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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Michela Spicer

Exam 2 Study Guide CJ 270

Michela Spicer

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This study guide covers the 10 questions that will be on exam 2.
Introduction to Corrections
Patrick Halliday
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Patrick Halliday in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
10 questions Describe community corrections acts  A philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces: 1.Decentralization of authority 2.Citizen participation 3. Redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration is most appropriate 4. Emphasis on rehabilitation through community programs  Community policing: a law enforcement strategy to get residents involved in making their neighborhoods safer by focusing on crime prevention, nonemergency services, public accountability, and decentralized decision making that includes the public  Community-based prosecution: a prosecution strategy that uses a combination of criminal and civil tactics and the legal expertise, resources, and clout of the prosecuting attorney’s office to find innovative solutions to a neighborhood’s specific problems  Community-based defender services: a defender strategy that provides continuity in representation of indigent defendants and helps defendants with personal and family problems that can lead to legal troubles  Community courts: a judicial strategy of hearing a criminal case in the community that is most affected by the case and including that community in case disposition Definition of diversion  The halting or suspension, BEFORE conviction, of formal criminal proceedings against a person, conditioned on some form of counter performance by the defendant Definition of probation  The conditional release of a convicted offender into the community, under the supervision of a probation officer. It is conditional because it can be revoked if certain conditions are not met Revocation hearing  A due process hearing that must be conducted to determine whether the conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender removed from the community 4 rationales of diversion  Legal and Ethical Issues o Unconditional diversion: the termination of criminal processing at any point before adjudication with no threat of later prosecution. Treatment, counseling, and other services are offered and use is voluntary  Affords the best protection for a defendant’s legal rights because dismissal of charges does not require any counter performance (defendant has everything to gain and nothing to lose)  Voluntary treatment is said to be more likely than coerced treatment to have beneficial effects o Conditional diversion: diversion in which charges are dismissed if the defendant satisfactorily completes treatment, counseling, or other programs ordered by the justice system  Provides greater protection against prosecutorial defendant than does diversion by the police or the prosecutor  Conditional diversion does not eliminate the possibility of more severe penalties for divertees who fail the program  Law Enforcement Issues o If unconditional diversion is limited to the first or second charge, then increases in violations are less likely o Conditional diversion requiring supervision and counter performance does not seem more likely to encourage crime than the dispositions it most often replaces- fines, suspended sentences, and probation  Safety Issues o Some argue that diversion can protect the community better than traditional processing can o Diversion drug courts and veterans courts hold regularly scheduled status hearings, monthly or more frequently, with the offender, prosecutor, defense attorney, treatment providers, probation agents, and others  At these hearings, judges monitor the progress of the offender, provide continuing court supervision, keep the offender in treatment, and proscribe sanctions for noncompliance and rewards for compliance  In other words, the court has the ability to respond immediately to positive or negative behavior, which protects the community better than traditional criminal processing  Economic Issues oDiversion is less conducive to recidivism than is traditional processing o Costs of both diversion and its alternatives include the costs of arriving at a decision, the costs of implementing decisions, and the costs of undesired consequences of decisions, such as reinstatement of prosecution, leveling of new charges, or revocation of probation or parole because of a new charge or violation o Diversion is not always the appropriate response to criminal behavior  When diversion fails to bring about the wanted changes in an offender’s behavior, probation is usually the next step in the corrections process 3 questions regarding the different types of intermediate sanctions (chapter 5)  Intensive supervision probation (ISP): control of offenders in the community under strict conditions by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose case-load is generally limited to 30 offenders  Drug courts: a special court that is given responsibility to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regular probation but less severe than incarceration  Fine: a financial penalty used as a criminal sanction  Day fine: a financial penalty scaled both to the defendant’s ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime  Community service: a sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with non-profit or tax- supported agencies  Day reporting center (DRC): a community correctional center to which an offender reports every day or several days a week for supervision and treatment  Remote-location monitoring: technologies, including Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and electronic monitoring (EM), that probation and parole officers use to monitor remotely the physical location of an offender  Residential reentry centers (RRC): a medium-security correctional setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly- unaccompanied by staff- for work, education or vocational programs, or treatment in the community but require them to return to a locked facility each evening  Boot camp: a short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment The number of adults on probation in the US at the end of 2011 is  3,971,319 John Augustus  Became interested in the operation of the courts in 1841, and that is when the practice of probation began to emerge  Started in Boston, Massachusetts  Particularly sensitive to the problems of persons charged with violating Boston’s vice or temperance laws  He was a member of the Washington Total Abstinence Society- an organization devoted to the promotion of temperance  By the time of his death in 1859, Augustus had won probation for almost 2,000 adults and several thousand children  He investigated the age, character, and work habits of each offender  He identified persons he thought redeemable and “whose hearts were not fully depraved, but gave promise of better things”  Augustus made probation recommendations to the court  He developed conditions of probation and helped offenders with employment, education, and housing  He supervised offenders during their probation, which lasted, on average, about 30 days


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