Exam 1 PSYS 111 (Learning, Cognition and Behavior, Mark Bouton & John Green)
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Date Created: 09/23/16
In preparing for the exam, study so that you will be able to: Chapters 1,2,4,5 pages 92105, 120139, 241263 Baldwin & Baldwin 1. Define and identify the basic terms and concepts of operant conditioning: reinforcer, D Δ operant response, extinction, discriminative stimulus (S ), S , stimulus control. Operant Conditioning: Skinner, type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences (skinner box, rats learn to lever press for food) Reinforcer: any event that increases the likelihood that a specific behavior or response will reoccur. The consequence of a behavior. (a rat receiving a food pellet) Operant Response: a type of learning in which the strength of a behavior is modified by the behavior’s consequences such as rewards or punishment (a rat pressing a lever for food) Operant behavior: behavior controlled by consequences Extinction: disappearance of a previously learned behavior when it is not reinforced (operant conditioning) Discriminative stimulus: a stimulus that sets behavior for different events, A specific stimulus that is going to control a specific response S D Δ Absence of the stimulus: S Cues that don’t set the behavior Stimulus control: occurs when an organism behaves in the presence of a given stimulus ● Operant conditioning provides a method that allows us to investigate a range of learning and behavior processes– including categorization 2. Explain generalization and experiments on categorization in pigeons. Generalization: responding to similar stimuli Pigeons learn how to categorization (people, flowers, cars, chairs), there was no control picture, they were shown over 100s of pictures, both new and old stimuli, the new slides allow for them to learn The study concluded that the pigeons were able to detect the four different categories In a more recent study 16 categories were used 3. Define and identify positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment (positive punishment), and omission (negative punishment). ● Used in operant conditioning by BF Skinner Positive reinforcement: adding an outcome that is positive, the response increases Negative reinforcement: (escape/ avoidance training) outcome is remove, example: take aspirin = headache goes away Positive punishment: involves an unfavorable outcome or event following an undesirable outcome, example: fight with sister = time out Negative punishment: removing training, example: fight with sister = time out ● Operant conditioning involves learning about actions or responses 4. Distinguish operant (instrumental) conditioning from Pavlovian (classical) conditioning, and define and identify in an example the conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned response (CR), unconditioned response (UR). ● Operant Conditioning: controlled by consequences (example:rat lever pressing for the reward of food) ● Operant conditioning involves learning about actions or responses ● Classical Conditioning: learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeated paired, response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone (example: pavlov’s dog, drooling in response to food, but conditioned to drool at sound of bell) ● Pavlovian conditioning involves learning about stimuli or signals ○ Example: bell → food, CS→ bell, US → Food ○ Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that is trained to elicit a response (example w/ Pavlov’s dog learning to drool at the sound of the bell) ○ Unconditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that occurs naturally (example smell cooks, salivate) ○ a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone ○ Conditioned Response: an automatic response established by training to a neutral stimuli (example the dog was conditioned to drool at the sound of the bell) ○ Unconditioned Response: an unlearned response that occurs naturally (example drooling at the sight of food) 5. Identify and explain the concept of conditioned compensatory response. Explain and illustrate how any example of Pavlovian conditioning actually engages a range of different conditioned responses. (Lecture 2Dogs do a lot of things in the presence of food) (Rats and different responses to morphine, more pain, body temp going down) A learned tolerance a system that allows the organism to "get ready" ex. morphine causes hyperalgesia, hypothermia, increase in activity (US's are opposite) ex. Siegel (1972) bell—>drug CS—>US, because insulin decreases blood glucose, the box causes an increase in blood glucose to compensate 6. Explain how conditioning of a compensatory response can cause drug tolerance. Explain the evidence discussed in class that supports this idea. What are the implications for drug abuse and drug overdose? ● The conditioned compensatory response cancels out the drug effects after repeated drug administration because the subject has built up and learned to have a tolerance to the drug if they are in the same conditions and environments. One is more likely to overdose in an unfamiliar environment, as there is no conditioned compensatory response therefore the body has not prepared itself for drug administration and drug tolerance is lost. ● as repeated drug administrations increase, the drug effect decreases and the conditioning of a compensatory CR increases ex. testing drugs in different contexts leads to the animal not becoming tolerant drugs tested for the first time and in different rooms resulted higher overdoses 7. Explain experiments on blocking and unblocking. Explain prediction error and the importance of US surprisingness in classical conditioning—and how blocking and unblocking illlustrate and support these concepts. ● Unblocking: In the experiment that Kamin completed to explain unblocking, “surprise” or “prediction error” is very important. Group 1, who received a shock after light during phase 1 and a shock after a combination of both light and a sound tone during phase 2, and group 3, who received a more intense shock after light during phase 1 and the same intense shock after the combination of light and sound tone during phase 2, showed the same low level of conditioned response when just the tone was used. However, when group 2 received the test tone, after receiving a shock after light in phase 1 and a more intense shock after a light and tone combination in phase 2, the conditioned response is much higher. This happened because learning occurred as the unconditioned stimulus, the intense shock, was surprising to the subjects in second group, and prediction error occurred. ● If it’s predicting perfectly (no prediction error), it’s not surprising, therefore no learning 8. Identify and explain the following schedules of reinforcement: Continuous reinforcement, Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio, Fixed Interval, Variable Interval. Also identify and explain Concurrent schedules of reinforcement. ● Ratio SchedulesAmount of work vs. Amount you get ○ Fixed Ratio (FR)Every 10th or 20th lever pressSkinner Box ○ Variable Ratio (VR)Ratio variesSlot Machine ● Interval Schedule ○ Fixed Interval (FI)First response after certain amount of time is