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PKG Midterm #1 Study Guide

by: Samantha Shea

PKG Midterm #1 Study Guide PKG 101

Samantha Shea

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This is a study guide broken down into information from each lecture for the midterm exam #1 that's on Thursday, September 29th.
Principles of Packaging
p. koning
Study Guide
Packaging, Midterm Study Guide, Midterm 1
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
Midterm  #1  Study  Guide Friday,  September  23,  2012:36  PM Lecture  1:  Introduction  to  Class Lecture  2:  History  of  Packaging • Typical  packages  were  made  of: ○ Shells ○ Animal  parts ○ Wood  and  bamboo ○ Grasses/leaves  for  baskets • The  first  known  packaging  law ○ Amphorae  containing  olive  oil  must  be  stamped -­‐state  it  was  made   in,  the  time  it  was  pressed,  and  who  produced  it. • Packaging  evolves  based  on  societal  advancements  and  cultural  needs. • The  industrial  revolution  (early  1700s)  rapidly  began  to  change  the  demand  for   packaging ○ The  growth  of  cities,  increased  factory  employment ○ Birth  of  mass  production ○ Increased  the  need  for  transportation  packaging ○ Sparked  the  concept  of  storing  food  longer • The  first  package  considered  to  be  a  modern  retail  pack  was  produced  for  Uneeda   biscuits ○ Signaled  end  of  the  cracker  barrel  era ○ Graphic  arts  came  into  common  use ○ Package  replaces  clerk  duty  if  "salesman  service" • 20th  century ○ Most  of  the  machines  used  for  packaging  were  developed  in  the  last  100  years ○ Automation  developed  and  applied  in  the  last  50  years • Historical  cause  of  change ○ War-­‐ military  conflicts ○ New  technology ○ Defined  customer  or  consumer  needs ○ Cost  savings ○ Environmental • Development ○ New  technology ○ Defined  customer  or  consumer  needs ○ Cost  savings ○ Environmental • Development ○ The  creation  of  new  package  forms,  materials,  and  processes ○ New  innovative  product ○ Or  to  fix  an  issue  with  an  existing  product ○ Cross-­‐functional  teams Suppliers  or  potential  customers ○ • Production ○ Package  production  is  usually  performed  by  converters ○ Purchase  materials,  produce  packages  with  them,  and  then  sell  those  packages   to  another  company ○ Some  companies  choose  to  perform  their  converting  in -­‐house • Filling  &  Closing/Selling ○ Filling  and  closing/selling  can  be  done  at  the  company  that  manufactures  the   product  or  separately. • Distribution ○ Distribution  is  the  transport  of  finished  products  out  into  the  market  to   wholesalers,  retailers,  and  eventually  the  consumers'  homes  or  point  of  end   use. ○ Includes  the  use  of  appropriate  shipping  containers,  cushioning,  and  other   packaging  materials. ○ Testing ○ Acceptable  level  of  quality ○ Costs  at  a  minimum • Mission  statement ○ Research ○ Educate ○ Synthesize  solutions ○ Service • Background  and  history ○ Established  in  1952  as  a  discipline  in  the  department  of  Forest  Products ○ First  U.S.  University  based  packaging  education  program  that  offered  B.S. ○ Organized  an  independent  School  of  Packaging  in  the  College  of  Agriculture  in   1957 • Packaging  course   ○ Packaging  can  be  scientific  and  technical  as  well  as  artistic  and  creative;  the   balance  of  these  attributes  is  one  of  the  reasons  packaging  is  such  an  interesting   field  to  be  a  part  of. • There  are  also  National  Programs  in  addition  to  MSU • Packaging  course   ○ Packaging  can  be  scientific  and  technical  as  well  as  artistic  and  creative;  the   balance  of  these  attributes  is  one  of  the  reasons  packaging  is  such  an  interesting   field  to  be  a  part  of. • There  are  also  National  Programs  in  addition  to  MSU Lecture  3:  Functions  of  Packaging • Packaging:  "A  coordinated  system  of  preparing  goods  for  transport,  distribution,   storage,  retailing  and  use." Basic  Functions • A  package  performs  one  or  more  of  the  following  four  basic  functions ○ Containment ○ Protection   ○ Communication ○ Utility Containment • First  and  most  basic  function • ABILITY  TO  HOLD • Containment  is  simply  holding  a  product  in  a  way  that  allows  it  to  be  grouped,   enclosed,  or  moved. • 3  considerations  when  preparing  a  package  design: 1. The  product's  Physical  Form ○ Mobile  fluid Viscous  fluid ○ ○ Solid/fluid  mixture ○ Paste ○ Solid  unit ○ Free-­‐flowing  powder 2. The  product's  Nature ○ Corrosive ○ Corrodible ○ Flammable ○ Fragile Toxic ○ ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The  product's  Use ○ Microwavable   dual  ovenable ○ ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf  stable Protection • Maintaining  the  integrity ○ dual  ovenable ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf  stable Protection • Maintaining  the  integrity • Protection  of  the  product  from  shocks,  vibration  and  other  physical  issues  (like   stacking) • Protection  of  product  from  the  atmosphere • Protection  of  the  consumer  (and  others  in  the  usage  environment) • MAINTAINING  THE  INTEGRITY Communication • All  of  the  messages  that  the  package  provides  to  those  who  interact  with  it,  the   conveying  of  information  by  signs,  words,  symbols,  color,  and  shape • Some  messages  are  required  by  law  and  some  are  marketing  tools. • Label  information  motivatesconsumers  to  purchase  the  product. • Provides  consumers  to  make choices;  price,  nutrition,  ingredients,  etc. • Motivates  to  continue  purchasing  the  same  brand  ( loyalty)  or  acts  on  the  information   provided  in  advertisements  or  on  packages  to  select  a  different  product • Package  is  often  called  the  "silent  salesman" • CONVEYING  OF  INFORMATION Utility/  Convenience • Utility-­‐ package  feature  that  deals  with  function  and  performance • Convenience-­‐package  feature  that  addresses  "ease  of  use",  reduce  time,  reduce   effort,  reduce  steps. • Ex ○ Handles ○ Tear  strips Fitments,  means  of  dispensing ○ § Spouts § Shakers § Valves § Pumps • Any  package  feature  that  makes  a  product  easier  to  use,  more  convenient,  or  safer  is   providing  utility   • FUCTION  AND  PERFORMACE  EASE  OF  USE What  are  the  Environments • The  package  must  successfully  perform  these  functions  from  the  point  of   manufacturing  through  the  distribution  supply  chain,  retailing  and  consumer  use   environment  that  includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's  Packaging  Matrix manufacturing  through  the  distribution  supply  chain,  retailing  and  consumer  use   environment  that  includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's  Packaging  Matrix • Functions  and  environments  interact  continuously  and  simultaneously Transportation  Factors • Products  are  subjected  to  shocks  and  vibration  at  all  stages  of  the  manufacturing,   warehousing,  and  distribution  cycle. • Vibration  damage • Shock  and  drop  events • Compression ○ Static ○ Dynamic Sanitary  &  Biological  Factors • One  form  of  protection  is  to  simply  keep  the  product  clean. • Packages  must  be  tight  and  constructed  of  material  which  will  keep  such  pests  from   gaining  access  to  the  product. Barrier  Packaging • A  barrier  packaging  material  is  one  that  slows  down  or  stops  the  movement  of   selected  gaseous  substances  into  or  out  of  a  package. • The  best  (absolute)  barrier  material  are  Glass  or  Metal! Atmosphere  Factors • Hygroscopic ○ They  will  gain  moisture  in  humid  environments • You  need  to  select  a  material  that  has  high  water  vapor  barrier  properties  to  prevent   the  passage  of  moisture  through  it • Oxygen  barrier ○ Shelf  life ○ Modified  atmosphere  packaging  (MAP) Oxygen • Many  products  need  the  controlled  levels  of  oxygen • Too  much  oxygen  is  a  hazard  for  some  food  products • A  low  level  of  oxygen  can  be  an  advantage  or  a  hazard,  depending  on  the  product. Carbon  Dioxide • Carbonated  beverages  (beer  and  soft  drinks)  lose  the  "fizz"  and  bubbly  character  