ss 290 study guide for first exam
ss 290 study guide for first exam ss 290
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ss 290 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott taught by Albert Reeves in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see History of Medieval Europe in History at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
SS 290 Study Guide for First Exam Chapter 1 Highlights: Pax Romana ("Roman Peace") was the two centuries A.D. of the roman empire. Which was an age with a strong central government engineered and maintained the social stability that allowed people to prosper. There were sixty to fifty million people in the roman empire. Rome rose to power through military might. In the Punic wars of the third century B.C. Rome defeated Carthage (main rival) for control over western and central Mediterranean. Then subdued the weakened Greek states after the fall of alexander the greats empire. After gaining control of the known world civil wars broke out in struggles of control over the superstrate and many trying to reshape to opposing principles. Factions led by Julius Caesar favored a rigid aristocratic authoritarianism unlike the old decentralized administrative practices. Others also favored more radically democratic society. The civil wars ended in a compromise a thoroughly centralized state that delegated day to day authority to local officials. Pax Romana period was a very hierarchy obsessive society where social class and legal classification was very important. However, it was very easy for families to rise from slavery to aristocrats in two or three generations. The Mediterranean Sea and Roman army were the two most influential factors in shaping the roman world. The army was the second chief influential structure of the roman empire, the roman empire was very different from others in its extraordinary degree of organization and professionalism under the emperor. Soldiers didn’t only fight for the glory of Rome but also for wages and a portion of the booty collected when conquering. . A woman who held the social rank of a Curiales could also hold a political position. During the Pax Romana period they had free marriages that allowed women to mainly be independent and own property run business etc. First roman emperor was Augustus who ruled from 27 B.C to 14 A.D. he emerged from the civil wars and quickly set to reforming the roman constitution. He established a form of government called the principate (basically emperor had absolute power over military and senate). His successors were Tiberius (1437), Caligula (3741), Claudius (41 54), Nero (5468) At the end of the second century the empire started to meet agricultural and industrial decline, inflation ran rampant, imperial coinage debased, disease and poverty decreased population, civil wars. Matters grew worse into the third century with thought a 45year period 65 rulers all except one who died of natural causes had all died in battle field defeat. By Diocletian' s reign the senate played no governmental role whatsoever Chapter 2 Highlights: By the time of Constantine's conversion Christians made up no more than 5% of the population some scholars suggest that the number could be as low as less than 1%. Persecution of the Jews by the Seleucids ended with the Maccabean Revolt in 142 B.C. Then they enjoyed a brief time period of peace until conquered by Roman armies in 63 B.C. The Sadducees: a small group composed mainly of wealthy landowners and hereditary priest caste, dismissed all apocalyptic belief from the traditional Judaism and supported the Roman controlled puppet kings. The Pharisees: championed strict adherence to Jewish law and ritual, they differed from Sadducees by placing greater emphasis on the oral law passed by rabbis than on the ceremonies of the Temple cult. Romans started to persecute Christians because they thought that they wanted to abolish private property and the social and legal distinctions that surrounded private property. The first purge of persecution took place in 64 AD in Rome itself. Nero's persecution of Christians lasted until 68 when he died. The second century however there was no persecution (high point of Pax Romana). Emperor Septimius Severus started it all back up in 193. Than Decius tried to stop the faith by torturing them to the point of renouncement. The worst and bloodiest persecution took place during Diocletian's reign. Constantine immediately after assuming the throne he issued the Edict of Milan which basically made it illegal to persecute Christians and gave them a social class just as every other pagan religion to date. Also established the Nicaean Creed which laid out all Christian group debates and put an end to them. Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the region. Chapter 3 Highlights: The increase of German immigration affected both the fall of Rome and the spread of Christianity, however it is hard to pinpoint exactly what aspects contributed to those results. There is no written record of the Germans until the fourth century (which by this time they were highly Christianized and Romanized) Clans that made up tribes shared similar dialect and followed customary codes. However, they did not necessarily share ethnicity. Tribes would form and break up regularly to confuse and frustrate Romans. Within each clans they had chieftains that gained loyalty through military and material fortunes (basically you could be the hero one day and villain the next depending on how you defended the clan and provided for it). During the 4th and 5th century the clans and tribes would merge into larger units to make peace treaties and such with Romans because Romans would only deal with larger nations. Then the most able warlord would be a dux which evolved into a sort of kingship. Then these artificial kingdoms would create a fake ancestry to look as though they had roots (usually they would make up legends for this reason). This is why the Visigoths and Alans are seen as historical fiction. Increased need for food and desire to avoid nomads like the Alans or Huns drove Germans towards the Roman borders. Overtime they developed a system called Wergeld; basically it was a payment for any injury or murder and the payment varied from social class, every injury was assigned a monetary value. This was to stop the blood feuds at the time. It was basically like the idea of our modern day insurance policies. However, the specifics of the system differed from tribe to tribe. Visigoths did not follow this a women could be a free adult own property and everything but were legal minors until the age 20. Multiple factors lead to the Germans pushing westward in increasing numbers. Overpopulation, stiffer competition for land and resources Conflicts became more frequent and drove them to seek a peaceful life in Rome Approach of Huns
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