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ISS 315 Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Samantha Shea

ISS 315 Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide ISS 315

Samantha Shea

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About this Document

This study guide covers all of the topics that could appear on the exam that's on Tuesday, September 27th.
Global Diversity/Interdepend
Y. Sinha
Study Guide
ISS315, Study Guide, Midterm 1
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 315 at Michigan State University taught by Y. Sinha in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Global Diversity/Interdepend in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
Midterm  Exam  #1  Study  Guide Thursday,  September   22,  12:40  PM Bold=Key  topics  given  in  class                =Key  terms ► 30  question  exam ► Multiple  choice • Culture  (diversity) ○ Culture-­‐ informally  learned  by  all  of  us,  tells  us  the  nature  of  the  world   around  us,  specifies  our  role  in  reality ○ Everybody  has  a  cultural  tradition  without  even  knowing  it  sometimes ○ The  world  has  always  been  diverse  biologically  and  culturally • Enculturation ○ Enculturation :  Born  into  cultural  tradition ▪ Information  given  to  you  that  you  may  not  be  aware  of ▪ Stuff  you  pick  up  in  the  process  of  growing ▪ You  make  cultural  assumptions  based  on  what  you  see/learn □ Family  implies  concepts • Ethnocentrism ○ Ethnocentrism :  notion  that  your  cultural  ways  are  the  right  ways  and   everybody  else  is  wrong ○ When  somebody  from  one  culture  looks  at  someone  from  a  different   culture  it  is  easy  to  consider  that  person  unnatural   • Cultural  relativity Cultural  relativism:  do  not  make  assumptions  about  other  people  based   ○ on  your  cultural  values ○ Just  because  people  are  different  does  not  mean  they  are  wrong ○ Cultural  diversity:  if  you  think  people  are  wrong,  your  cultural  diversity  is   limited • Hunter  gatherers  as  most  successful ○ longest  lasting  strategy  humans  have  ever  come  up  with ○ Continue  with  this  because  does  not  harm  environment  as  long  as  human   population  was  low • Reciprocity:  General,  Balanced,  Neg. ○ Generalized -­‐reciprocity:  I  give  you  something  without  specifying  kind  or   time  of  give  back ○ ○ Continue  with  this  because  does  not  harm  environment  as  long  as  human   population  was  low • Reciprocity:  General,  Balanced,  Neg. ○ Generalized -­‐reciprocity:  I  give  you  something  without  specifying  kind  or   time  of  give  back ▪ Ex.  Getting  someone  a  gift  without  expecting  one  back  at  a  certain   time ○ Balanced  reciprocity:  exchange  equally,  immediate  return  is  expected ○ Negative  reciprocity:  take  something  and  then  run  away ▪ Those  with  an  excess  amount  of  goods  and  not  many  people  to   guard  them  are  targeted • Hunter  gatherers  dominated  by  General  Reciprocity ○ Economic  exchanges:  tend  to  be  dominated • Egalitarian,  non-­‐specialized  nature  of  hunter  gatherers ○ Egalitarian  means  equal ○ equality  between  people  because  everyone  has  the  same  skills • Big  Man  Societies ○ use  idea  of  generalize-­‐reciprocity  to  manage  production,  consumption,   and  distribution  of  goods ○ Spend  all  of  its  time  doing  favors ○ Gains  cultural  capital  and  wants  favors  to  be  returned ○ Big  man  does  it  for  status  and  prestige  within  society • State  Level  Societies:  Specialization,  Stratification ○ Specialization  of  occupation  -­‐-­‐-­‐ stratification ○ People  have  different  skills  and  therefore  different  wealth  and  status ○ Specialization  of  the  division  of  labor § Implications  of  social  structure § State  level  social  organization § inequality • Trade  in  Ancient  World ○ Trade  and  specialization  brought  with  it,  cultural  changes • Age  of  Discovery  (1400s)  +  expansion  of  Europe ○ When  Europeans  took  over  a  territory  it  was  usually  done  by  accident  or   luck • Set  up  