if  the   Carbon  Dioxide  (CO2)  leaks  out  of  the  package. Atmospheric  Factors • Temperature ○ Many  products  must  be  held  in  a  specific  temperature  range  to  prevent  damage   or  spoilage. ○ Cold  chain Temperature Atmospheric  Factors • Temperature ○ Many  products  must  be  held  in  a  specific  temperature  range  to  prevent  damage   or  spoilage. ○ Cold  chain Temperature • Many  consumer  and  medical  products  must  be  held  in  a  specific  temperature  range  to   prevent  damage  or  spoilage. • Consumer  products  effected  by  freezing  =  can  be  damaged. • Packaging  can  be  damaged  by  excessive  heat  or  cold. Atmospheric  Factors • Light ○ Light  can  change,  degrade,  and  fade  products  during  transportation  and   storage,  so  those  that  are  sensitive  (usually  to  ultraviolet  light  from  sunlight)   require  packaging  that  will  protect  them. Human  Factors • Tampering ○ Tamper  evident  features  used  today  includes  shrink  bands  around  bottle  necks,   seals,  adhesive  tapes/stickers/labels,  break -­‐away  components,  markings,  and   radio  frequency  identification  (RFID)  tags,  among  others.  Some  of  these   features  can  also  be  used  to  prevent  theft  from  retailers. Tampering • Protection  against  unauthorized  opening  of  packages  to  tamper  with  a  product • Tamper  resistant  approaches  that  can  be  used  to  make  tampering  difficult  or  to   provide  evidence  that  tampering  has  occurred. ○ Shrink  neck  bands ○ Inner  seals Human  Factors • Child  resistant  packaging  provides  protection  of  a  child  against  injury  by  the  product. ○ Medications ○ Household  cleaners ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package  Classification  Systems Classification  of  Packages • Primary,  the  first  wrap  or  containment  of  the  product  that  directly  holds  the  product   for  sale • Secondary,  is  a  wrap  or  containment  of  the  primary  package. • Tertiary,  is  a  wrap  or  containment  whose  prime  purpose  is  to  protect  the  product   during  the  distribution  and  to  provide  for  efficient  handling. • Unit  Load,  is  a  group  of  distribution  packages  assembled  into  a  single  unit  for  the   purpose  of  mechanical  handling,  storage  and  shipping • Packaging  may  satisfy  two  or  more  classifications  at  the  same  time. • Primary • Tertiary,  is  a  wrap  or  containment  whose  prime  purpose  is  to  protect  the  product   during  the  distribution  and  to  provide  for  efficient  handling. • Unit  Load,  is  a  group  of  distribution  packages  assembled  into  a  single  unit  for  the   purpose  of  mechanical  handling,  storage  and  shipping • Packaging  may  satisfy  two  or  more  classifications  at  the  same  time. • Primary ○ Directly  contacts  the  product Consumer  and  Industrial  Packages • Packages  are  often  defined  by  their  intended  destination: • Consumer  package,  a  package  that  will  ultimately  reach  the  consumer  as  a  unit  of  sale   from  a  merchandising  outlet. • Industrial  package,  a  package  for  delivering  goods  from  manufacturer  to   manufacturer.  Industrial  packaging  usually,  but  not  always,  contains  goods  or   materials  for  further  processing. ○ Typically,  the  inform/sell  function  plays  a  less  significant  role  in  industrial   packaging Lecture  4:  The  Role  of  the  Package  in  Marketing Moments  of  Truth • FMOT  (First  Moment  of  Truth):  Prospect  has  a -­‐ha  moment  when  confronted  with  the   PKG/product  system  and  related  alternatives,  often  in  real  life • SMOT  (Second  Moment  of  Truth):  Customer  has  bought  and  used  your  brand  or   product.  