ISS 315 Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide
ISS 315 Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide ISS 315
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 315 at Michigan State University taught by Y. Sinha in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Global Diversity/Interdepend in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Midterm Exam #1 Study Guide Thursday, September 22, 12:40 PM Bold=Key topics given in class =Key terms ► 30 question exam ► Multiple choice • Culture (diversity) ○ Culture-‐ informally learned by all of us, tells us the nature of the world around us, specifies our role in reality ○ Everybody has a cultural tradition without even knowing it sometimes ○ The world has always been diverse biologically and culturally • Enculturation ○ Enculturation : Born into cultural tradition ▪ Information given to you that you may not be aware of ▪ Stuff you pick up in the process of growing ▪ You make cultural assumptions based on what you see/learn □ Family implies concepts • Ethnocentrism ○ Ethnocentrism : notion that your cultural ways are the right ways and everybody else is wrong ○ When somebody from one culture looks at someone from a different culture it is easy to consider that person unnatural • Cultural relativity Cultural relativism: do not make assumptions about other people based ○ on your cultural values ○ Just because people are different does not mean they are wrong ○ Cultural diversity: if you think people are wrong, your cultural diversity is limited • Hunter gatherers as most successful ○ longest lasting strategy humans have ever come up with ○ Continue with this because does not harm environment as long as human population was low • Reciprocity: General, Balanced, Neg. ○ Generalized -‐reciprocity: I give you something without specifying kind or time of give back ○ ○ Continue with this because does not harm environment as long as human population was low • Reciprocity: General, Balanced, Neg. ○ Generalized -‐reciprocity: I give you something without specifying kind or time of give back ▪ Ex. Getting someone a gift without expecting one back at a certain time ○ Balanced reciprocity: exchange equally, immediate return is expected ○ Negative reciprocity: take something and then run away ▪ Those with an excess amount of goods and not many people to guard them are targeted • Hunter gatherers dominated by General Reciprocity ○ Economic exchanges: tend to be dominated • Egalitarian, non-‐specialized nature of hunter gatherers ○ Egalitarian means equal ○ equality between people because everyone has the same skills • Big Man Societies ○ use idea of generalize-‐reciprocity to manage production, consumption, and distribution of goods ○ Spend all of its time doing favors ○ Gains cultural capital and wants favors to be returned ○ Big man does it for status and prestige within society • State Level Societies: Specialization, Stratification ○ Specialization of occupation -‐-‐-‐ stratification ○ People have different skills and therefore different wealth and status ○ Specialization of the division of labor § Implications of social structure § State level social organization § inequality • Trade in Ancient World ○ Trade and specialization brought with it, cultural changes • Age of Discovery (1400s) + expansion of Europe ○ When Europeans took over a territory it was usually done by accident or luck • Set up of Global Trade ○ Voyages of exploration were done to open up trade routes to various corners of the globe • Limited impact on -‐Europeans ○ Coastal regions benefited from this trade § Very little impact to their region as a whole ○ During age of discovery, they set up ports and cities around the world but it didn't make much of an impact ○ People in Europe and the rest of the world were still living similar lives as ○ Coastal regions benefited from this trade § Very little impact to their region as a whole ○ During age of discovery, they set up ports and cities around the world but it didn't make much of an impact ○ People in Europe and the rest of the world were still living similar lives as before • The Enlightenment + Rationality ○ the notion of applying reason to everything would help to make the world a better place ○ Behavior of things and people should be predictable ○ Challenged foundations of European society • R. Descartes ○ Started the Enlightenment ○ Wanted to explain everything on the basis of reason • Mechanical view of world ○ Used mechanistic models to explain • A. Smith + econ. ○ 1776 wrote The Wealth of Nations ○ Wanted to apply rational principles to field of economics ○ Wanted to rationalize economics and argued that as long as people acted in rational ways, then the economy would be rational and predictable • Invisible hand of the market ○ Market figures out economy ○ Classical Economic Theory • Supply and demand (feedback loop) Self-‐correcting markets ○ • Laissez-‐faire gov. ○ governments should do nothing, they should not interfere because any interference a government does (such as promotion) will distort rationality of the marketplace • Dual Revolution of ○ Both changed European societies 1. Industry ○ Tried to make production of goods as rational as possible ○ Churn out workers and products at a much higher right ○ Coincided with advances of science ○ Industrial Revolution started in England and spread to Europe as well as America 2. Government (democracy) ○ Revolution in Government centered in France and America ○ Base government and social institutions on rationality Most rational way to form a government was through democracy ○ ○ America 2. Government (democracy) ○ Revolution in Government centered in France and America ○ Base government and social institutions on rationality ○ Most rational way to form a government was through democracy • J. Locke and the blank slate ○ argued that at birth we are all a "Tabula Rasa" (a blank slate) ○ Who we become in life is going to be determined by the environment where we are raised • Locke + 'Progress' ○ Born in a blank