of  Global  Trade ○ Voyages  of  exploration  were  done  to  open  up  trade  routes  to  various   corners  of  the  globe • Limited  impact  on -­‐Europeans ○ Coastal  regions  benefited  from  this  trade § Very  little  impact  to  their  region  as  a  whole   ○ During  age  of  discovery,  they  set  up  ports  and  cities  around  the  world  but   it  didn't  make  much  of  an  impact ○ People  in  Europe  and  the  rest  of  the  world  were  still  living  similar  lives  as   ○ Coastal  regions  benefited  from  this  trade § Very  little  impact  to  their  region  as  a  whole   ○ During  age  of  discovery,  they  set  up  ports  and  cities  around  the  world  but   it  didn't  make  much  of  an  impact ○ People  in  Europe  and  the  rest  of  the  world  were  still  living  similar  lives  as   before • The  Enlightenment  +  Rationality ○ the  notion  of  applying  reason  to  everything  would  help  to  make  the  world   a  better  place ○ Behavior  of  things  and  people  should  be  predictable ○ Challenged  foundations  of  European  society • R.  Descartes ○ Started  the  Enlightenment ○ Wanted  to  explain  everything  on  the  basis  of  reason • Mechanical  view  of  world ○ Used  mechanistic  models  to  explain • A.  Smith  +  econ. ○ 1776  wrote  The  Wealth  of  Nations ○ Wanted  to  apply  rational  principles  to  field  of  economics ○ Wanted  to  rationalize  economics  and  argued  that  as  long  as  people  acted   in  rational  ways,  then  the  economy  would  be  rational  and  predictable • Invisible  hand  of  the  market ○ Market  figures  out  economy ○ Classical  Economic  Theory • Supply  and  demand (feedback  loop) Self-­‐correcting  markets ○ • Laissez-­‐faire  gov. ○ governments  should  do  nothing,  they  should  not  interfere  because  any   interference  a  government  does  (such  as  promotion)  will  distort   rationality  of  the  marketplace • Dual  Revolution  of ○ Both  changed  European  societies 1. Industry ○ Tried  to  make  production  of  goods  as  rational  as  possible ○ Churn  out  workers  and  products  at  a  much  higher  right ○ Coincided  with  advances  of  science ○ Industrial  Revolution  started  in  England  and  spread  to  Europe  as  well  as   America 2. Government  (democracy) ○ Revolution  in  Government  centered  in  France  and  America ○ Base  government  and  social  institutions  on  rationality   Most  rational  way  to  form  a  government  was  through  democracy ○ ○ America 2. Government  (democracy) ○ Revolution  in  Government  centered  in  France  and  America ○ Base  government  and  social  institutions  on  rationality   ○ Most  rational  way  to  form  a  government  was  through  democracy • J.  Locke  and  the  blank  slate ○ argued  that  at  birth  we  are  all  a  "Tabula  Rasa"  (a  blank  slate)   ○ Who  we  become  in  life  is  going  to  be  determined  by  the  environment   where  we  are  raised • Locke  +  'Progress' ○ Born  in  a  blank  slate,  environment  that  made  you  rational  or  irrational ○ Once  society  gets  going,  rationality  would  increase • Bourgeoisie  and  the  Enlightenment ○ Class  that  most  benefited  from  new  world  order   ○ Embraced  Industrial  Revolution  and  made  a  lot  of  money  in  the  process • Democracy  and  Bourgeoisie  Political  Power ○ Embraced  democratic  forms ○ Much  bigger  group  than  aristocrats  and  became  the  dominant  class  within   Europe • Theory  Of  Cultural  Evolution  and  Colonialism idea  that  societies  are  evolving  and  getting  better  through  time ○ ○ Theories  of  cultural  evolution  came  to  dominate  the  intellectual  life  of   Europe ○ Made  the  idea  of  Western  expansion  a  moral  cause ○ Idea  of  colonizing  Africa  will  benefit  them  in  the  long  run   § Bring  them  rationalization   • 'Progress'  vs.  