COB 202 Study Guide for Test 1
COB 202 Study Guide for Test 1 COB 202
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Charles Miller on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COB 202 at James Madison University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Business at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 1 What is Organizational Behavior(OB)? The study of how individuals behave in an organization The study of what people think, feel and do in and around organizations Organization A group of people who work interdependently towards a goal Historical Foundations of OB OB emerged as a distinct field in the 1940’s However there have been many prominent individuals who have studied OB throughout history Plato Leadership Confucius Ethics Elton Mayo founded a “human relations” school Why Study OB? Companies are emphasizing soft skills in their search for new employees Corporations are unwilling to invest in employees who lack soft skills Help us make sense of and predict the world Knowledge to work with others Organizational behavior is important for everyone, not just managers OB has a strong correlation to a company’s bottom line Challenges Facing Organizations Globalization Economic, social, cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world Leads to larger markets, lower costs of production, and greater innovation Less work life balance as people are interacting and collaborating with people from many timezones Cultural differences and different global laws lead to challenges for companies Fluctuation of foreign economies can negatively impact companies with investments there Increasing Workforce Diversity Surface Level Diversity Things you can see such as age, race, etc… DeepLevel Diversity Traits that are not physical such as values, beliefs, personalities, etc… Opportunities and Challenges of Diversity o Broader knowledge base can allow for more informed decisions and usually has a positive impact on financial returns at least in the short run o Challenges can be that different personalities do not always make for easy teamwork, and can lead to conflict and wasted time Surface Level Diversity is an ethical imperative Emerging Employment Relationships Work/Life balance minimizing conflict between time for working and time devoted to not working Telecommuting is a growing trend that can have benefits and negatives for employees and employers For businesses it can lower costs and increase worker happiness, however it can lead to a lower quality of work For employees it can lead to greater scheduling flexibility and a better work life balance, however it can lead to isolation and less opportunities for advancement in the company Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic Research Anchor OB knowledge is built on systematic research Evidence Based management Multidisciplinary Anchor Many leading OB concepts have been adapted from other disciplines Contingency Anchor A particular action may have different consequences depending on the situation A manager needs to first diagnose the situation and then choose the best course of action based on that evaluation Multiple levels of analysis anchor Individual, team, organizational level of analysis OB topics usually relevant at all three levels of analysis (individual, team, and organizational) Chapter 2 MARS Model of Industrial Behaviour Individual characteristics make us unique individuals and combine to determine one's motivation, ability, and role perceptions Employee Motivation o Internal forces that affect a person's voluntary choice of behaviour o Elements of Motivation Direction Path by which a person steers his/her effort Intensity amount of effort put into achieving a goal Persistence Consistent effort over a period of time put forth in achieving a goal Employee Ability o Natural talents and skills acquired that allow you to complete a job o PersonJob Matching Selecting Applicants Developing Employees Redesigning Jobs Role Perceptions o Understand the job duties expected of us o Clearer role perceptions (role clarity) when we: Understand our tasks or accountable consequences Understand task/ performance priorities Understand the preferred behaviours/ procedures o Benefits of clearer role perceptions More accurate/ efficient job performance Better coordination w/ others Higher motivation o Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short term control Types of Individual Behaviour Task Performance o Goal Directed Behaviours o Organizational Citizenship Behaviours How an employee will interact with their coworkers in a way that helps themselves and the organization as a whole o Counterproductive Work Behaviours Behaviours that hamper the goals of the organization o Joining and Staying with an organization Whether or not an employee or prospective employee will stay with an organization o Maintaining Work Attendance The amount of days missed whether due to environmental factors(weather), health issues, or motivation issues (bad workplace environment) Presenteeism Being at work but not performing up to ability due to illness or other reason Defining Personality Those things that make us uniquely who we are Enduring pattern of thoughts emotions and behaviors Nature vs. Nurture The debate of whether you inherit your personality or if