PKG Midterm #1 Study Guide
PKG Midterm #1 Study Guide PKG 101
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Popular in Packaging Science
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Midterm #1 Study Guide Friday, September 23, 2012:36 PM Lecture 1: Introduction to Class Lecture 2: History of Packaging • Typical packages were made of: ○ Shells ○ Animal parts ○ Wood and bamboo ○ Grasses/leaves for baskets • The first known packaging law ○ Amphorae containing olive oil must be stamped -‐state it was made in, the time it was pressed, and who produced it. • Packaging evolves based on societal advancements and cultural needs. • The industrial revolution (early 1700s) rapidly began to change the demand for packaging ○ The growth of cities, increased factory employment ○ Birth of mass production ○ Increased the need for transportation packaging ○ Sparked the concept of storing food longer • The first package considered to be a modern retail pack was produced for Uneeda biscuits ○ Signaled end of the cracker barrel era ○ Graphic arts came into common use ○ Package replaces clerk duty if "salesman service" • 20th century ○ Most of the machines used for packaging were developed in the last 100 years ○ Automation developed and applied in the last 50 years • Historical cause of change ○ War-‐ military conflicts ○ New technology ○ Defined customer or consumer needs ○ Cost savings ○ Environmental • Development ○ New technology ○ Defined customer or consumer needs ○ Cost savings ○ Environmental • Development ○ The creation of new package forms, materials, and processes ○ New innovative product ○ Or to fix an issue with an existing product ○ Cross-‐functional teams Suppliers or potential customers ○ • Production ○ Package production is usually performed by converters ○ Purchase materials, produce packages with them, and then sell those packages to another company ○ Some companies choose to perform their converting in -‐house • Filling & Closing/Selling ○ Filling and closing/selling can be done at the company that manufactures the product or separately. • Distribution ○ Distribution is the transport of finished products out into the market to wholesalers, retailers, and eventually the consumers' homes or point of end use. ○ Includes the use of appropriate shipping containers, cushioning, and other packaging materials. ○ Testing ○ Acceptable level of quality ○ Costs at a minimum • Mission statement ○ Research ○ Educate ○ Synthesize solutions ○ Service • Background and history ○ Established in 1952 as a discipline in the department of Forest Products ○ First U.S. University based packaging education program that offered B.S. ○ Organized an independent School of Packaging in the College of Agriculture in 1957 • Packaging course ○ Packaging can be scientific and technical as well as artistic and creative; the balance of these attributes is one of the reasons packaging is such an interesting field to be a part of. • There are also National Programs in addition to MSU • Packaging course ○ Packaging can be scientific and technical as well as artistic and creative; the balance of these attributes is one of the reasons packaging is such an interesting field to be a part of. • There are also National Programs in addition to MSU Lecture 3: Functions of Packaging • Packaging: "A coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing and use." Basic Functions • A package performs one or more of the following four basic functions ○ Containment ○ Protection ○ Communication ○ Utility Containment • First and most basic function • ABILITY TO HOLD • Containment is simply holding a product in a way that allows it to be grouped, enclosed, or moved. • 3 considerations when preparing a package design: 1. The product's Physical Form ○ Mobile fluid Viscous fluid ○ ○ Solid/fluid mixture ○ Paste ○ Solid unit ○ Free-‐flowing powder 2. The product's Nature ○ Corrosive ○ Corrodible ○ Flammable ○ Fragile Toxic ○ ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The product's Use ○ Microwavable dual ovenable ○ ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf stable Protection • Maintaining the integrity ○ dual ovenable ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf stable Protection • Maintaining the integrity • Protection of the product from shocks, vibration and other physical issues (like stacking) • Protection of product from the atmosphere • Protection of the consumer (and others in the usage environment) • MAINTAINING THE INTEGRITY Communication • All of the messages that the package provides to those who interact with it, the conveying of information by signs, words, symbols, color, and shape • Some messages are required by law and some are marketing tools. • Label information motivatesconsumers to purchase the product. • Provides consumers to make choices; price, nutrition, ingredients, etc. • Motivates to continue purchasing the same brand ( loyalty) or acts on the information provided in advertisements or on packages to select a different product • Package is often called the "silent salesman" • CONVEYING OF INFORMATION Utility/ Convenience • Utility-‐ package feature that deals