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ISCI 101 Test 1 Study Guide

by: Charles Miller

ISCI 101 Test 1 Study Guide ISCI 101

Marketplace > James Madison University > Science > ISCI 101 > ISCI 101 Test 1 Study Guide
Charles Miller
GPA 3.67

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These notes cover what should be on the first test.
Physics, Chemistry, and the Human Experience
Tom Devore
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charles Miller on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISCI 101 at James Madison University taught by Tom Devore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Physics, Chemistry, and the Human Experience in Science at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
ISCI 101 Study Guide 1 Ways to Acquire Knowledge 1. By Participation 2. By Acquisition  3. By Reason and Logic 4. By Mathematical Proof 5. By the Scientific Method  6. By Trial and Error Method  7. By applying an algorithm 8. By learning from an experience  9. By intuition 10. By an argument from authority  11. By listening to testimony 12. By observing the world in its natural state  13. By acquiring knowledge that is embedded in one’s language, culture, and tradition  14. By conversation 15. By some claimed form of enlightenment following a period of meditation  16. By some claimed form of divine illumination  Limitations of Science   Science doesn’t make moral judgements   Science doesn’t make aesthetic judgements   Science doesn’t tell you how to use scientific knowledge   Science doesn’t draw conclusions about supernatural explanations  What to Check About a Source  Is the source reliable  Was the data collected in an appropriate manner  Was the data analyzed correctly  Who funded the study (Political Agendas?)  Have the findings been reproduced?  Have the findings been truncated  Correlation v. Causation In statistics, an association is any relationship between two measured quantities that renders  them statistically dependent. The term “association” is closely related to the term “correlation”.  Both terms imply that two or more variables vary according to some pattern. Causation­ When an article says that causation was found, this means that the researchers  found that changes in one variable they measured directly caused changes in the other. Correlation does not imply Causation­ A phrase in science and statistics that emphasizes that a  correlation between two variables does not necessarily imply that one causes the other. For any two correlated events A and B, the following relationships are possible  A causes B  B causes B  A and B are consequences of a common cause but do not cause each other  There is no connection between A and B the correlation is coincidental The Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can be converted, but not created or destroyed  Galileo­ 1638, created the interrupted pendulum, converted potential energy to kinetic  energy and back again.  o He discovered this in an attempt to improve the timekeeping technology of the  era.  Benjamin Thompson­ 1798, He observed heat generation during the boring of cannons  and helped to establish the theory that mechanical motion could be converted into heat,  and the conversion was quantitative and could be predicted.   Von Mayer­ discovered that heat and mechanical work were both forms of energy and in 1845 published a monograph that stated a quantitative relationship between them.   James Prescott Joule­ 1843, discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of  experiments. In the most famous, he showed that gravitational potential energy lost by  the weight in descending was equal to the thermal energy gained by friction produced by the water and the paddle.  The total amount of energy in an isolated system is said to be conserved over time.  Energy can change its location within the system, (chemical energy can become kinetic  energy), but that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Theories of Light  The Wave Theory of Light­ Christian Huygens, waves that spread out from the source  that generates the light. Each color is a different wavelength.  Corpuscular Theory of Light­ Newton, theory that treats light as being composed of tiny  particles  Electromagnetic Theory of Light­ James Maxwell, describes light as having electric and  magnetic properties. It is an improvement over the wave theory in that it explains how  light is generated. Visible light is only one type of electromagnetic wave.  Quantum Theory of Light­Similar to corpuscular theory of Newton, except that instead of  describing light as particles, light is composed of ‘packets of energy’ or photons. The  energy of the photon determines the color. (Planck)  Black Body Radiation­ As objects are heated they glow. The color and intensity depend  on the temperature of the object. Light Spectrum 10^3  Radio 10^­2  Microwave 10^­5  Infrared 10^­6   Visible 10^­8  Ultraviolet 10^­10  X­Ray 10^­12  Gamma Ray Waves  Wavelength: The distance from crest to crest (or from any point on the wave to the next  identical point)  Frequency: The number of times a wave occurs divided by a given time  Wavelength is equal to Frequency*Velocity Sources of Energy: The Sun Earth’s Energy Balance  Absorbed Sunlight= Emitted Infrared Radiation  o If E in= E out then the earth has a constant temperature   The Sun is not always producing a constant energy Types of Energy  Kinetic energy= 1/2mv^2   Gravitational Potential Energy= mgh Other Forms of Energy  Thermal Energy  Chemical Energy  Electric Energy  Radiant Energy\  Nuclear Energy  Magnetic Energy  Elastic Energy  Sound Energy  Mechanical Energy  Luminous Energy  Mass (E=mc^2) The Sun  Oil, coal and gas are primarily stored sources of solar energy  Properties of the Sun o Mass­ 2x10^30 Kg (330,000 earth masses) o Radius­ 7x10^8 m (109 earth radii) o Age 4.6x10^8 years o It is composed of 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium o Power Output­ 3.9x10^26 watts o The output of the Sun is not constant and changes over time Light  Visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is  responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light has a wavelength from between 380mm  to 740mm. Invisible infrared light has a longer wavelength and invisible ultraviolet light  has a shorter wavelength.  o Primary properties of visual light are intensity, frequency, propagation direction  and wavelength spectrum.  Light waves are called transverse waves and sound waves are called longitudinal waves Determining Number of Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons   The number of protons is given by the Atomic number, which is above the element on  the periodic table  The number of neutrons is given by subtracting the the number of protons from the  atomic mass  The number of electrons will always be equal to the number of protons unless the  element Crooke’s Tube  Was trying to figure out if electricity travels through a vacuum, is a great example of  basic science  This experiment lead to the discovery of: o Discovery of Electrons and Electrons o Discovery of the X­Ray o Discovery of Natural Radioactivity, etc...


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