BIOL 3225 Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide
BIOL 3225 Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide Biol 3225
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Barber on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 3225 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Laurel Beck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Physiology 3225 Dr. Beck Midterm 1 (Topics 1-5) Study Guide Highlight = Key Term Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Diagram Highlight = Question Topic 1 – Overview of Physiology Overview of Physiology -Physiology: -Integrated branch of biological sciences - Level of the Organism - Structure/Function Relationships - Homeostasis and Regulatory Mechanisms -Major Tissue Types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Homeostasis -What is Homeostasis? -Allows for a Relatively Constant Internal Environment 1 -Nearly Every Organ System Participates in Homeostasis - Circulation - Digestion - Nervous System - Musculoskeletal - Urogenital -Example: Blood Glucose -Type I Diabetes Homeostatic Reflexes -Homeostasis is the dynamic process by which living systems can maintain relatively constant internal conditions, regardless of changes in the external environment -Relatively Constant -Dynamic Process -All of the variables have some particular set point -Dynamic Equilibrium -Dynamic Equilibrium is maintained by homeostatic reflexes -Reflex -Reflex Arc 2 Integration Questions to Keep In Mind -What is the variable that is maintained at a relatively constant level in the face of changing conditions? -Where are the receptors that detect changes in the state of this variable? -Where is the integrating center to which these receptors send information and from which information is sent out to the effectors and what is the nature of these afferent and efferent pathways? -What are the effectors and how do they alter their activities so as to maintain the regulated variable near the set point of the system? Regulation of Homeostasis -Homeostatic reflexes use feedback loops to regulate the variable in question 1. 2. -Negative Feedback (-example. Glycolysis) 3 -Positive Feedback -Set Points often change -example: body temperature -clashing demands -Sometimes a set point is more permanently moved by adaptation -example. weight/nutrient reserves -Feedforward Regulation 4 Topic 2 – Cell Physiology and Resting Membrane Potential Cells -What are they? Major Components 1. 2. 3. - Plasma Membrane - Major Functions - - - - - Structure - Lipids - Proteins - Sugars -Lipids -Proteins - Integral - Peripheral - Lipid-Anchoring 5 -Junctions - Anchoring - Tight - Gap -Cytosol -Organelles - Nucleus - Mitochondria - Smooth ER - Cytoskeleton -Extracellular Components (not really part of the cell, but important enough…) -Transport Through the Membrane -Passive Transport - Simple Diffusion -Facilitated Diffusion -Osmosis -Tonicity 6 -Active Transport - Primary (Direct) - Secondary (Indirect) -Role of Gated Channels - Ligand-Gated - Mechanogated - Voltage-Gated Basic Principles of Electricity -Electrical Attraction -Electrical Potential Physics - Voltage (V) - Current (I) - Resistance (R) -Ohm’s Law Resting Membrane Potential -How does a membrane serve as a resistor in biological systems? -Resting Membrane Potential 7 Extracellular and Intracellular Ion Concentrations at Rest -Why do we care about resting membrane potential? -RMP is established by… 1. 2. 3. -What if the membrane is permeable to a particular ion? -Equilibrium Potential 8 -2 Forces -Nernst Equation - Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation -Why will a cell never reach a specific E , then? ion + + -Role of Na /K pump + + Na /K pump *Keep in Mind… 1. 2. 3. 4. 9 Topic 3 – Nervous System: Action Potentials, Graded Potentials, & Synaptic Transmission Nervous System Overview -Major Divisions - Central Nervous System (CNS) - Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) -What is a neuron? -Major Functional Features -3 Functional Classes of Neurons 1. Afferents 2. Efferents 3. Interneurons Structural Features of a Neuron 10 -Importance of the cytoskeleton - Anterograde Transport - Retrograde Transport -Glial Cells - Myelinating Cells - Astrocytes - Microglia Role of Membrane Potentials -Why are potentials important to a neuron? -Electrical Signals Occur Within Excitable Cells as… 1. 