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Membranes PPT

by: Victoria Hills

Membranes PPT BIOL 2220

Victoria Hills
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover the membranes ppt.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John Cummings
Study Guide
Human, anatomy, Physiology, Clemson, Dr., Cummings, john, 2016, Semester, 1, Fall, Membranes, powerpoint
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2220 at Clemson University taught by John Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/23/16
ClemsonUniversity Fall 2016 Membranes Slide 2: Membrane  Membrum isLatin for “limb” Slide 3: Definition of Membrane  Continuousmulticellular sheetscomposedofatleast 2tissue types - Epithelium boundto underlyingconnective tissue - Exception is non-coveringor non-lining membranes o Ex: Synovialmembranes  Foundbetweenbonesatajoint  Don’thaveepithelial tissue  Only haveconnective tissue  Alternative explanation: - Bydefinition, amembraneis anorgansinceit iscomposedofatleast 2 or more tissue types - Usually 1 tissueis an epithelial tissue that is boundto anunderlyingconnective tissue layer - Basementmembrane:Epithelial tissuethat is attached to a basementmembrane is anexampleofa wholemembrane - Exception: Slides 4-13:Covering and LiningMembranes  Cutaneousmembrane: - Skin located ontheexterior surfaceofthebody - Keratinized stratified squamousepithelium attached to denseirregular connective tissue o AKA squamousepithelium ismodified to whereit becomeskeratinized - Exposedto air - Is dry - Living anddividing tissueofthe skin is locatedat the stratumbasaleofthe epidermis o Whencells divide at thestratum basale,they producekeratinproteinthat accumulates in thecell o Eventually, thecell producesso muchkeratin that thecell is no longer ableto do muchelse  Nucleusandorganellesaredeletedasaresult, andthe keratinized cells arenowdeadcells o Keratin proteinis atoughandthick proteinthat providesstrengthand protectionfor thecutaneousmembrane(Physical barrier) - 80%ofdust is composedofsloughedoffkeratinizedepithelial cells - Overall: A thick layer ofdeadkeratinized squamousepithelium makes upthe surfaceofthecutaneousmembranethatprovide strength and protection to anything that lies underneathit  Mucousmembrane: - Mucousglandsproducemucousthereforemucousmembranesproducesome sortofmoisture - Mostmucousmembranescontain stratified squamousor simplecolumnar epithelium attachedto areolar (Loose)connectivetissues - Lineinternal bodycavities that areopento the exterior o Foundinsidethe stomach,esophagus,trachea,etc.  Theseall are consideredto beopento the exterior andarethereforeoutsidethebody - Mucousmembranesfunctionin absorption andsecretion  Serous membrane: - Everything inside thebodyappearsmoist - Composedofsimplesquamousepithelium resting on areolar (loose)connective tissue - Linesclosedventral bodycavities - Moist  Canseeserousmembranesonflesh,andwhenit is pulledaway from the cavity, it is locatedontopoforgansinsidethe cavity - Produces serous fluid: a) Moistfluid that comesin part fromleakageofcapillaries that runthrough connective tissue o Fluids fromcapillariespermeateout ofthecapillaries andcollect at that point b) Simple squamousepithelium producesandsecreteshyaluronicacidthat is fluid andrich incarbohydratethatmakes thefluid viscous (Slippery) *Bothfluid fromcapillary leakageandhyaluronicacid make upserousfluid - Serousfluidis necessaryso thatthe outsidebodycantwist andnot pull/tug on organsalongwith it  Serousfluidfunctions in providing lubrication to allow movement - Serousmembranescreateadoublelayeredmembranewhereonelayer covers the cavity andthe other layer coverstheorgans to allowmovement throughthe serousfluidthat is producedbetweenthetwo membranes a) Parietalserous membrane: o Belongsto the cavity b) Visceral serous membrane: o Belongsto organs  Serosae: Types ofSerousMembranes - Namedbasedonlocation 1. Pleura: - Serousmembraneassociatedwith thethoracic cavity - Parietal pleura: o Linesthe thoraciccavity - Visceralpleura: o Makesup theouter coveringofthelungs - Fluid betweenthe parietaland