Botany Exam One Study Guide
Botany Exam One Study Guide Bio 2410
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashton Willey on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2410 at Texas State University taught by Sunethra Dharmasiri in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Study Guide – Exam 1 1) Which of the following is a FALSE statement about the phylogenetic relationships of eukaryotes? a. Fungi are phylogenetically more closely related to animals than to plants b. Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia are in the domain Eukarya c. Eukaryotes evolved from ancestral prokaryotes d. Bryophytes evolved from a brown algae that showed alternation of generations 2) In a gametic life cycle typical of animals and some brown algae; a. the zygote undergoes mitosis to produce a multicellular diploid phase b. multicellular diploid and haploid phases of generations are both present c. None of these answers is correct d. the zygote undergoes meiosis to produce a haploid generation 3) A feature that is common to all forms of sexual life cycles among all forms of algae is; a. having a visible, multicellular haploid phase b. alternation of generations with multicellular haploid and diploid phases c. having a visible, multicellular diploid phase d. formation of a zygote by the union of two haploid cells 4) Lichens: Mutualistic symbiosis of Fungi and a green algae or cyanobacterium 5) Mycobiont: fungal component (usually Ascomycete) in Lichens 6) Soredia are; a. thick walled spores produced by some algae to survive adverse conditions b. clumps of vegetative pieces of mycobiont and photobiont, used for dispersal of lichens c. highly modified intracellular hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi d. sexual reproductive structures found in lichenized ascomecetes or basidiomycetes 7) In the main concept underlying the alternation of generations seen in land plants, a sporophyte produces _________________________, while a gametophyte produces __________________________. 8) Sessile: rooted in one place 9) Autotrophic: self-sustaining 10) Bryophytes: mosses, hornworts, liverworts 11) Lycophytes: club/spike mosses 12) Pteridophytes: ferns 13) Gymnosperms: cone-bearing plants 14) Angiosperms (seeds surrounded by fruit): flowering plants 15) Lignins: in cell walls of woody tissues of plants 16) Biological Evolution: the heritable change of characteristics of populations with time 17) Evidence for Evolution: species can be modified, comparative anatomy reveals evolutionary relationships, traditional evidence for evolution comes from fossils, modern evidence for evolution comes from hereditary material in cells 18) Homologous structures are examples of divergent evolution 19) Analogous structures are examples of convergent evolution 20) Microevolution: evolution within species 21) Population: individuals of the same species living in the same area (can breed together) 22) Gene Pool: each population has a collection of genes with all different alleles 23) Allopatric Speciation: due to geographic isolation 24) Sympatric Speciation: only reproductive isolation Mutations or polyploidy can lead to reproductive isolation of individuals within the same population 25) Prokaryote: before nucleus 26) Eukaryote: true nucleus 27) True bacteria Most abundant prokaryote May be harmful, useful or neutral Autotrophic or heterotrophic 3 types: cocci (round), bacilli (rod-shaped), spirilli (spiraled) 28) Cyanobacteria Formerly called "blue-green algae" Autotrophic Photosynthesize using chlorophyll 29) Simplest eukaryotes belong to the kingdom: Protista Eukaryotes not included in the kingdoms: fungi, plantae, animalia 30) Protists move by: flagella or cilia 31) True Ferns: Vascular Dominant sporophyte True leaves with branched veins 32) Fern Allies: Vascular Dominant sporophyte o Diploid state is dominant Leaves are microphylls (one vein) 33) Bryophytes (earth's land plants): Non-vascular Dominant gametophyte o Haploid state is dominant No true leaves 34) Charophycaea Aquatic, green algae Dominant gametophyte 35) Single Vein: microphylls 36) Branched Vein: true leaves 37) Diploid zygote divides by mitosis and produces a diploid embryo 38) Meiosis in sporophyte produces a large number of haploid spores that develop into gametophytes 39) Gametophyte are haploid 40) Sporophyte is always diploid 41) Sporophyte produces spores which are haploid 42) Earliest land plants were seedless: 3 groups of seedless plants: o Bryophytes (very short) o Lycophytes (fern allies) o Pteridophytes (true ferns) 43) Female archegonium – produce egg cell 44) Male archegonium – produce sperm cell 45) Fern allies and ferns were the first vascular plants on earth 46) Fern morphology Rhizome: underground, horizontal stem Roots: arise from rhizome Leaves: (fronds) the conspicuous part of the plant Fiddleheads: young unrolled fronds Answers 1) Bryophytes evolved from a brown algae that showed alternation of generations 2) the zygote undergoes mitosis to produce a multicellular diploid phase 3) alternation of generations with multicellular haploid and diploid phases 6) clumps of vegetative pieces of mycobiont and photobiont, used for dispersal of lichens 7) Spores by meiosis, gametes by mitosis
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