COM 107, Exam 1 Study Guide
COM 107, Exam 1 Study Guide COM 107
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina Ambalavanar on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by R. Ford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Mass Communication Trump’s candidacy demonstrated the power of social media to gain free publicity and cheap access In a democracy, we depend on media to provide information to help us make decisions about our leaders Media tries to help us understand the events that affect us The media’s appetite for telling and selling stories leads them to not only document tradegy but also to misrepresent or exploit it Culture and the Evolution of Mass Communication Often, culture is narrowly associated with art, the unique forms of creative expression that give pleasure and set standards about what is true, good, and beautiful It can be more broadly viewed as the ways in which people live and represent themselves at particular historical times Communication: the creation and use of symbol systems that convey information and meaning Culture: symbols of expression that individuals, groups, and societies we use to make sense of daily life and to articulate their values Culture is a process that delivers the values of a society through products or other meaning-making forms Culture links individuals to their society by providing both shared and contested values, and the mass media help circulate those values Mass media: cultural industries that produce and distribute songs, novels, TV shows, newspapers, etc. to large numbers of people Eras of Communication o Oral o Written o Print o Electronic o Digital Mass communication: the process of designing cultural messages and stories and delivering them to large and diverse audiences through media channels from the printed book to the internet Oral and Written Eras in Communication As alphabets and written word emerged, a manuscript culture began to develop and eventually overshadow oral communication Oral and written communication developed over many centuries During Western civilization’s premodern period (1000 BC- Industrial Revolution) Many philosophers feared writing would threaten discussion Media Research Theory Uses and gratifications (receiver): when people use media so they’re not alone (ex: watching Netflix while home alone), able to keep up with the trends Agenda setting (sender): media sets what’s important to think about in their opinion, they show you what they want you to see to their benefit Priming (sender): the media teases you, tells you what’s important that’s coming up so you’ll be more likely to come back Framing (sender): the media shapes the story based on their perception Selective exposure (receiver): we select which messages to pay attention to based off our own bias, beliefs, ideals, morals, etc. Media Research Who says what to whom with what effect? Advertisers/retailers use market research o To figure out who you are as a receiver o To get into the mind of the consumer o Make advertisements, etc. accordingly Social construction of reality Window on the world o Is the “what” real or is it constructed? Propaganda Research Hypodermic Needle Model Mass media messages persuade all people powerfully and directly People believe the media is so powerful that it has the potential to hurt people o Bad things can happen when people see certain things in the media o Censorship came about for the need to protect children, violence-prone people, etc. Strong Effects on the Media Social Learning Theories: tries to enforce cooperation, creativity, confidence, can-do attitude Cultivation Theories: they serve a purpose in changing people’s thoughts and ideas Limited rights for commercial speech Government control over media lead to industries regulating what was released, which lead to ratings, banning, etc. Morals: things/practices that you hold true to gas an individual Ethics: what people as a group agree to follow, rules that govern human conduct Law: rules that meet the need to control, regulate, and legislate ethical conduct at the individual, corporate, and government Unprotected Forms of Expression Obscenity o Under Miller vs. California (1973) Material as a whole appeals to a prurient interest Depicts or describes sexual contact in a patently obscene way Material, as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value o Red Lion Broadcasting vs. UCC Broadcasters may be punished for indecency or profanity Columbia School of Thought Two-step flow model of communication o People (opinion leaders) watch media frequently o Opinion leaders pass along media content (and their interpretation of it) to others Even if the original intent is to empower or sell a product, public opinion leaders can set the agenda and also have the expression of their opinion Where are these theories at play? o Spiral of Silence: people are silent because they know they have an unpopular opinion Example: Trump supporters The silent majority isn’t represented in media since no one speaks Minority opinions are what makes the news since the majority is too scared to talk about it o The Third-Person Effect: people assume things affect all other people but not themselves Example: people think a message is only for older people or young people or overweight people, etc., not themselves Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence Social Media and Democracy Tools for democracy and for undermining repressive regimes o Arab Spring protests o Occupy Wall Street movement o Increasing mass communication and exposure to the outside world in China Lots of these things started online User Links Through Telephone Cables and Wires Internet service providers Ownership and Control of the Internet Connected three issues o Security of personal and private information o Appropriateness of online materials o Accessibility and openness of the internet Who’s really controlling the internet? o Google, Facebook, Microsoft, etc. Targeted Advertising and Data Mining Advertising is part of social networking sites, email, and IM Modern marketing relies on data mining o E-commerce o Cookies o Spyware o Opt-in and opt-out policies Security: The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private Whenever you use the internet you give away personal information o Government surveillance of online activity allowed by the PATRIOT Act o Identity theft results in about $3.4 billion each year in the United States Digital Divide Growing contract between “information haves” and “information have-nots” Smart phones help narrow the gap Still a big gap between the U.S. and the rest of the world Net Neutrality” Maintaining an Open Internet Every website and user has the right to the same internet network speed and access Major telephone and cable companies want to offer faster connections and priority in those willing to pay higher rates o Lack of privacy, too much governmental control
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