visceralfluid is called thepleuralfluid o This specific serousfluidis important in allowing usto breathe o Whenthechest changesshape,it pushesbackand forthso thepleural fluid helpsin preventingthe lungsfrombeing crushed o Pleuralfluid also allows air to movein when thevolume ofthelungs changes 2. Pericardium: - Serousmembranethatsurroundstheheart - Parietal pericardium: o Cavity itself - Visceralpericardium: o Veryouter lining oftheheart - Fluid betweenthe parietaland visceralpericardiumis the pericardialfluid that functionsin preventing frictionwhen the heartbeats 3. Peritoneum: - Serousmembraneoftheabdominalpelvic cavity - Parietal peritoneum: o Wall oftheabdominal cavity - Visceralperitoneum: o Coveringofabdominalorgans Slide 14:Synovial Membranes  Containsno epithelium  Linescavities ofjoints - Locatedwhere2bonescometogether  Secretessynovialfluid in the cavities ofjoints - Functionsin acting asa cushion to preventbonesfromdigginginto eachother as onebendsandmoves - Also lubricates joints so that 2bonescanpassover topofeachother without friction  Fluid leaking outofthe cavity wouldlead to rubbingofthebone Slide 15:Tissue Related Defenses  Mechanicalbarrier: - Firstdefenseofcoveringandlining epithelium - Preventssubstancesfromgetting out - Cutaneousmembrane: o Preventssubstancesfromgetting throughtheskin - Mucousmembrane: o Open to externalenvironment o Preventssubstancesfromgetting into the body  Cilia: - Functionastraps - Ex: Whenbreathing,small particles get trappedinthe cilia that pushthem towardsthe throatto make youcough  Chemicalbarriers: - Ex: Tissuesthat line thestomach o Produceacidic environments o Acid in stomachbreaksdownproteins,bacteria, andother pathogenic microbes - Ex: Femalereproductivetract: o Vaginacontains anacidic environment o Functionsin protecting theuterusfrombacteria  If thesebarriersarebreached,inflammationwill occur  Secondlevelofdefense - If thereisenoughbreaching,specific immune defenseswith BandT cells will comeinto play Slide 16:Tissue Repair  If thereisdamageto the skin andtheepidermis, deeper connectivetissue andthe bloodvesselsthat runthroughtheconnectivetissue, thereis a seriesofeventsto allow healing processto occur  Tissue repair will go through2processes: a) Regeneration: - Wherethetissue damagedis replacedwith thesame kind oftissue - Cell division is stimulated in in-tact andliving tissue that isn’t damaged— Related to many CPK’s,MPF’setc.  Undamagedcells continue to divide until contact inhibition shuts offcell division - Summary: Tissue producescopiesofitselfandregenerates b) Fibrosis: - Accumulation offibrousproteinsinthe tissue - Becausethetissue is damaged,the areaisweak  Fibrousproteinsprovide strength  Fibrousconnectivetissuemay developin damagedtissuearea - Anover accumulation offibrousconnective  Productionofascar (Wherethe damagedtissue is NOT replacedwith the sametissue but isinstead replacedby fibrousconnectivetissue) - Again: Naturalpartofhealing  Haveto haveanaccumulation ofthefibrous connective tissueat the site ofdamageto createa frameworkto allow the healing processto start,but if it continuesandthe other originaltissue isn’t replaced,scar tissue developsthatdoesn’thavethe samepropertiesasthe original tissue - Mosttissues areresistant to overproductionoffibrousconnectivetissuebut sometissues arepoor atregenerationso mostofwhattheydo is the processof fibrosis - Ex: Damageto cardiacmuscle  Generallyturnsinto scar tissue that doesn’t contract Weaker partoftheheart Slide 17-20:Steps of Normal HealingProcess 1. Inflammation: - Overview ofsteps: o Chemicals releasedbyinjuredtissue cells, macrophages,andmast cells o Capillaries dilate andbecomepermeable o White bloodcellsandplasma fluids leak into injured area o Clotting protein constructclot o Scab forms - Occursmembranesarebreached,inflammation results - Damagedtissuesreleasesomechemicals that attract macrophagesandmast cells that arecirculating in the bloodstream(Chemotaxis)  Accumulation of macrophages(Phagocyticcells) and mast cells attack foreignsubstances - Damagedtissuecausesthe capillaries in