PSYC 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 1004 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 1004
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Exam 1: REVIEW SCIENTIFIC METHOD o Observation o Problem o Hypothesis o Experiment o Theory RESEARCH METHODS o Case history vs. single subject experiment o Test method o Survey method o Observational method o Correlational method Correlation DOES NOT equal causation o Experimental method Can infer causation FORMATION OF PSYCHOLOGY o Philosophy + Physiology o First psychology lab: Wundt CORRELATION o NOT causation o Determined by scatter plots The more linear, the more of a correlation o Ranges from 0.00 to 1.00 o Positive correlation One variable increases as the other increases, vice versa o Negative correlation One variable increases as the other decreases, vice versa LEVELS OF EXPLANATION o Psychology (broad) Biology Chemistry Physics (acute) DELGADO o Stopped a charging bull by stimulating its amygdala o Used electrodes on its brain RENNAISANCE o Lametrie “Man the machine” The church did not approve of him/his ideas Monist (mind) o Decartes “Father of psychophysiology” Church accepted him/his ideas Existence of the pineal body Dualism (mind and body) HEISENBERG’S PHYSICS o The Uncertainty Principle Observing a phenomenon changes it BRAIN STRUCTURES o BROCA’S AREA o Frontal lobe o Damage results in the inability to speak WERNICKE’S AREA o Temporal lobe o Damage results in “word salad” A person is able to speak words but the words do not make any sense MOTOR NEURON STRUCTURE o o Dendrites: Transmits impulses from cells’ synapses to the cell body o Axon: Transmits impulses from the cell body to other cells o Synapse: Permits neurons to pass signals to other neurons ACTION POTENTIALS o All or none firing SODIUMPOTASSIUM PUMP (Na+K+) o Maintains ion differential within the neuron membrane o Keeps inside of neuron negative o Keeps outside of neuron positive NEUROTRANSMITTERS o Dopamine (DA) o Norepinephrine (NE) o Serotonin Overall mood Depression o Endorphins/neuropeptides o Acetylcholine Memory Muscle movements LEFT BRAIN/RIGHT BRAIN DIFFERENCES LEFT RIGHT Speech, reading, writing Faces, places Serial processing Parallel processing Social approach Social avoidance Positive emotion Negative emotion Parasympathetic Sympathetic o Left brain writes o Right brain draws LEFT/RIGHT BRAIN STROKE DIFFERENCES LEFTSIDED RIGHTSIDED Catastrophic reaction Indifference Aware of problems with self Unaware of problems with self “I have a problem” “Others are the problem” LOBES OF THE BRAIN o Frontal lobe What makes us human Executive functions Movement and flexibility Planning and behavioral strategies o Parietal lobe Spatial perception Memory Touch o Temporal lobe Auditory cortex Hearing o Occipital lobe Primary visual cortex Seeing THALAMUS o Relay center of the brain TOPOGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION o Homunculus Reflects the relative sensory space our body parts occupy on the cerebral cortex Upside down representation o Mouth and hands have the most senses/nerves FORMAESTHESIA THALAMIC SYNDROME o In left hemisphere Negative/morbid hallucinations o In right hemisphere Positive/happy hallucinations CROSSED CONTROL o Right side of body: left brain o Left side of body: right brain o Left hemispace goes to right brain Negative emotion o Right hemispace goes to left brain Positive emotion CORPUS CALLOSUM o Alien arm syndrome Hand movement without the person having control over it Usually in cases of split brain o Split brain test WHAT EACH BRAIN HEARS o Incongruent logical/prosodic SENSES o Transduction: Transducing external stimulus into neural stimulus o Absolute threshold: When senses have reached 50% activity Last 50% goes into exhaustion ANATOMY OF THE EYE o o Duplex retina: Retina consisting of rods and cones Rods Peripheral vision Light sensitivity Cones Fovea Visual acuity Inverted retina o Photopic vision: Vision of the eye under welllit conditions o Scotopic vision: Vision of the eye under low light conditions o Visual pathways cross TASTE o Sweetness o Sourness o Saltiness o Bitterness o Umami o Taste threshold doubles every 20 years or so PERCEPTION o Distal stimulus Outside in the environment o Proximal stimulus In the brain o Kittens raised with restricted goggles If exposed to dots, cannot see stripes o Visual depth perception Binocular cues Depth perception with the use of both eyes Monocular cues Depth perception with the use of only one eye Optical illusions o Laws of perceptual organization Gestalt laws: The whole is different from the sum of its parts Figureground Continuity Closure Proximity LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT o Crosssectional 1 day in time o Longitudinal Over time (ex. 4 years) Expensive o Crosssequential Combination of crosssectional and longitudinal Study during specific times over that 4year period COHORT EFFECT o People who are grouped together form similarities Ex. College students are more liberal PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT STAGE AGE FEATURES Sensorimotor Birth – 2 Object permanence Preoperational 2 – 6 or 7 Symbolic and logical thinking, egocentrism Concrete operational 6 or 7 – 11 Conservation, categorization Formal operational 11+ Abstract and hypothetical thinking o ACCOMODATION VERSUS ASSIMILATION o Accommodation: Existing schemas are changed by new experiences o Assimilation: New information is incorporated into existing schemas CRITICAL/SENSITIVE PERIODS o Critical Essential to development Ex. cataracts in babies o Sensitive Important to development but not essential DEPRIVATION VERSUS ISOLATION o Social attachment o Harlow’s monkeys craved motherly love rather than food
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