slate, environment that made you rational or irrational ○ Once society gets going, rationality would increase • Bourgeoisie and the Enlightenment ○ Class that most benefited from new world order ○ Embraced Industrial Revolution and made a lot of money in the process • Democracy and Bourgeoisie Political Power ○ Embraced democratic forms ○ Much bigger group than aristocrats and became the dominant class within Europe • Theory Of Cultural Evolution and Colonialism idea that societies are evolving and getting better through time ○ ○ Theories of cultural evolution came to dominate the intellectual life of Europe ○ Made the idea of Western expansion a moral cause ○ Idea of colonizing Africa will benefit them in the long run § Bring them rationalization • 'Progress' vs. Tradition ○ Progress was opposed to tradition • First Global Economy (1870's) ○ set up two different worlds ○ Developed world-‐America and Europe ○ Underdeveloped world -‐other nations • Westernization non -‐Europeans ○ When other regions of the world began to develop, they tended to develop along Western lines ○ The new elites of these regions of the world were all Western educated ○ Bought into Western vision of government and economic development ○ Traditional elites began to become replaced by Western educated elites • Racial Model of Cultural Evolution and Colonialism ○ Cultural evolution model of society was being replaced by a racial model of cultural evolution Since everyone was born equal, regardless of race, it was assumed that ○ anyone could be just as rational ○ Traditional elites began to become replaced by Western educated elites • Racial Model of Cultural Evolution and Colonialism ○ Cultural evolution model of society was being replaced by a racial model of cultural evolution ○ Since everyone was born equal, regardless of race, it was assumed that anyone could be just as rational ○ Some people were considered genetically inferior than others and not able to reach a certain point of rationality ○ You had to have colonialism for everyone because other areas of the world were too stupid to govern themselves • Social Darwinism ○ Within white society there was a persistent belief that some people were genetically inferior and some were genetically superior ○ Discouraged for the rich to mate with someone from a different class • Depression of the 1870s ○ Economy suddenly went into depression ○ Boom in overall production of goods as well as food and increase of transportation and communication made an increase in competition ○ Transportation made foreign goods more common ○ Scarce commodity = price goes down: causes depression ○ Production began to rise, economy collapsed • Capitalism Response: 1. Consolidation ○ consolidating businesses ○ Make into one company § Bigger and decrease competition § Take advantage of economies of scale § Larger corporation = cheaper it becomes to produce a good • Rise of Prof. business class ○ Businesses ran by executives ○ Increasing need of bureaucracy ○ New class was created: "white collared jobs" • Tertiary Sector ○ White collar workers § Clerks, secretaries § Did not do manual labor but were employed in a factory • Scientific management + Taylorism ○ Time in Motion studies ○ clock workers to see exactly how much time it took to do a particular task ○ Once they had the average time they gave the worker only that much time to complete a task ○ If you couldn't complete task in allotted time space you would be fired • 2nd Industrial Rev. + the dominance of Big business ○ Time in Motion studies ○ clock workers to see exactly how much time it took to do a particular task ○ Once they had the average time they gave the worker only that much time to complete a task ○ If you couldn't complete task in allotted time space you would be fired • 2nd Industrial Rev. + the dominance of Big business ○ New technologies and innovations allowed for a mass production of a whole new set of goods § Steel § Pharmaceuticals ○ Large scale businesses became driving force of economy because Initial cost of starting business was enormous so no one person could do it on their own • Monopolies ○ Creation of monopolies ○ End of -‐market • Government Response ○ tried to get out of depression by… 1. Protectionism (tariffs) ○ Governments set up protectionist barriers for foreign goods ○ Slapping on taxes for foreign goods: tariffs No longer rely on supply and demand to find the right amount for goods ○ ® You are getting rid of invisible hand 2. Creation of 'National ' Economies (Government involved with business) ○ People no longer believed in the idea of self correcting market ○ Governments were no longer letting market do it's own thing 3. Colonialism ○ Governments bought into the idea that setting up overseas colonies was one way to help domestic economy • Creation of 'Dependent economy' in 3rd world ○ Governments increased helping their domestic businesses by actively promoting their companies abroad • 1890's end of Depression and economic boom. But no-‐correcting self market ○ depression was over but none of the responses to the depression changed ○ Monopolies remained, the scramble for colonies continued ○ Nobody went back to ideals of liberal capitalism ○ Economies of west began to take off • 'zones of influence' ○ most of world was carved up into zone of influence ○ Between 1880 and 1914 almost all of world was divided between Europe and America ○ Even if you didn't directly control a country you could control economy ○ Economies of west began to take off • 'zones of influence' ○ most of world was carved up into zone of influence ○ Between 1880 and 1914 almost all of world was divided between Europe and America ○ Even if you didn't directly control a country you could control economy • First global economy • Colonialism and national pride (non-‐economic reasons) ○ Colonies became a status symbol for various European powers • Motives were no longer political or economic, they were strictly for status reasons • Colonialism and the rejection of Enlightenment ○ In colonies , Europeans and Americans believed in the total superiority of white people over Natives ○ Racism justified colonialism § Went against enlightenment ideal of equality • Rise of Mass Democracy (after 1876) ○ Rise in mass democracy in Europe because of the Enlightenment ideal of society • Workers parties and socialism ○ Shift in politics was caused by the working class and formed mass political parties ○ Each party had vision of the way the world should be ○ Dominant ideology of mass worker party was socialism • Problems of mass democracy 1. Politicians lie ○ politicians increasingly had to say what people wanted to hear simply to get elected ○ Lead to idea that politicians no longer believed in what they said 2. No long term policy ○ Politics was opened up to everybody and no longer any agreement on long term goals ○ Meant there was no consistency in terms of policy 3. Career politicians ○ Politicians were no longer independently wealthy □ Dependent on politics for their living: career politicians □ Shuffle from one party to the next or from one policy to the next depending on what would better their career • Rise of Nationalism to oppose workers parties • Primary Education And Nationalism ○ Primary ways of creating a sense of national identity was education ○ Means of creating citizenship, promoting patriotism ○ Brainwashing children • Moderate workers join government • Primary Education And Nationalism ○ Primary ways of creating a sense of national identity was education ○ Means of creating citizenship, promoting patriotism ○ Brainwashing children • Moderate workers join government ○ Ask leaders to join the government instead of having them as outsiders protesting the government • Concession to workers lead to end of laissez-‐faire policies ○ Government had to abandon notion of laissez faire policies ○ Governments became more intrusive into everyday people's lives • End of international socialism ○ Socialist were the only people seeking out the working class ○ Actively trying to organize working class vote ○ Tried to create an identity for the working class • Nationalism as new civic responsibility Rise of Nationalism: Nobody would submit to anybody's authority ○ ○ Needed some other force to compel them to take on civic responsibilities ○ All of Europe and America began to think of themselves in national terms ○ Nations had to define what it means to be a nation ○ Standardized citizen § Everybody had to speak the same language ○ Creating a sense of national identity • Nationalism and the 'other' ○ Flipside of nationalism meant that the more you standardize what it meant to be an American the more you label everybody that doesn't conform as unpatriotic ○ Immigrants then created new social identity for themselves § Italians, Germans, Irish, etc. never had sense of unity until they became target in America so they made their own identity • Nationalism married to socialism Nationalism doesn't have any ideology so marries itself to some kind ○ ○ In order for socialist to gain reforms they wanted, they had to increasingly focus on national politics and national leaders • Bourgeoisies withdrawal from politics, abandonment of 'progress', turn to traditional and right wing ○ they no longer stood for hard work because they already made their money □ Didn't have to work anymore ○ Those who did work tended to be managers, CEOs, etc. ○ No longer opposed to authority of government ○ Turned away from ideology of progress ○ No longer had vision of the world or where the world should be going □ Didn't have to work anymore ○ Those who did work tended to be managers, CEOs, etc. ○ No longer opposed to authority of government ○ Turned away from ideology of progress ○ No longer had vision of the world or where the world should be going ○ Bourgeoisie increasingly turned towards conservative parties ○ Became anti-‐progress • Art as Critique of progress ○ European society appeared less superior • Freud and the irrational self ○ Freud-‐basic personality was what he called the id. § It never goes away § No matter how much education, there is still a part of a person that is still irrational and it never goes away • China and the Opium wars ○ China didn't want anything Europeans wanted to sell to them until they started producing opium cheaply and flooded opium into Chine ○ War over -‐ Chinese lost • Extraterritoriality ○ Extraterritorialmeans that there is an area of your country that actually legally belongs to another country § Embassies • Russia and industrialization under Tsar ○ Czar tried to industrialize § Industrial output greatly increased in the last years of Czarist rule • Tax on farmers leading to revolution of 1905 Only way to make money was to increase taxes ○ • Revolution of 1917 and communism ○ communist take over: Second Russian Revolution § Czar was killed § Next 7 years had communist rule • Military as 'strategic' sector of economy ○ New advances in military technology meant that military power was tied with economic power □ Strengthened ties between industry and government ○ Military was protected sector of economy • Deficit spending on military (increase in taxes) ○ Every government had to get money in order to maintain military power □ Ex. taxes • Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente ○ Triple Alliance □ Between Germany, Austria , and Italy □ When wore broke out Italians tore away from alliance and took □ Ex. taxes • Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente ○ Triple Alliance □ Between Germany, Austria , and Italy □ When wore broke out Italians tore away from alliance and took other side □ Ottoman empirejoined Germans instead ○ Triple Entente □ Englandjoined France and Russia • Germany and its Navy (threat to England) ○ Build up to war ○ Germany felt it was being disrespected by rest of Europe ○ Didn't have a strong army so built of Navy ○ Why England joined Triple Entent instead of alliance • W.W.I (1914) and end of first era of Globalization ○ World War 1 marked the end
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