The  experience  (hopefully)  supports  your  pre -­‐purchase  promise. • TMOT  (Third  Moment  of  Truth):  Customer  becomes  a  true  fan  &  gives  back  to  your   brand  with  loyalty,  repurchases,  and  evangelizes. • ZMOT  (Zero  Moment  of  Truth):  Customer  decisions  based  on  feedback  and  online   blogs;  influenced  by  social  media  in  making  purchase  decisions,  long  before  ever   entering  a  store. Marketing  History • Marketing  Mix  contained  4  elements:  product,  price,  placement,  promotion. Four  P's  -­‐ Marketing  100 • Product • Pricing • Promotion • Placement Marketing  Today  The  Five  P's • Product,  price,  promotion,  placement,  and…. • People The  5   Where's  Packaging? • The  package  is  the  product  and  more • The  package  is  the  delivery  system   • The  package  is  an  important  sales  tool,  sometimes  called  the  "silent  salesman". • The  Package  is  the  new  trends  enabler  and  a  major  contributor  to  the  whole   The  5   Where's  Packaging? • The  package  is  the  product  and  more • The  package  is  the  delivery  system   • The  package  is  an  important  sales  tool,  sometimes  called  the  "silent  salesman". • The  Package  is  the  new  trends  enabler  and  a  major  contributor  to  the  whole   consumer/user  "experience"  when  using  a  product Customer's  needed  information  (3)  to  make  a  purchasing  decision! 1. What  is  this? 2. What  are  you  going  to  do  for  me? 3. Who  guarantees  that? Consumer  Trends-­‐Purchase  Behavior • It  is  crucial  to  consider  your  consumer's  experience,  and  packaging's  role  throughout   the  usage  cycle-­‐ and  that  the  consumer  and  shopper  are  not  always  the  same New  Convenience  Features • Companies  have  realized  the  value  in  communicating  innovation  to  grow  business  and   enhance  the  consumer  experience  through  packaging. Case  Studies • New  Packaging  may  cost  more  but  provides  significant  top  and  bottom  line   opportunities Value  Equation • Stronger  the  Equation  the  Stronger  the  Ownership "Packing  brings  a  Contribution  to  Total  Product  Value" • Product  Value  =  Quality  x  Service  /  Cost  X  Time • The  stronger  the  Product  Value  Equation  the  stronger  the  ownership! • Packaging  is  the  enabler  of  greater  value;  both  real  and  perceived  value • Marketing  Consideration:  Equity • Equity  is  the  trust  in  a  product,  company  or  symbolic  representation  of  a   product  or  company  built  over  a  period  of  time • Equity • Can  be  a  name • Can  be  a  package  shape • Can  be  a  color  or  a  combination  of  colors • Marketing  Consideration:  Persona • Persona  is  a  description  of  a  product  or  package  as  if  it  were  a  person,  or  having   the  attributes  of  a  person • Package  persona  should: § Appeal  to  the  targeted  customer § Suggest  favorable  product  attributes   • The  Quaker  Persona • The  America  Cereal  Co.  was  the  first  to  create  an  imaginary  personage  to   represent  their  product.  It  is  the  first  example  of  developing  a  package  persona. • Changes  in  Merchandising • SKU  =  Stock  Keeping  Unit § Suggest  favorable  product  attributes   • The  Quaker  Persona • The  America  Cereal  Co.  was  the  first  to  create  an  imaginary  personage  to   represent  their  product.  It  is  the  first  example  of  developing  a  package  persona. • Changes  in  Merchandising • SKU  =  Stock  Keeping  Unit • 1916  Piggly  Wiggly  grocery  store  self -­‐serve  concept • Packages  now  must  inform  and  sell • Changes  in  Merchandising • 2000's § Speed  and  convenience § Their  way,  differentiation  from  others § Technology  enabled  consumer  interaction § Gender  marketing,  no-traditional  placement § E-­‐commerce  challenges • Smart  (or  active)  Packaging • Response  to  consumers  needs  of  immediacy  and  convenience § Entertainment  value § Real  value § Linking  customers  to  worldwide  network  of  engagemen-­‐  e commerce.  QR  codes. Changing  &  Emerging  Marketing  Dynamics 1. New-­‐age  and  more  connected  consumer  lifestyles. 2. Maturing  and  emerging  retail  channels. 