it is created by the environment that you are raised in Personality for the most part stabilizes in your early 30’s Five Factor Model of Personality C Conscientiousness A Agreeableness N Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) O Openness to Explore E Extroversion o Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are the greatest indicators of performance o Extraversion Best for Sales and Management positions o Agreeableness A good trait for those who have to work in teams o Openness to Explore Important for those in creative fields MBTI Measures Jungian Types The most widely used personality test in the business field Good for self and other awareness Poor predictor of performance, leadership ability, and forteam building purposes Identifies preferences for receiving information Chapter 2 MARS Model of Individual Behavior Individual Characteristics make us unique individuals and combine to determine one's motivation, ability, and role perceptions Employee Motivation o Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior o Elements of Motivation Direction Path by which a person steers his/her effort Intensity amount of effort put into a goal Persistence continual effort for a specified amount of time Employee Ability o Natural Talents and skills acquired that allow you to complete a job o PersonJob Matching Selecting applicants Developing Employees Redesigning Jobs Role Perceptions o Understand the job duties expected of us o Clearer role perceptions (role clarity) when we: Understand our tasks or accountable consequences Understand task/performance priorities Understand the preferred behavior/procedures o Benefits of clearer role perceptions More accurate/efficient job performance Better coordination with others Higher motivation Situational Factors o Environmental conditions beyond the individuals short term control Types of Individual Behavior Task Performance o Goaldirected behaviors under the individual’s control that support organizational objectives o Completing your responsibilities Organizational Citizenship o Cooperation and helpfulness to coworkers and organization that support the work context Counterproductive Work Behaviors o Behaviors that hamper the goals of the organization Joining and Staying with an Organization o Staying with the company long term Maintaining Work Attendance o Absences due to situations or motivation o Presenteeism when you are physically present but not mentally Defining Personality Those things that make us uniquely who we are Enduring pattern of thoughts emotions and behaviors Nature vs. Nurture The debate of whether you inherit your personality or it is formed by your environment Personality stabilizes in your 30’s Five Factor Model of Personality C Conscientiousness A Agreeableness N Neuroticism O Openness to Expense E Extraversion o Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability are the best indicators of performance o ExtraversionSales and Management positions o Agreeableness Effective for Collaboration o Openness to experience High Creativity MBTI Measures Jungian types Widely used personality test in the business field Good for self and other awareness Poor predictor of performance, leadership, team building Identifies preferences for receiving information Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values Values in the Workplace Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences o Define right/wrong, good/bad o Direct motivation and behavior Value system hierarchy of values Compared with personality, values are: o Evaluative (not descriptive) o May conflict strongly with each other o Affected by nurture more than nature Schwartz’s Values Model Openness to change motivation to pursue innovative ways Conservation motivation to preserve the status flow Selfenhancement motivated by selfinterest SelfTranscendence motivation to promote welfare of others and nature Personal Values and Behavior Values Motivate guide decisions, behavior and performance Valuesbehavior “disconnect”because: o Awareness (salience) values are abstract relevance isn’t obvious To increase valuesconsistent behavior: o Keep workplace consistent with desired values o Remind employees of important values o Help employees be sensitive to relevance of values in the workplace Values Congruence Similarity to one’s values to another source Three Ethical Principles Utilitarianism an action that is best for the greater good Individual Rights Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice people who are similar should get similar benefits Influences on Ethical Conduct Moral Intensity o Degree that an issue demands the application of ethical principles Moral Sensitivity o Person’s ability to recognize presence and importance of an ethical issue Situational Influences o Competitive Pressures Supporting Ethical Behavior Corporate code of ethics Training Employees Systems for communicating/ investigating wrongdoing Individualism The degree to which people value personal freedom, selfsufficiency Collectivism Valuing the group before an individual Power Distance High Respect to authority and high obedience Low Expect relatively more sharing of power Uncertainty Avoidance How tolerant a worker is to uncertainty and ambiguity AchievementNurturing How geared culture is towards either nurturing