Tradition ○ Progress  was  opposed  to  tradition • First  Global  Economy  (1870's) ○ set  up  two  different  worlds ○ Developed  world-­‐America  and  Europe ○ Underdeveloped  world -­‐other  nations • Westernization  non -­‐Europeans ○ When  other  regions  of  the  world  began  to  develop,  they  tended  to   develop  along  Western  lines ○ The  new  elites  of  these  regions  of  the  world  were  all  Western  educated ○ Bought  into  Western  vision  of  government  and  economic  development ○ Traditional  elites  began  to  become  replaced  by  Western  educated  elites • Racial  Model  of  Cultural  Evolution  and  Colonialism ○ Cultural  evolution  model  of  society  was  being  replaced  by  a  racial  model   of  cultural  evolution Since  everyone  was  born  equal,  regardless  of  race,  it  was  assumed  that   ○ anyone  could  be  just  as  rational   ○ Traditional  elites  began  to  become  replaced  by  Western  educated  elites • Racial  Model  of  Cultural  Evolution  and  Colonialism ○ Cultural  evolution  model  of  society  was  being  replaced  by  a  racial  model   of  cultural  evolution ○ Since  everyone  was  born  equal,  regardless  of  race,  it  was  assumed  that   anyone  could  be  just  as  rational   ○ Some  people  were  considered  genetically  inferior  than  others  and  not   able  to  reach  a  certain  point  of  rationality ○ You  had  to  have  colonialism  for  everyone  because  other  areas  of  the   world  were  too  stupid  to  govern  themselves • Social  Darwinism ○ Within  white  society  there  was  a  persistent  belief  that  some  people  were   genetically  inferior  and  some  were  genetically  superior ○ Discouraged  for  the  rich  to  mate  with  someone  from  a  different  class • Depression  of  the  1870s ○ Economy  suddenly  went  into  depression ○ Boom  in  overall  production  of  goods  as  well  as  food  and  increase  of   transportation  and  communication  made  an  increase  in  competition ○ Transportation  made  foreign  goods  more  common ○ Scarce  commodity  =  price  goes  down:  causes  depression ○ Production  began  to  rise,  economy  collapsed • Capitalism  Response: 1. Consolidation ○ consolidating  businesses ○ Make  into  one  company § Bigger  and  decrease  competition § Take  advantage  of  economies  of  scale § Larger  corporation  =  cheaper  it  becomes  to  produce  a  good • Rise  of  Prof.  business  class ○ Businesses  ran  by  executives ○ Increasing  need  of  bureaucracy   ○ New  class  was  created:  "white  collared  jobs" • Tertiary  Sector ○ White  collar  workers § Clerks,  secretaries § Did  not  do  manual  labor  but  were  employed  in  a  factory • Scientific  management  +  Taylorism ○ Time  in  Motion  studies ○ clock  workers  to  see  exactly  how  much  time  it  took  to  do  a  particular  task   ○ Once  they  had  the  average  time  they  gave  the  worker  only  that  much   time  to  complete  a  task ○ If  you  couldn't  complete  task  in  allotted  time  space  you  would  be  fired • 2nd  Industrial  Rev.  +  the  dominance  of  Big  business ○ Time  in  Motion  studies ○ clock  workers  to  see  exactly  how  much  time  it  took  to  do  a  particular  task   ○ Once  they  had  the  average  time  they  gave  the  worker  only  that  much   time  to  complete  a  task ○ If  you  couldn't  complete  task  in  allotted  time  space  you  would  be  fired • 2nd  Industrial  Rev.  +  the  dominance  of  Big  business ○ New  technologies  and  innovations  allowed  for  a  mass  production  of  a   whole  new  set  of  goods § Steel § Pharmaceuticals   ○ Large  scale  businesses  became  driving  force  of  economy  because  Initial   cost  of  starting  business  was  enormous  so  no  one  person  could  do  it  on   their  own • Monopolies ○ Creation  of  monopolies ○ End  of -­‐market • Government  Response ○ tried  to  get  out  of  depression  by… 1. Protectionism  (tariffs) ○ Governments  set  up  protectionist  barriers  for  foreign  goods ○ Slapping  on  taxes  for  foreign  goods: tariffs No  longer  rely  on  supply  and  demand  to  find  the  right  amount  for  goods ○ ® You  are  getting  rid  of  invisible  hand 2. Creation  of  'National  '  Economies  (Government  involved  with  business) ○ People  no  longer  believed  in  the  idea  of  self  correcting  market ○ Governments  were  no  longer  letting  market  do  it's  own  thing 3. Colonialism ○ Governments  bought  into  the  idea  that  setting  up  overseas  colonies  was   one  way  to  help  domestic  economy • Creation  of  'Dependent  economy'  in  3rd  world ○ Governments  increased  helping  their  domestic  businesses  by  actively   promoting  their  companies  abroad • 1890's  end  of  Depression  and  economic  boom.  