3. Shorter  product  life-­‐cycles. Category  Disruptors! • Disrupting  the  Sea  of  Sameness/  Status  Quo  packaging  in  the  retail  space. • Innovative  products  invest  and  break  out  with  disruptive  category  packaging. Global  View  of  Packaging • Different  cultures  apply  the  role  of  packaging  at  carrying  degrees  in  terms  of   complexity,  product  safety,  supply  chain  factors,  source  reduction,  and  sustainability. • Growth  drivers  are:  Population  Growth  and  Growth  of  the  Middle  Class • The  need  for  properly  packaged  foods,  beverages  and  pharmaceuticals  will  grow  with   this  increase  in  population "Packing  will  continue  to   ChangeanValue  Enabler!" Lecture  5:  Wood  Packaging Uses  of  Wood • For  packaging,  the  most  common  use  of  wood  is as for  manufacturing   paper  and  paperboard. Wood  Applications • Wood  is  used  for  packaging  applications  in  the  form  of  barre-­‐ ireboxes,  baskets,  w bound  containers,  crates,  and  pallets. • For  packaging,  the  most  common  use  of  wood  is as for  manufacturing   paper  and  paperboard. Wood  Applications • Wood  is  used  for  packaging  applications  in  the  form  of  barre-­‐ ireboxes,  baskets,  w bound  containers,  crates,  and  pallets. • The  biggest  use  of  wood  in  packaging  is  for  the  manufacture  of  pallets. • Wood  is  often  the  best  overall  choice  for  pallets  in  terms  of  the  combination  of   strength,  weight,  and  cost. • Wood  packages  can  easily  be  custom  made  in  small  quantities,  while  most  other   materials  require  longer  production  runs  to  be  economical.   Advantages  of  Using  Wood • Good  strength  to  weight  ration • Economical  structural  material • It  does  not  require  sophisticated  equipment  (for  a  box  or  crate) • IDEAL  FOR  RIGID  STRUCTURES  NEEDED  IN  SMALL  QUANTITIES Advantages • Wood  has  excellent  rigidity  and  outstanding  mechanical  properties  in  bending. Disadvantages • Wood  is  not  well  suited  to  high  speed  mechanized  packaging  operations • High  labor  factor • Bulky • Shipping • Storage • Wood  is  moisture  sensitive,  can  lead  to  stress  on  joints,  as  well  as  to  warping  and   even  fracture Types  of  Wood • Softwood:  is  wood  from  conifers • Softwood  is  generally  easy  to  work  with,  but  has  less  strength  than  hardwood  (in   wood  applications   -­‐ not  paper) • Examples  of  softwoods  include  pine,  fir,  cedar,  redwood,  etc. • Hardwoods :  wood  from  deciduous  trees • Hardwoods  are  generally  more  difficult  to  work  with  and  are  stronger  than  softwoods.   (in  wood  applications   -­‐ not  paper) • Examples  of  hardwoods  include  oak,  maple,  birch,  walnut,  cherry  etc. Four  Structural  Wood  Groups • Group  1:  lrdensity • Group  2:  medium  density • Group  3:  medi-­‐density • Group  4:  -­‐ density Wood  Properties • The  moisture  contentof  wood  (MC)  is  the  ratio  of  the  mas  of  water  in  the  wood  to  a   reference  wood  mass • The  process  of  drying  the  woos   asoning.led • Group  3:  medi-­‐density • Group  4:  -­‐ density Wood  Properties • The  moisture  contentof  wood  (MC)  is  the  ratio  of  the  mas  of  water  in  the  wood  to  a   reference  wood  mass • The  process  of  drying  the  woos   asoning.led Seasoning  of  Wood • The  strength  of  the  wood  tends  to  increase  as  it  dries,  and  it  is  more  resistant  to   attack  by  insects  and  microorganisms • Another  advantage  of  drying  wood  is  that  its  weight  is  substantially  decreased. Wood  Properties • Wood  for  packaging  should  be  well  seasoned  and  have  a  moisture  contents  around   15-­‐20% • A  nominal  1"  x  4"  measures  about  3/4"  x  3  1/2" Processed  Wood • Plywood-­‐more  uniform  than  lumber • Less  shrinkage Particle  Board  &  OSB  (oriented  strand  board) • OSB,  weight  is  smaller  and  a  lower  cost,  as  well  as  the  same  strength  ad  durability.  