with function and performance • Convenience-‐package feature that addresses "ease of use", reduce time, reduce effort, reduce steps. • Ex ○ Handles ○ Tear strips Fitments, means of dispensing ○ § Spouts § Shakers § Valves § Pumps • Any package feature that makes a product easier to use, more convenient, or safer is providing utility • FUCTION AND PERFORMACE EASE OF USE What are the Environments • The package must successfully perform these functions from the point of manufacturing through the distribution supply chain, retailing and consumer use environment that includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's Packaging Matrix manufacturing through the distribution supply chain, retailing and consumer use environment that includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's Packaging Matrix • Functions and environments interact continuously and simultaneously Transportation Factors • Products are subjected to shocks and vibration at all stages of the manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution cycle. • Vibration damage • Shock and drop events • Compression ○ Static ○ Dynamic Sanitary & Biological Factors • One form of protection is to simply keep the product clean. • Packages must be tight and constructed of material which will keep such pests from gaining access to the product. Barrier Packaging • A barrier packaging material is one that slows down or stops the movement of selected gaseous substances into or out of a package. • The best (absolute) barrier material are Glass or Metal! Atmosphere Factors • Hygroscopic ○ They will gain moisture in humid environments • You need to select a material that has high water vapor barrier properties to prevent the passage of moisture through it • Oxygen barrier ○ Shelf life ○ Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) Oxygen • Many products need the controlled levels of oxygen • Too much oxygen is a hazard for some food products • A low level of oxygen can be an advantage or a hazard, depending on the product. Carbon Dioxide • Carbonated beverages (beer and soft drinks) lose the "fizz" and bubbly character if the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) leaks out of the package. Atmospheric Factors • Temperature ○ Many products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. ○ Cold chain Temperature Atmospheric Factors • Temperature ○ Many products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. ○ Cold chain Temperature • Many consumer and medical products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. • Consumer products effected by freezing = can be damaged. • Packaging can be damaged by excessive heat or cold. Atmospheric Factors • Light ○ Light can change, degrade, and fade products during transportation and storage, so those that are sensitive (usually to ultraviolet light from sunlight) require packaging that will protect them. Human Factors • Tampering ○ Tamper evident features used today includes shrink bands around bottle necks, seals, adhesive tapes/stickers/labels, break -‐away components, markings, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, among others. Some of these features can also be used to prevent theft from retailers. Tampering • Protection against unauthorized opening of packages to tamper with a product • Tamper resistant approaches that can be used to make tampering difficult or to provide evidence that tampering has occurred. ○ Shrink neck bands ○ Inner seals Human Factors • Child resistant packaging provides protection of a child against injury by the product. ○ Medications ○ Household cleaners ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package Classification Systems Classification of Packages • Primary, the first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale • Secondary, is a wrap or containment of the primary package. • Tertiary, is a wrap or containment whose prime purpose is to protect the product during the distribution and to provide for efficient handling. • Unit Load, is a group of distribution packages assembled into a single unit for the purpose of mechanical handling, storage and shipping • Packaging may satisfy two or more classifications at the same time. • Primary • Tertiary, is a wrap or containment whose prime purpose is to protect the product during the distribution and to provide for efficient handling. • Unit Load, is a group of distribution packages assembled into a single unit for the purpose of mechanical handling, storage and shipping • Packaging may satisfy two or more classifications at the same time. • Primary ○ Directly contacts the product Consumer and Industrial Packages • Packages are often defined by their intended destination: • Consumer package, a package that will ultimately reach the consumer as a unit of sale from a merchandising outlet. • Industrial package, a package for delivering goods from manufacturer to manufacturer. Industrial packaging usually, but not always, contains goods or materials for further processing. ○ Typically, the inform/sell function plays a less significant role in industrial packaging Lecture 4: The Role of the Package in Marketing