2. -Changes to the Membrane Potential - Depolarization - Repolarization - Hyperpolarization -Graded Potentials -Action Potential 11 -Voltage-Gated Ion Channels - Closed - Open - Inactivated Events of the Action Potential -Channel Inactivation and Refractory Periods - Absolute - Relative + -What if there isn’t a large enough depolarization to open the VG Na ? -What if the potential is much larger than threshold? -How does information spread down the length of the axon? 12 -Myelination Glial Cells - Unmyelinated Axons - Myelinated Axons - Nodes of Ranvier How Graded Potentials Are Necessary for Action Potentials Compare and Contrast Graded and Action Potentials 13 Synaptic Transmission -How does information get from one neuron to another? -What’s a synapse? -Electrical Synapse -Gap Junctions -Connexons -Chemical Synapse Chemical Synaptic Transmission 14 -How does information get back into electrical form? - Ionotropic Receptors - Metabotropic Receptors Ionotropic vs. Metabotropic Receptors -Receptors lead to the generation of Electrical Signals - Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) - Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) -What happens when a bunch of EPSPs and/or IPSPs come together? -Summation 15 Topic 4 – Nervous System: Autonomics What is the Autonomic Nervous System? -3 Branches 1. 2. 3. -Sympathetic Branch -Parasympathetic Branch -Dual Innervation -Differences in Structure Between Autonomics and the Somatic Nervous System - Preganglionic - Postganglionic -3 Major Players in Autonomics - Acetylcholine (Ach) - Norepinephrine (NE) - Epinephrine (epi) Sympathetic Nervous System -What does it do? -How does it do that? 16 Anatomy of the Sympathetic Nervous System -4 Options for a Preganglionic Neuron 1. 2. 3. 4. Sympathetic Preganglionic Neuron Options 17 -Acetylcholine - Nicotinic Receptor Family -Norepinephrine - Noradrenergic Receptor Family Role of the Adrenal Gland -What is the Adrenal Gland? - 2 Parts 1. Cortex 2. Medulla -Adrenal Medulla is Stimulated by the Sympathetic Nervous System -Dual Sympathetic Stimulation 1. 2. -However, Some Organs/Tissues Aren’t Directly Innervated by the Sympathetic Nervous System 18 -Hormones in Circulation - NE - epi Parasympathetic Nervous System -What does it do? -How does it do that? Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous System 19 -Role of the Vagus Nerve (CN X) -Acetylcholine - Nicotinic Receptor Family - Muscarinic Receptor Family -Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic System Excitation and Inhibition Types of Organ Control -Sympathetic Nervous System - Mass Control - Discrete Control -Parasympathetic Nervous System - Discrete Control -example. Cardiovascular Reflex Regulation -Reticular Formation -Hypothalamus -Higher Integration Centers 20 Topic 5 – Nervous System: Sensory Physiology Overview -What is a sensory system? -Sensation vs. Perception -What are sensory Receptors? -Modalities -2 Major Types of Sensory Receptor Cells - Specialized Epithelial Cells - Neurons -Activated By Adequate Stimulus -Types of Receptors - Photoreceptors - Chemoreceptors - Mechanoreceptors - Thermoreceptors - Nociceptors 21 Spinal Cord Anatomy Receptor Potentials -What is a Receptor Potential? -Receptor Potentials in Modified Epithelial Cells -Receptor Potentials in Neurons - Unipolar Neurons 22 -What is Sensory Adaptation? -Somatosensory System - Rapidly Adapting - Slowly Adapting Sensory Coding -The CNS makes sense of all the information and processes via sensory coding - Receptive Field -Sensory Coding Relays 3 Basic Qualities 1. 2. 3. Somatosensory System -What is Somatic Sensation? -Includes… -Touch and Pressure -Temperature -Pain -Referred Pain Referred Pain 23 -Opioid Receptors Dorsal Column Ascending Pathway Anterolateral Column Ascending Pathway Somatosensory Cortex -Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex -Merzenich and his monkeys 24
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