2x   shear  strength  plywood Pallets • Biggest  use  for  wood  in  packaging • $1  billion  per  year • CHEP Two  Broad  Categories  of  Pallets 1. Stringer  Style • The  first  dimension  (the  48'  in  the  case  of  GMA  pallet)  is  along  the  length   of  the  stringer  board • Two  way  entry  (sold  stringers) • Partial  four  way  entry  (must  have  "notches  added  to  stringers" 2. Block  Style • Contains  blocks  instead  of  stringers • Always  four  way  entry GMA  standardized  pallet • Grocery  Manufacturers  Association  (GMA) • There  are  two  GMA  pallet  sizes  :48"  x  40"  and  48"x  48"  (stringer  style  pallet) • The  pallets  are  designed  to  fit  two  across  in  standard  US  truck EuroPallet • Nine  block  design,  1,200mm  x  800mm  and  1,200mm  x  1,000mm • The  GMA  dimensions  and  the  Europallet  dimensions  are  not  identical Lecture  6:  Glass  Packaging • Guest  Speaker EuroPallet • Nine  block  design,  1,200mm  x  800mm  and  1,200mm  x  1,000mm • The  GMA  dimensions  and  the  Europallet  dimensions  are  not  identical Lecture  6:  Glass  Packaging • Guest  Speaker • Main  Questions: Who  is  the  largest  USA  owned  brewer? ○ § Yuengling ○ Glass  tastes  like  _____. § Nothing Lecture  7:  Metal  Packaging Development  of  Metal  Cans • 1810:  Durand  (English) § Tin  canister • Top  and  bottom  soldered  can § Lead  contamination □ Health  problems Advantages  of  Metals • Relatively  inexpensive • High  temperature  tolerance • High  physical  strength • High  durability,  thermal  processing • Excellent  light,  gas,  and  moisture  barrier  properties • Excellent  stiffness • High  production  and  filling  speeds • Readily  recyclable • Metal  remains  the  material  of  choice  for  12  oz.  beer,  soups,  canned  fruits  and   vegetables. Disadvantages  of  Metals • Heavy  (more  so  for  steel  than  for  aluminum) • Difficult  to  form  into  complex  shapes  such  as  bottles  (however,  aluminum   bottles  now  available  as  an  example  of  advancements) • Can't  be  colored • Can't  be  heat  sealed Metal  Packaging • Major  meals  used  in  packaging   § Steel  and  aluminum • Major  packaging  applications § Cans  (food) § Beverages  Containers Metal  pails • Major  meals  used  in  packaging   § Steel  and  aluminum • Major  packaging  applications § Cans  (food) § Beverages  Containers Metal  pails • Most  common: § Industrial  applications § Home  goods  (paint) Metal  Drums • Most  common: § Industrial  applications § Chemicals  (hazardous  materials) • Steel  drums  are  made  in  two  different  styles:  tight  head  and  open  head Metal  Racks  &  Systems • Most  common: § Automotive  packaging  applications § Warehouse  and  distribution Metal  Closures • Most  common: § glass  containers Metal  Trays • Aluminum  trays: § Food  packaging Foil • Nearly  all  of  the  foil  used  for  packaging  is  made  of  aluminum • Primary  advantage  of  aluminum  foil  is  its  superior  barrier  properties  to  moisture   and  oxygen   Metalized  Film • A  metalized  layer  can  be  applied  to  plastic  film  or  paper • Very  good  barriers  (less  susceptible  to  damage) • Lower  cost  than  foil Aluminum • Most  commonly  used  in  packaging  for:   § Beverage  cans  (  carbonated  drinks) § Food  industry  (trays  and  foils) Aluminum  Characteristics • Weighs  1/3  as  much  as  steel,  and  has  1/3  the  strength • More  expensive  per  pound  than  steel • Non-­‐toxic • Easier  to  shape  and  form  into  packages  than  steel • Excellent  barrier  to  moisture,  gases,  and  light • Non-­‐magnetic More  expensive  per  pound  than  steel • • Non-­‐toxic • Easier  to  shape  and  form  into  packages  than  steel • Excellent  barrier  to  moisture,  gases,  and  light • Non-­‐magnetic • More  resistant  than  steel  to  corrosion Steel  Packaging • Most  common:   § Steel  can  (food  industry) • Steel  beverage  containers  almost  eliminated  in  US  by  aluminum  cans  &  plastic   bottles • Strong  inexpensive  compared  to  other  packaging  materials • Non-­‐toxic • An  excellent  barrier  to  moisture,  gases,  and  light • Magnetic  material § Useful  when  steel  is  to  be  separated  from  aluminum  for  recycling • Easily  rusts-­‐exposure  to  moisture  and  oxygen Steel  or  Aluminum? • Steel  is  attracted  to  magnets,  while  aluminum  is  not Steel  Materials • Name  "Tin  Can"  is  a  misnomer • Cans  are  primarily  low-­‐carbon  steel  ,  not  tin • Steel  is  coated  with  a  very  thing  layer  of  other  material  (sometimes  tinplate)  to   prevent  corrosion Corrosion • Corrosion  needs  to  be  prevented  when  steel  is  used  as  a  packaging  material • Coatings 1. Tin-­‐ Tinplate  (TP) 2. Chromium-­‐Tin-­‐Free  Steel  (TFS) 1. Tin-­‐Plate  Coating  Steel • Today,  steel  is  electrolynplatedti-­‐ • This  allows ○ Substantial  reduction  in  the  amount  of  tin  required ○ The  ability  to  put  different  thicknesses  of  tine  on  either  side  of  a  steel  sheet   (different  tinning) ○ The  thicker  layer  will  face  the  product  (the  more  harsh  environment) 2. Tin  Free  Steel  (TFS) • Use  chromium  (chrome  oxide)  for  corrosion  protection  instead  of  tin • Advantage-­‐more  economical  than  tin  plate • Disadvantage-­‐chrome  must  be  removed  prior  to  wlding  the  can  side  seam  (this  is  not   the  case  with  tin) Can  Manufacturing • Tinplate • Use  chromium  (chrome  oxide)  for  corrosion  protection  instead  of  tin • Advantage-­‐more  economical  than  tin  plate • Disadvantage-­‐chrome  must  be  removed  prior  to  wlding  the  can  side  seam  (this  is  not   the  case  with  tin) Can  Manufacturing • Tinplate • Tin-­‐free  steel • Aluminum • Three  piece  cans • Two  piece  cans Three  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Three  piece  can,  three  parts: ○ Top  end  (Canner's/  Filler's  End) Cylindrical  shell  (body) ○ ○ Bottom  End  (maker's  end) ○ Side  seam 3-­‐Piece  Cans  Mfg  Process • Flat  sheet  is  formed  into  "Tube" • Side  seal  is  formed • Ends  are  "flanged"  to  receive  can  top  and  bottom • Can  maker  applied  one  end • "double  seaming" • Lids  and  empty  cans  (one  end  applied)  are  shipped  to  canner/filler • Mechanically: Three  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Requires  about  .25"  undecorated/printed  bare  strip  along  the  weld  edges  to   ensure  a  good  weld Welding  is  by  far  the  most  common  method  of  forming  a  can  side  seam • • Adhesive  (or  cemented):  dry  products  and  non -­‐food  products • Adhesive  joints  are  not  as  reliable  as  welded  joints -­‐not  heat  processable • Permit  all  around  printing  as  there  is  no  bare  strip 3-­‐Pc  Can  End  Seam  Process • Can  Ends  are  "Flanged" • "Double  Seaming"  Process • One  end  is  attached  during  can  making  process Two  Piece  Can  Manufacturing • Two  piece  can,  two  parts: § Top  end  (canner/filler) § One  body  (  with  an  integral  bottom  end) Two  Piece  Can  Mfg  Process 1. Draw  Process  (Shallow  Draw) § Cans  whose  height  is  less  than  their  diameter 2. Draw-­‐Redraw  Process § One  body  (  with  an  integral  bottom  end) Two  Piece  Can  Mfg  Process 1. Draw  Process  (Shallow  Draw) § Cans  whose  height  is  less  than  their  diameter 2. Draw-­‐Redraw  Process § Cans  having  a  height  equal  to  or  larger  than  the  diameter  require  a   second  draw 3. Draw  and  Iron  Process § Aluminum  cans  for  most  carbonated  beverages § Blank  is  drawn  to  a  wide  cup § 2nd  draw  reduces  the  diameter  and  the  can  is  deepened § The  cup  is  pushed  through  a  series  of  ironing  rings,  each  with  smaller   diameter  than  the  previous § The  bottom  has  the  same  thickness  as  the  starting  blank,  but  the  walls  are   considerably  thinner § Restricted  to  systems  that  will  not  undergo  thermal  processing • Increasingly,  three-­‐piece  cans  are  being  replaced  by  two -­‐piece  cans • No  side  or  bottom  seam • Produce  less  leakers  than  3  piece  construction • However… § Two-­‐piece  can-­‐making  process  is  more  complicated § More  capital  intensive  than  three  piece  can General  Advantages  of  Cans • Relatively  inexpensive • Durable • Thermally  stable • Easy  to  process  on  high  speed  lines • Readily  recyclable • 100%  barrier  to  gas,  moisture  and  light Can  Dimensioning  (2  and  3  piece) • Overall  diameter  X  overall  height • Given  in  3  digit  X  3  digit  numbers • The  first  digit  is  the  inches,  the  follow  are  the  number  of  1/16"  increment • 305  X  314  =    3  5/16"  X  3  14/16" ► Can  Manufacturing  -­‐no  all  are  metal! Metal  Packaging  in  US • Produces  mostly  cans,  both  steel  and  aluminum,  more  than  100  billion  cans  per   year


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