Moments of Truth • FMOT (First Moment of Truth): Prospect has a -‐ha moment when confronted with the PKG/product system and related alternatives, often in real life • SMOT (Second Moment of Truth): Customer has bought and used your brand or product. The experience (hopefully) supports your pre -‐purchase promise. • TMOT (Third Moment of Truth): Customer becomes a true fan & gives back to your brand with loyalty, repurchases, and evangelizes. • ZMOT (Zero Moment of Truth): Customer decisions based on feedback and online blogs; influenced by social media in making purchase decisions, long before ever entering a store. Marketing History • Marketing Mix contained 4 elements: product, price, placement, promotion. Four P's -‐ Marketing 100 • Product • Pricing • Promotion • Placement Marketing Today The Five P's • Product, price, promotion, placement, and…. • People The 5 Where's Packaging? • The package is the product and more • The package is the delivery system • The package is an important sales tool, sometimes called the "silent salesman". • The Package is the new trends enabler and a major contributor to the whole The 5 Where's Packaging? • The package is the product and more • The package is the delivery system • The package is an important sales tool, sometimes called the "silent salesman". • The Package is the new trends enabler and a major contributor to the whole consumer/user "experience" when using a product Customer's needed information (3) to make a purchasing decision! 1. What is this? 2. What are you going to do for me? 3. Who guarantees that? Consumer Trends-‐Purchase Behavior • It is crucial to consider your consumer's experience, and packaging's role throughout the usage cycle-‐ and that the consumer and shopper are not always the same New Convenience Features • Companies have realized the value in communicating innovation to grow business and enhance the consumer experience through packaging. Case Studies • New Packaging may cost more but provides significant top and bottom line opportunities Value Equation • Stronger the Equation the Stronger the Ownership "Packing brings a Contribution to Total Product Value" • Product Value = Quality x Service / Cost X Time • The stronger the Product Value Equation the stronger the ownership! • Packaging is the enabler of greater value; both real and perceived value • Marketing Consideration: Equity • Equity is the trust in a product, company or symbolic representation of a product or company built over a period of time • Equity • Can be a name • Can be a package shape • Can be a color or a combination of colors • Marketing Consideration: Persona • Persona is a description of a product or package as if it were a person, or having the attributes of a person • Package persona should: § Appeal to the targeted customer § Suggest favorable product attributes • The Quaker Persona • The America Cereal Co. was the first to create an imaginary personage to represent their product. It is the first example of developing a package persona. • Changes in Merchandising • SKU = Stock Keeping Unit § Suggest favorable product attributes • The Quaker Persona • The America Cereal Co. was the first to create an imaginary personage to represent their product. It is the first example of developing a package persona. • Changes in Merchandising • SKU = Stock Keeping Unit • 1916 Piggly Wiggly grocery store self -‐serve concept • Packages now must inform and sell • Changes in Merchandising • 2000's § Speed and convenience § Their way, differentiation from others § Technology enabled consumer interaction § Gender marketing, no-traditional placement § E-‐commerce challenges • Smart (or active) Packaging • Response to consumers needs of immediacy and convenience § Entertainment value § Real value § Linking customers to worldwide network of engagemen-‐ e commerce. QR codes. Changing & Emerging Marketing Dynamics 1. New-‐age and more connected consumer lifestyles. 2. Maturing and emerging retail channels. 3. Shorter product life-‐cycles. Category Disruptors! • Disrupting the Sea of Sameness/ Status Quo packaging in the retail space. • Innovative products invest and break out with disruptive category packaging. Global View of Packaging • Different cultures apply the role of packaging at carrying degrees in terms of complexity, product safety, supply chain factors, source reduction, and sustainability. • Growth drivers are: Population Growth and Growth of the Middle Class • The need for properly packaged foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals will grow with this increase in population "Packing will continue to ChangeanValue Enabler!" Lecture 5: Wood Packaging Uses of Wood • For packaging, the most common use of wood is as for manufacturing paper and paperboard. Wood Applications • Wood is used for packaging applications in the form of barre-‐ ireboxes, baskets, w bound containers, crates, and pallets. • For packaging, the most common use of wood is as for manufacturing paper and paperboard. Wood Applications • Wood is used for packaging applications in the form of barre-‐ ireboxes, baskets, w bound containers, crates, and pallets. • The