its people or focusing more on competitiveness and achievement Week 3 Stereotyping Assigning traits to people based on social category membership Why people stereotype? o Categorical Thinking o Drive to comprehend and predict other’s behavior o Supports selfenhancement and social identity Categorizationputting people into groups Homogenization assign similar traits within a group Differentiation Process Assign less favorable attributes to other groups Problems with Stereotyping Overgeneralizes doesn’t represent everyone in the category Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination Overcoming Stereotype Bias Difficult to prevent stereotype activation Possible to minimize stereotype application Attribution Process Internal Attribution o Perception that behavior is caused by a person’s own motivation or ability o Perception that behavior is caused by factors beyond a person’s control Attribution Rules o Consistency Did this person act this way in the past o Distinctiveness Does this person act this way in other situations o Consensus Do other people act this way in this situation Attribution Errors SelfServing Bias o Tendency to attribute our success to internal factors and our failures to external factors Fundamental Attribution Error o Tendency to overemphasize internal causes of another person’s behavior, whereas recognize external influences on ourself Self Fulfilling Prophecy o Something you believe will happens ends up happening o Strongest at the beginning of a relationship o Strongest when several people share a belief o Or when an employee has low past performance Other Perceptual Effects Halo Effect o Form an impression of someone based off of one interaction o Distorts our perception of a person’s other traits False Consensus Effect o Overestimating how many people share the same thought process as yourself Primacy Effect o Forming perception of others based on first impression Recency Effect o Most recent information dominates perceptions Improving Perceptions Awareness about perceptual biases o Increases mindfulness of biases o Limited effectiveness Improving selfawareness o Increased awareness of oneself Meaningful Interaction o Increases pool of information you have to draw from Johari Window Defines the different areas of our personality based on if they are known to others ourself or a combination of both. Chapter 4 Your evaluation of the situation (Positive/Negative) combine with an internal activation to create emotions Emotions are experiences and short lived, attitudes are longer term Emotions can directly influence your behavior Emotional Labor Effort planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions Higher jobs requiring o Frequent/lengthy emotional displays o Variety of emotions displayed o Intense Emotions There are emotional barriers across culture Emotional Dissonance Conflict between true and required emotions Emotional labor Solutions o Perceive emotional labor as professional skill o Engage in deep acting reshifting the way you perceive a situation o Surface Acting pretending to feel a different emotion than actually felt Emotional Intelligence Ability to recognize and manage emotions in oneself and others Dimensions of emotional intelligence o Being aware and able to manage yours and others emotions Outcomes of (EI) o It is associated with Better relations, emotional labor, leaderships , social decisions, job interviews, knowledge sharing o EI can be learned, not solely innate Training Programs, coaching, selfreflection, maturity Job Satisfaction A person’s evolution of his or her job and how they feel about it EVLN Response to Dissfaction o Exit Leave or quit/transfer o Voice Changing the situation o Loyalty Patiently waiting for the situation to improve o Neglect Reducing work quality, increasing absenteeism Job Satisfaction and Performance o Happy workers are usually more productive o Isn’t stronger because General attitudes vs. specific behavior Low employee control over output control Service Profit Chain Model o If employee is satisfied they will make the customer satisfied Organizational Commitment Affective Commitment o The emotional attachment to the organization o Lower turnover and higher motivation Continuance Commitment o Calculate Attachment Employees Stay because o No choice o High financial sacrifice to leave High continuance commitment associated with lower turnover, performance and cooperation Organizational Citizenship Behaviors About being a good coworker that helps improve the organization Building Affective Commitment o Justice Apply humanitarian values o Shared Values o Trust Job security supports trust o Organizational Comprehension Know firm’s past/present/future o Employee Involvement Employees feel part of the company Stress An adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to well being Prepares to adapt to hostile environment Workplace Stressors o Eustress v. Distress Eustress healthy positive motivational force’ Distress degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning o Stressors Causes of stress Examples: work overload, low task control Everyone handles stress differently o Exercise, yoga o Personality lower neuroticism and higher extraversion o Positive selfconcept o Lower workaholism
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