that areato dilate so that they become morepermeableandallow things like masscells, macrophages,other white bloodcells, andother proteinssuchasclotting proteinsinthe plasma to leak out ofthecapillaries better andprovokehealing - Clotting proteins inthe plasma causetheformationofabloodclot bysealing the hole+they function inpreventing anything elseforeignfromgetting into the damagedarea - Bloodclotwill eventually dryup andbecomeascab - Beneaththe scab aseriesofeventsoccursthat allow it to beeventually released o Important notto pick at scabsbecausethiswill causeandpromotethe over productionoffibrousconnectivetissuethat will leadto scar tissue formation  Vitamin Eandtime canhelp with the fadingofscarssince the processoftissueregenerationcantakea while sometimes - Review: o Leakageofchemicals  Inflammation  Capillaries dilate +fluids leak + accumulation ofcells at site ofdamage  Swelling = Edema, which is an accumulation ofthosefluids o Bloodclotstopsthe lossofbloodandpreventother pathogensfrom getting past +holdsedgesofthe cutin place (Harder to healwhenif the damagedtissue is constantlymoving) 2. Organization events: - Whentissue isdamaged, capillaries aredestroyedandsometimesbigger vessels too so bloodsupplyhasto berestoredto bring aboutrepair - The bloodclotthat is in placeis then replacedbygranulationtissue o Appearanceatthis point: Granulationtissue lookslight pink andlooks differentthan thesurroundingtissue o It contains manyelements suchasproteins andfibroblastsin it o With the granulationtissuepresent, nextalattice starts to formthat can beusedasa frameworkfor building  This is what ultimately becomesa scar if proper regenerationoftheoriginaltissuedoesnotoccur - Next, thenew capillary bedis established - Fibroblastsofgranulationtissuestart to close themargins ofthewound a) Fibroblasts(cells) secretegrowthfactors b) Fibroblastsproducespecificallycollage fibershere thatattach to oneanother andpull the edgestogether - Asthe tissue is starting to growandis present,it isnext time to getrid ofthe bloodclotthroughdissolving/digesting it via macrophages(Phagocyticcells) - Morecollagengetsdepositedandcontinues to do so until thebloodclotis completely replacedbygranulationtissue  This signals the endofthe organizationevents  Regenerationandfibrosiscomenext 3. Regeneration and fibrosis: - The frameworkhasbeencreatedbygranulationtissue - Nowcells can divide andthegranulation tissuecan bereplacedbyregeneration tissue that is supposedto bethereandnothaveascar developvia excessive fibrosis  Factorsthatmediatetissue repair: Nutrition - Haveto intake enoughproteinto beableto producetheproteinsthatareused for productionofcollagefibersandother components o Eat protein  Brokendownto AA  Used to build new templates for proteinin cells - Vitamin A:Stimulates epithelial repair - Vitamin B:Stimulates tissue repair inthe heartandnervoussystem o Pregnantfemales: Pre-natalvitamins areusually richin vitamin B becausegoodcirculatoryandnervoussystemdevelopmentisnecessary for thebaby - Vitamin C:Connective tissue andbloodvesselrepair - Vitamin D:Bonerepair - Vitamin E: Preventsscarring - Vitamin K:Bloodclotting importance Slide 21:Embryonic Tissue Development  All connective tissueshavethe sameembryonic origin ofthemesenchyme  Fertilized egg  Zygote  Solidball ofcells that eventually becomesahollowball of cells known asablastula  Starts to invigilate via gastrulation to producegastrula - Haveanouter,middle, andinner layer ofcellsat this point in theembryo =3 embryonicgermlayer dueto thepushedin partofthe hollowblastula a) Ectoderm: Outer layer b) Mesoderm:Middle layer c) Endoderm:Inner layer - Epithelial tissues comefromall 3germ lays o Epithelial tissue that lines theinside and outside areproducedbythe middle layer (Mesoderm)to make glandular epithelium o Mucousmembranes  Endoderm(Insideofbody) o Epidermis  Ectoderm - Muscle tissue  Mesoderm;Sameoriginasconnective tissue but doesn’thavea matrix or cellular fibers - Nervoustissue  Ectoderm; Ability to detect things aroundus+givesCNS


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