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Exam 2 Study Guide - PSYC 101

by: Kaeli

Exam 2 Study Guide - PSYC 101 PSYC 101 001

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About this Document

Memory, learning, and consciousness
Introduction to Psychology
Miki KItchen
Study Guide
memory, learning, consciousness, Psycology
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 101 Consciousness  There are 3 aspects of consciousness  o Consciousness­ “to know” o Awareness  Alert?  Focused?  Don’t focus on content­ senses o Content of awareness  Sense based o Self­awareness  Knowledge of yourself  William James o All of our former aspects of consciousness are accessible in the form of memories  Location of consciousness is not known specifically o Grows as you go up to the top in the animal kingdom  Doll o Innermost you must go through all of the brain o Outermost just pull it out   Circadian rhythm o Cycle that controls every aspect of the biological clock o Internal clock  Hypothalamus o Can change  Physical activity   Mood  Stress  Coffee o β waves  Actively thinking o α waves  Awake but relaxed  Laying on the couch  Slower and large  9­12 cycles/ sec o Gamma waves  1/3 of life sleeping  Not known  o Stages of sleep  4 stages and REM  First stage  Light sleep, can be awakened easily  Stage 2   Slower brain waves, eye movements stop, occasionally bursts of  fast waves  Stage 3   Delta waves, with smaller faster waves  Stage 4   Exclusively delta waves  REM   Selective attention o In­class meditation o Remove yourself from your environment  o Create new sensory experiences or focus on breathing o Not allowed to focus on everything  Not enough mental capacity o Creates gaps in consciousness  Can’t see everything around us  Shifting attention o Attention is never focused on one item o Limited cognitive theory  Explains limitations  Yerkes­Dodson o An ideal amount of arousal helps to perform a task  Meditation o Allows brain memory  o Helps a slew of diseases  o Mindfulness meditation  Focus on environment o Concentration meditation  Concentrate on the senses o Alters brain (in a good way)  Increases “brain padding”   Notice more detail o Hypnosis  MAY decrease smoking, overeating, etc.   Some of our brain disengages   Has ethics issues  Not consistent  Altering consciousness  o Drugs give us a sense of unity   Not always bad o Unconscious behaviors   Act like people you like   Because you want to understand their perspective  Research shows it makes them like you better  Because their behaviors are social cues  Connections in consciousness o Brain injury effects sleep o The more you sink in to your unconsciousness, the more aware you’ll be Memory  Memory is NOT binary  o Not a yes or no  o Requires several cognitive processes  Blocking items you don’t need  Encoding the ones you do  Requires constant attention  Process of acquiring information and applying it in some way  Transduced signals  o Allow differentiation of memories  Retaining memories is crucial  Attention invites memory  Working memory o Longer term memory o Information currently using  o Average 7 pieces of information at once o Make chunks of information   Also sensory association o Episodic buffering  Close your eyes and do something with the information o Manipulation of information is what makes it say o Rehearse the information   Continuing to use the information  Memory­ the ability to retain knowledge o Bottom down  o Top up   Fill in or make sense of information  o Memory is not reliable  Differences between actual occurrences and memories o Increases based on senses   To increase memory, associate something specific with a set of  information, something sensory   Long term memory o Spread activation model  Link something to another concept   Longer the line the less likely the connection  Efficient for semantic memory   Sequential  Definition  Tip of the tongue phenomenon o Internalized expectations  What should happen   Efficient for episodic information  “Schemas”  Similar to chunking  We have one for where people should be o If it denies this, won’t be memorized   Fill in the blanks of a story based on yourself  Result of decay o Retrieval changes a memory  Memories are guided by goals  Fail to remember information that is inconsistent with your desires Learning  Learning o Looking at an environment and knowing your reaction  Reaction gauged by observable behaviors o Small changes in behavior  Behavioral categories  o Instincts o Reflexes o Physiological response  Environmental response o Orientation reflex  Protective  Started by motor neurons  After brain has processed stimulus  Leftover response  Goosebumps o Instincts  Elicited by stimuli   Unlearned  Flexible  Brain involved  Example  Yawning o Helps to sync emotions  William James  Found that humans have the most instincts  Instincts are positively correlated to conflicts  Once learned, becomes automatic  Types of learning o Nonassosiative learning  Involves changes in the magnitude of responses in response to a stimulus  rather than making connections  Habituation  Adapting to stimuli  Sensitization  Increasing reaction to all stimuli based on a single stimulus o Earthquake example: after an earthquake, people are more  anxious of movement o Associative learning   Connections between environment and stimuli   Bringing a jacket to a cold class  Classical  Connections between pairs of stimuli   Taste aversion study   Stronger associations = easier learning  Operant  Associations between behaviors and consequences  Law of effect  Shaping techniques   Toper ant economy o Observational learning  Can be negative or positive  Transmitting behavior  Don’t have to engage in behavior to learn  Latent learning  Learn how to do something, consequences matter   Aware of consequences  Behavior must be stored as a memory   Must be motivated to do a behavior  Willing to accept consequences


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