reinforcedrat has to respond, ■ A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement happens when some sort of of reinforcement occurs after a set amount of time and impacts the behavior ■ Intervals are setEvery 20 seconds ○ Variable Interval (VI) the reinforcement is provided after an inconsistent amount of time has passed and following a specific behavior being performed ■ Intervals varyAfter 10 seconds, then 20, then 30 9. Explain the Matching Law. Identify and explain Ro. Explain the Quantitative Law of Effect and its implications for understanding what one can do to increase and decrease the strength of an operant behavior. ● At the end of the day, what is always true, the proportion of behavior matches the proportion of reinforcers earned. ● Decrease: stop reinforcing, or increase Ro ● Increase: 10. Explain and be able to use the Premack Principle to identify what would be reinforcing for an individual. ● The Premack Principle describes that any behavior more preferred will be able to reinforced another less favored behavior. This can help us predict what is reinforcing certain behavior. 11. Describe the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE) and its implications for making behavior more persistent. Explain the two basic explanations of the PREE. ● Continuous reinforcement vs. Partial reinforcement (Only a percentage of the time) ● If you run extinction, the continuous group extinguishes faster while the partial reinforcement is more consistent and takes longer. It takes longer for the subject in the PREE trial to recognize that extinction is actually happening because they are so used to going through regular trials and extinction trials. Takes longer for them to realize the situation has changed ○ Frustration and generalization (ill have to go back in my notes). Two explanations for PREE 12. Describe spontaneous recovery and the renewal effect (ABA, AAB, and ABC) and explain why they indicate that extinction is not erasure as well as their possible implications for relapse after therapies that involve extinction. ● The renewal effect tells us that extinction does not erase learning. ● 1. In box A, a rat learns to lever press for food. In box B, a rat gets no food. In box A, they press again naturally. ● 2. A, rat learns to lever press for food. B, rat gets no food. C, nothing happens. ● 3. A, rat learns to lever press for food. A, rat gets no food. B, no food. ● What animals learn in extinction is specific to that situation. 13. Explain preparedness and the experimental evidence that supports the concept. preparedness = the idea that we are prepared to learn some things but not others ex. taste paired with illness—>learning; texture paired with shock—>learning but taste w/ shock and texture w/ illness DOES NOT —> learning the combination of evolution and biology are responsible 14. Explain how labborn rhesus monkeys learn to be afraid of snakes. ● Rhesus monkeys, which do not have an innate fear of snakes, learn to fear snakes if they see a fearful monkey reacting fearfully to a snake. It involves Pavlovian learning because the sight of the snake (CS) is associated with fear elicited in the observer (US/UR). Snake fear is a prepared form of learning. 15. Explain the “misbehavior of organisms” and autoshaping and negative automaintenance in pigeons. ● Birdseye view of a long box: One side, light comes on. Other side, food becomes available. ○ Example of negative automaintenance (a feature of autoshaping) the rats playing basketball as well as the pig putting the coin in the piggy bank but rooting the coins around the pen instead of in the bank, and the racoons washing the coins instead of placing the bank, they are doing things that they usually do before they eat ○ Autoshaping: describes the situation when a pigeon directly pecks at a cue for food 16. Explain PavlovianInstrumental transfer. ● CS's can influence instrumental behavior, hypothesis: stimulus A (which was reinforced) should excite subject to want food, A cue for food should invigorate instrumental response 17. Explain the reinforcer devaluation effect and how it supports the idea that organisms learn associations between their actions and specific outcomes and then respond according to how much they value the outcome. ● First start off with two reinforcers and outcomes, associate one (R1) with illness → that one’s value goes down. R2 has a stronger response because R1 has been associated with illness and is devalued. 18. Explain how Clever Hans was able to perform math calculations and why it is still important to remember Hans so many years later. in Germany around 190, tapped his hoof in response to questions, but really was reading slight cues of questioner an early triumph of the experimental method, be careful about inferring mental processes based on animal behavior skepticism and consciousness 19. Explain the delayed matchingtosample method and different methods of studying spatial learning. ● The monkeys needed to remember the sample color the longer the delay, the worse the pigeons member is radial maze = rats use constellations of cues outside the maze, involves working and reference memory rats locate and swim to hidden platform 20. Define metacognition and explain experiments suggesting that monkeys might be capable of it. ● metacognition = awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes ● behaved as if they opted out and chose a less preferred reward when they knew they had forgotten, performed better when they chose to be tested than when they didn't have the choice, all results suggest animal metacognition in the literature can be a product of simple learning principles ○ Le Pelley (2012, 2014) all results suggesting animal metacognition in the literature can be a product of simple learning principles Approximately 1015% of the material on the exam will also come from the book. You should be able to identify and explain any concept that is named in a chapter heading. Textbook headings Determinism people’s behavior is entirely determined by their heredity and environment Free will makes each of us responsible for our behavior and provides the basis for our concepts of morality and responsibility Neural determinism the brain controls all aspects of our behavior (movement, emotion, and thought) Introspection approach to have people report their thoughts and feelings Reflex stimulusresponse relationship Associative learning the relationship between two events E1→ E2 Punishment an undesirable punishment and the effect is to weaken a response Episodic memories specific memories or moments Semantic memories memory that involves factual knowledge Implicit memories past events influence us without realizing Coding what happens when we experience an event and form record Memory the process by which we code, store and retrieve information about our expirences Renewal effect when a fear or behavior is returned Pseudoconditioning an increase to a CS caused by presentations of a US by itself Premack principle more probable responses will reinforce less probable responses Law of Effect pattern that suggests the gradual strengthening effect of rewards was not confined to a single situation or species
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