But  no-­‐correcting    self market ○ depression  was  over  but  none  of  the  responses  to  the  depression   changed ○ Monopolies  remained,  the  scramble  for  colonies  continued ○ Nobody  went  back  to  ideals  of  liberal  capitalism ○ Economies  of  west  began  to  take  off • 'zones  of  influence' ○ most  of  world  was  carved  up  into  zone  of  influence ○ Between  1880  and  1914  almost  all  of  world  was  divided  between  Europe   and  America ○ Even  if  you  didn't  directly  control  a  country  you  could  control  economy ○ Economies  of  west  began  to  take  off • 'zones  of  influence' ○ most  of  world  was  carved  up  into  zone  of  influence ○ Between  1880  and  1914  almost  all  of  world  was  divided  between  Europe   and  America ○ Even  if  you  didn't  directly  control  a  country  you  could  control  economy • First  global  economy • Colonialism  and  national  pride  (non-­‐economic  reasons) ○ Colonies  became  a  status  symbol  for  various  European  powers • Motives  were  no  longer  political  or  economic,  they  were  strictly  for   status  reasons • Colonialism  and  the  rejection  of  Enlightenment   ○ In  colonies  ,  Europeans  and  Americans  believed  in  the  total  superiority  of   white  people  over  Natives ○ Racism  justified  colonialism § Went  against  enlightenment  ideal  of  equality • Rise  of  Mass  Democracy  (after  1876) ○ Rise  in  mass  democracy  in  Europe  because  of  the  Enlightenment  ideal  of   society • Workers  parties  and  socialism ○ Shift  in  politics  was  caused  by  the  working  class  and  formed  mass  political   parties ○ Each  party  had  vision  of  the  way  the  world  should  be ○ Dominant  ideology  of  mass  worker  party  was  socialism • Problems  of  mass  democracy   1. Politicians  lie ○ politicians  increasingly  had  to  say  what  people  wanted  to  hear  simply  to   get  elected ○ Lead  to  idea  that  politicians  no  longer  believed  in  what  they  said 2. No  long  term  policy ○ Politics  was  opened  up  to  everybody  and  no  longer  any  agreement  on   long  term  goals ○ Meant  there  was  no  consistency  in  terms  of  policy 3. Career  politicians   ○ Politicians  were  no  longer  independently  wealthy □ Dependent  on  politics  for  their  living:  career  politicians □ Shuffle  from  one  party  to  the  next  or  from  one  policy  to  the  next   depending  on  what  would  better  their  career • Rise  of  Nationalism  to  oppose  workers  parties • Primary  Education  And  Nationalism ○ Primary  ways  of  creating  a  sense  of  national  identity  was  education ○ Means  of  creating  citizenship,  promoting  patriotism ○ Brainwashing  children   • Moderate  workers  join  government • Primary  Education  And  Nationalism ○ Primary  ways  of  creating  a  sense  of  national  identity  was  education ○ Means  of  creating  citizenship,  promoting  patriotism ○ Brainwashing  children   • Moderate  workers  join  government ○ Ask  leaders  to  join  the  government  instead  of  having  them  as  outsiders   protesting  the  government • Concession  to  workers  lead  to  end  of  laissez-­‐faire  policies ○ Government  had  to  abandon  notion  of  laissez  faire  policies ○ Governments  became  more  intrusive  into  everyday  people's  lives • End  of  international  socialism ○ Socialist  were  the  only  people  seeking  out  the  working  class ○ Actively  trying  to  organize  working  class  vote ○ Tried  to  create  an  identity  for  the  working  class • Nationalism  as  new  civic  responsibility Rise  of  Nationalism:  Nobody  would  submit  to  anybody's  authority ○ ○ Needed  some  other  force  to  compel  them  to  take  on  civic   responsibilities ○ All  of  Europe  and  America  began  to  think  of  themselves  