biggest use of wood in packaging is for the manufacture of pallets. • Wood is often the best overall choice for pallets in terms of the combination of strength, weight, and cost. • Wood packages can easily be custom made in small quantities, while most other materials require longer production runs to be economical. Advantages of Using Wood • Good strength to weight ration • Economical structural material • It does not require sophisticated equipment (for a box or crate) • IDEAL FOR RIGID STRUCTURES NEEDED IN SMALL QUANTITIES Advantages • Wood has excellent rigidity and outstanding mechanical properties in bending. Disadvantages • Wood is not well suited to high speed mechanized packaging operations • High labor factor • Bulky • Shipping • Storage • Wood is moisture sensitive, can lead to stress on joints, as well as to warping and even fracture Types of Wood • Softwood: is wood from conifers • Softwood is generally easy to work with, but has less strength than hardwood (in wood applications -‐ not paper) • Examples of softwoods include pine, fir, cedar, redwood, etc. • Hardwoods : wood from deciduous trees • Hardwoods are generally more difficult to work with and are stronger than softwoods. (in wood applications -‐ not paper) • Examples of hardwoods include oak, maple, birch, walnut, cherry etc. Four Structural Wood Groups • Group 1: lrdensity • Group 2: medium density • Group 3: medi-‐density • Group 4: -‐ density Wood Properties • The moisture contentof wood (MC) is the ratio of the mas of water in the wood to a reference wood mass • The process of drying the woos asoning.led • Group 3: medi-‐density • Group 4: -‐ density Wood Properties • The moisture contentof wood (MC) is the ratio of the mas of water in the wood to a reference wood mass • The process of drying the woos asoning.led Seasoning of Wood • The strength of the wood tends to increase as it dries, and it is more resistant to attack by insects and microorganisms • Another advantage of drying wood is that its weight is substantially decreased. Wood Properties • Wood for packaging should be well seasoned and have a moisture contents around 15-‐20% • A nominal 1" x 4" measures about 3/4" x 3 1/2" Processed Wood • Plywood-‐more uniform than lumber • Less shrinkage Particle Board & OSB (oriented strand board) • OSB, weight is smaller and a lower cost, as well as the same strength ad durability. 2x shear strength plywood Pallets • Biggest use for wood in packaging • $1 billion per year • CHEP Two Broad Categories of Pallets 1. Stringer Style • The first dimension (the 48' in the case of GMA pallet) is along the length of the stringer board • Two way entry (sold stringers) • Partial four way entry (must have "notches added to stringers" 2. Block Style • Contains blocks instead of stringers • Always four way entry GMA standardized pallet • Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) • There are two GMA pallet sizes :48" x 40" and 48"x 48" (stringer style pallet) • The pallets are designed to fit two across in standard US truck EuroPallet • Nine block design, 1,200mm x 800mm and 1,200mm x 1,000mm • The GMA dimensions and the Europallet dimensions are not identical Lecture 6: Glass Packaging • Guest Speaker EuroPallet • Nine block design, 1,200mm x 800mm and 1,200mm x 1,000mm • The GMA dimensions and the Europallet dimensions are not identical Lecture 6: Glass Packaging • Guest Speaker • Main Questions: Who is the largest USA owned brewer? ○ § Yuengling ○ Glass tastes like _____. § Nothing Lecture 7: Metal Packaging Development of Metal Cans • 1810: Durand (English) § Tin canister • Top and bottom soldered can § Lead contamination □ Health problems Advantages of Metals • Relatively inexpensive • High temperature tolerance • High physical strength • High durability, thermal processing • Excellent light, gas, and moisture barrier properties • Excellent stiffness • High production and filling speeds • Readily recyclable • Metal remains the material of choice for 12 oz. beer, soups, canned fruits and vegetables. Disadvantages of Metals • Heavy (more so for steel than for aluminum) • Difficult to form into complex shapes such as bottles (however, aluminum bottles now available as an example of advancements) • Can't be colored • Can't be heat sealed Metal Packaging • Major meals used in packaging § Steel and aluminum • Major packaging applications § Cans (food) § Beverages Containers Metal pails • Major meals used in packaging § Steel and aluminum • Major packaging applications § Cans (food) § Beverages Containers Metal pails • Most common: § Industrial applications § Home goods (paint) Metal Drums • Most common: § Industrial applications § Chemicals (hazardous materials) • Steel drums are made in two different styles: tight head and open head Metal Racks & Systems • Most common: § Automotive packaging applications § Warehouse and distribution Metal Closures • Most common: § glass containers Metal Trays • Aluminum trays: § Food packaging Foil • Nearly all of the foil used for packaging is made of aluminum • Primary advantage of aluminum foil is its superior barrier properties to moisture and oxygen Metalized Film • A metalized layer can be applied to plastic film or paper • Very good barriers (less susceptible to damage) • Lower cost than foil Aluminum • Most commonly used in packaging for: § Beverage cans ( carbonated drinks) § Food industry (trays and foils) Aluminum Characteristics • Weighs 1/3 as much as steel, and has 1/3 the strength • More expensive per pound than steel • Non-‐toxic • Easier to shape and form into packages than steel • Excellent barrier to moisture, gases, and light • Non-‐magnetic More expensive per pound than steel • • Non-‐toxic • Easier to shape and form into packages than steel • Excellent barrier to moisture, gases, and light • Non-‐magnetic • More resistant than steel to corrosion Steel Packaging • Most common: § Steel can (food industry) • Steel beverage containers almost eliminated in US by aluminum cans & plastic bottles • Strong inexpensive compared to other packaging materials • Non-‐toxic • An excellent barrier to moisture, gases, and light • Magnetic material § Useful when steel is to be separated from aluminum for recycling • Easily rusts-‐exposure to moisture and oxygen Steel or Aluminum? • Steel is attracted to magnets, while aluminum is not Steel Materials • Name "Tin Can" is a misnomer • Cans are primarily low-‐carbon steel , not tin • Steel is coated with a very thing layer of other material (sometimes tinplate) to prevent corrosion Corrosion • Corrosion needs to be prevented when steel is used as a packaging material • Coatings 1. Tin-‐ Tinplate (TP) 2. Chromium-‐Tin-‐Free Steel (TFS) 1. Tin-‐Plate Coating Steel • Today, steel is electrolynplatedti-‐ • This allows ○ Substantial reduction in the amount of tin required ○ The ability to put different thicknesses of tine on either side of a steel sheet (different tinning) ○ The thicker layer will face the product (the more harsh environment) 2. Tin Free Steel (TFS) • Use chromium (chrome oxide) for corrosion protection instead of tin • Advantage-‐more economical than tin plate • Disadvantage-‐chrome must be removed prior to wlding the can side seam (this is not the case with tin) Can Manufacturing • Tinplate • Use chromium (chrome oxide) for corrosion protection instead of tin • Advantage-‐more economical than tin plate • Disadvantage-‐chrome must be removed prior to wlding the can side seam (this is not the case with tin) Can Manufacturing • Tinplate • Tin-‐free steel • Aluminum • Three piece cans • Two piece cans Three Piece Can Manufacturing • Three piece can, three parts: ○ Top end (Canner's/ Filler's End) Cylindrical shell (body) ○ ○ Bottom End (maker's end) ○ Side seam 3-‐Piece Cans Mfg Process • Flat sheet is formed into "Tube" • Side seal is formed • Ends are "flanged" to receive can top and bottom • Can maker applied one end • "double seaming" • Lids and empty cans (one end applied) are shipped to canner/filler • Mechanically: Three Piece Can Manufacturing • Requires about .25" undecorated/printed bare strip along the weld edges to ensure a good weld Welding is by far the most common method of forming a can side seam • • Adhesive (or cemented): dry products and non -‐food products • Adhesive joints are not as reliable as welded joints -‐not heat processable • Permit all around printing as there is no bare strip 3-‐Pc Can End Seam Process • Can Ends are "Flanged" • "Double Seaming" Process • One end is attached during can making process Two Piece Can Manufacturing • Two piece can, two parts: § Top end (canner/filler) § One body ( with an integral bottom end) Two Piece Can Mfg Process 1. Draw Process (Shallow Draw) § Cans whose height is less than their diameter 2. Draw-‐Redraw Process § One body ( with an integral bottom end) Two Piece Can Mfg Process 1. Draw Process (Shallow Draw) § Cans whose height is less than their diameter 2. Draw-‐Redraw Process § Cans having a height equal to or larger than the diameter require a second draw 3. Draw and Iron Process § Aluminum cans for most carbonated beverages § Blank is drawn to a wide cup § 2nd draw reduces the diameter and the can is deepened § The cup is pushed through a series of ironing rings, each with smaller diameter than the previous § The bottom has the same thickness as the starting blank, but the walls are considerably thinner § Restricted to systems that will not undergo thermal processing • Increasingly, three-‐piece cans are being replaced by two -‐piece cans • No side or bottom seam • Produce less leakers than 3 piece construction • However… § Two-‐piece can-‐making process is more complicated § More capital intensive than three piece can General Advantages of Cans • Relatively inexpensive • Durable • Thermally stable • Easy to process on high speed lines • Readily recyclable • 100% barrier to gas, moisture and light Can Dimensioning (2 and 3 piece) • Overall diameter X overall height • Given in 3 digit X 3 digit numbers • The first digit is the inches, the follow are the number of 1/16" increment • 305 X 314 = 3 5/16" X 3 14/16" ► Can Manufacturing -‐no all are metal! Metal Packaging in US • Produces mostly cans, both steel and aluminum, more than 100 billion cans per year
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