normative em non normative events

Il normative wentshire incidents that matches the sequential

and historical events shaved by the majonty of people

a il graduating HS a 17 or 18

treat Depression 2. Non normative Eventjaie an incident that does not

happen to everyone or that happens atadifferant time than typically exprenad brothus

a. loss of a limb

Winning the lottery E. sociocultural vanation

1. Gender the social constructions and expectations regardna what it means to be a make or a female 2. TRace a way of categorizing humans that typically

focuses on physical frants Y 3.1Ethnicity! A specific set of Physical, cultural, regional, ornational characteristics that identifies&differentiates

one person or group from others 4./SOCIOeconomic status (SES f the combination of a

person's education, Ocupation, and income

S. Withre Theoretical perspectives on Development I. The scientific Method

A. Thiscentih method is the specific procedure researchers vise to ask

and test scientific questions in a way that makes connections between observations and leads to understandig

I. IDescribes a goal of developmental science in which cartu obsen ations aveconds of behavior are made & recorded 2. Expin a goal of developmental sience that applies

current information to future possibilities in the service of

inhancing development 3. U nde a goal of developmental Science that focuses on

identifying the underlying canus öt be havior

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41Empirical studyl ascuntitu study of human behavior

and development using ameer observation and meamrement of vanables, such as heart rate, physical changesSbehavioral vesponses

a help w avoid from drawing on pirsonal experinces or

anecdotal evidence nonscientific observations including

personal experiences 5. Theones a coherent set of statements that explainsanoeservation or Set of observation in relation to one another

a generate new research questions Theoretical Approaurus teclectic drawing on a broad range of lowas and perspectives from vanous sources I Psychodynamic Perspectives . A. Stresses the significance of lany life experiences in shaping and

determining adult personality a behavior. B. Sigmund Frands

T beloved that we are unaw are of a good deal of the interactions among the different parts of our puisonalities A. unconscioms: a hiddun vesenoir of wonflicts, ninges, and

long ings that don't usually reach our conscious awareness b. libido : a persona desire for Kunal activity C. lany life expenunces define adult personality d-parent-child relationships influence any pusonality organizatias & i. components of the mind

* represents instimets *000) part of the mind that deals with reality and mediates between the id instincts and superego morals tutelatt ta ettartamente para sayo *superigo I represents the internalizad pules for

swally appropriate behavior l psychoanalysis a treatment method to relieve mental

al travely freeing conflicts laudio the unconscioude bringing them into conscious awareness so they can be resolved

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f. stage theory a theory that rests on the asumption that dychoy mint is dwuontinuous iwi new features of development emerging at each distinct stage

i. psy Cho jexual devriepment the prouss through which maturation of personality and sewality ocas.

*libidinal energy the vital energy that brings

w life through sexual behavior C. Enk Eriksons j.one of Frene's students

a rejected emphasis on hology, leta in view of life

Stages, promoted conceptual yw of velopmentas an outcome of the interaction betwunan individuals biological maturation and the social contexts in which a person develops

b. ego identity the sense of oneself as a distinct, continous entity Acognitive perspectives

A. Jean Piaget

lastimil thinking develops in ways that meet the demands

Hour environment 2 Schumal an orgoinized porttern of thinking that organizer

си Кто 3. Railimum). a state of cognittu balance 4 assimilation:adding new information to existing schemas

Se accomodation: changing existing schemas B. v Vygotsky

I tierprasbes believed that children's interactions with othus are the catalysts of development

a guided participation a pould in which a more experienced teacher beclimes an interactive guide, helpiny a child or less experienced puson do tasks bairroviding support that heorshe cowd not compute indhupendently

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1. Scaflores the process of assisting a bass-expenenud individwal buen through complex tasks by providing supports, which may be verbal or physical il Fone of proximal dwelopmenti turm for the rany

A tasks that a person cannot accomplish indepindenity but that can be done with themsistanu M a person

wl more experuna or move advanud ignitive ablity Thehavioral perspectives and social naming