in  national  terms ○ Nations  had  to  define  what  it  means  to  be  a  nation ○ Standardized  citizen § Everybody  had  to  speak  the  same  language ○ Creating  a  sense  of  national  identity • Nationalism  and  the  'other' ○ Flipside  of  nationalism  meant  that  the  more  you  standardize  what  it   meant  to  be  an  American  the  more  you  label  everybody  that  doesn't   conform  as  unpatriotic ○ Immigrants  then  created  new  social  identity  for  themselves § Italians,  Germans,  Irish,  etc.  never  had  sense  of  unity  until  they   became  target  in  America  so  they  made  their  own  identity   • Nationalism  married  to  socialism Nationalism  doesn't  have  any  ideology  so  marries  itself  to  some  kind ○ ○ In  order  for  socialist  to  gain  reforms  they  wanted,  they  had  to  increasingly   focus  on  national  politics  and  national  leaders • Bourgeoisies  withdrawal  from  politics,  abandonment  of  'progress',  turn  to   traditional  and  right  wing ○ they  no  longer  stood  for  hard  work  because  they  already  made  their   money □ Didn't  have  to  work  anymore ○ Those  who  did  work  tended  to  be  managers,  CEOs,  etc.   ○ No  longer  opposed  to  authority  of  government ○ Turned  away  from  ideology  of  progress ○ No  longer  had  vision  of  the  world  or  where  the  world  should  be  going □ Didn't  have  to  work  anymore ○ Those  who  did  work  tended  to  be  managers,  CEOs,  etc.   ○ No  longer  opposed  to  authority  of  government ○ Turned  away  from  ideology  of  progress ○ No  longer  had  vision  of  the  world  or  where  the  world  should  be  going ○ Bourgeoisie  increasingly  turned  towards  conservative  parties ○ Became  anti-­‐progress • Art  as  Critique  of  progress ○ European  society  appeared  less  superior • Freud  and  the  irrational  self ○ Freud-­‐basic  personality  was  what  he  called  the  id. § It  never  goes  away § No  matter  how  much  education,  there  is  still  a  part  of  a  person  that   is  still  irrational  and  it  never  goes  away • China  and  the  Opium  wars ○ China  didn't  want  anything  Europeans  wanted  to  sell  to  them  until  they   started  producing  opium  cheaply  and  flooded  opium  into  Chine ○ War  over -­‐ Chinese  lost • Extraterritoriality ○ Extraterritorialmeans  that  there  is  an  area  of  your  country  that  actually   legally  belongs  to  another  country § Embassies • Russia  and  industrialization  under  Tsar ○ Czar  tried  to  industrialize § Industrial  output  greatly  increased  in  the  last  years  of  Czarist  rule • Tax  on  farmers  leading  to  revolution  of  1905 Only  way  to  make  money  was  to  increase  taxes ○ • Revolution  of  1917  and  communism ○ communist  take  over:  Second  Russian  Revolution § Czar  was  killed § Next  7  years  had  communist  rule • Military  as  'strategic'  sector  of  economy ○ New  advances  in  military  technology  meant  that  military  power  was  tied   with  economic  power □ Strengthened  ties  between  industry  and  government ○ Military  was  protected  sector  of  economy • Deficit  spending  on  military  (increase  in  taxes) ○ Every  government  had  to  get  money  in  order  to  maintain  military  power □ Ex.  taxes • Triple  Alliance  vs.  Triple  Entente ○ Triple  Alliance □ Between  Germany,  Austria ,  and  Italy □ When  wore  broke  out  Italians  tore  away  from  alliance  and  took   □ Ex.  taxes • Triple  Alliance  vs.  Triple  Entente ○ Triple  Alliance □ Between  Germany,  Austria ,  and  Italy □ When  wore  broke  out  Italians  tore  away  from  alliance  and  took   other  side □ Ottoman  empirejoined  Germans  instead ○ Triple  Entente □ Englandjoined  France and  Russia • Germany  and  its  Navy  (threat  to  England) ○ Build  up  to  war ○ Germany  felt  it  was  being  disrespected  by  rest  of  Europe ○ Didn't  have  a  strong  army  so  built  of  Navy ○ Why  England  joined  Triple  Entent  instead  of  alliance • W.W.I  (1914)  and  end  of  first  era  of  Globalization ○ World  War  1  marked  the  end


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