A classical conditioning SIA

1. Ivan Pavloy (was studying digestive system of days)

archiwical conditioning, a type of leaming that oueurs when an onginal stimulias acquires a capacity to evoke a respons that was originally evoked ba different stimulus

i dogs salivate when they smell food

* FOOD is post Unconditiorud Stimulus * salinating is unconditioned response

*bul is the neutral bestimulus which

became the conditioned stimulus

* Salivating in response to the ball is the conditioned response 2. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner

auttle Albert" 3. Generalization. Oulus when the same response is elicited

ba vanuity of different stimuli

a. answanna phone regardles of the tone it mans 4. Discrimination, pleuk when different stimuli elicit

chifferent responses

a. stopying a red lights, & going a green B operant conditioning → troca

II Behaviorisme l'a theoretical perspective on laming

that assumes human development occurs au aresult of social experiences shaping behaviors

a. Stady only observable behaviors

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1. the winconscious is not an approp nate area of

suientific study. baluperant conditioning: a kaming process through

which the littihood of a specific behavior is

increand or decurased through negative or positive reinforament

1. oviginally develeped by B.F. Skinner i law of effect behavior that is followed by a

positive outcome will be repeated whereas behavior that is followed by a negative outcome will not.

there are both negative & positive forms of reinforament and punuh mint * positive means added

negative means with held or takan away * neintorament i likhilhood punishment

likimood C. Social learning

T.resuits from observation & immitation Ll Evolution bared Perspectives

A A. Evolutionary psychology

I we behan betere now we do because the qualities

such as physical features & the workmas of themind

are adaptive; they heiped our ancesters survive B. The ethological perspective

lithological perspetiven theory that assumes thathuman developinent is an outcome of individual expcrunces in the Social Wironment that provide information about which behaviors should be adopted to increase chanas of survival

M. Konrad Lorenz

himpunting learning at a particular age or

stage that is rapid and independent of the consguinces of behavior

*gusi im printing on their mother!

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Il Developmental Systems Theorus

A. Developmental systems theory a metathion that

drams from and integrates many thrones, sources, and research

studies related to human development

I. nutatheory: thoones about theopes 2. Organized around 4 basic assumptions:

a human development occurs throughout the

lifespan from birth death b. H. D. Shapes & is shaped by interactions between

people and the contexts in which they live c. lifespan H.D. is not static across time, but is

different indeferint historica i portals normal human development in wieve this is avat normal yanation in the way people change across

the life span B. Life span developmental psychology

1 Paul Baltes

a. lo features

i, multidirectional 11. full of gains & losses ii. contextualized

iv. historically ambeded v. plastic

Vi multidisciminary C. Ecological systems model Lurie Brofenbrenner

a. Juvelopment cannot be adequately studied by

focusing on the individual alone

Hecological systems modell in theoretical

approach to the study of human development that emphasizes five environmental systems that Influenaindividual developimunt & assume that individuals share the context in which they duzelde

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* murosystem & mesosystem #xosystem & macrosystem

*chrono system conducting ufespan Research I Research Methodology

A. Descriptive Research

1. Focus on observing behavior 2.

3ky Types of Descriptive Design La naturalistic observations

b. case studes

C. suneys 3.bperational definitions, la definition that uses words that

are quantitative, in order to allow some form of measurement 4. correlational Researchi

a.gims to uncour the strength of a relationship

between two or more vanables

i positive (born change in same direction)

11. negative lone n while the othert) b. does not allow us to draw conclusions about the causes

of behavior

i thiyd vanable a vonable that may be

responsible for the correlation between the

Other 2 vanalues of interest B. Experiment bien

1. Researchers control the vanables and compare their effects,

a. Independent vanable the vanable controlled by

the experimenter to observe the impact it hason

the behavior of interest budependent variables the variable measured by

the expenimenter to observe the effects of the independent variable

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Crexperimental group the groupes) that reane the manipulation of the independent vanable, whichu

often called the treatment de control group the group's) that provide comparison

for the experimental group &.do not receive manipulation

of the independent variable II Developmental Research Designs

A. Change over time

Ljómass-sectional design research in which different age groups

are compard simultaneously 2. longitudinal design research in which one group of subjects

is followed for an extended amount of time 3 cross-sequential design research in which an experimenter

combines the benefits of both cross-sectional and longitudinal design by adding a new group of subjects at progressive intervals 4.lwhort effects the unique impact a given historical era hason

people living during that period as compared to people living in a

different historial period II. Ethical issues

A common Rule. outlines guidelines for protecting human

participants in n search studus

1. Avoidance of harm Ý 2.) confidentiality refers to the responsibility of researchers to keep

private the cantity & lata ef all respatch partiapants 3. informed consent the process of requesting that research participants

asjert in wnting that they anderstand the study, know that

they can withdraw at any time, and agree to participate 4. Debriet ingil tu process of explaining the the purposes and

hypothesis of a study 5. mstitutional Review Board

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