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gy 101

gy 101

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Geography
Course: Atmospheric Processes & Patterns
Professor: Eben broadbent
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: GY 101 - Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: Study Guide for key concepts for September 27th Midterm #1
Uploaded: 09/23/2016
5 Pages 12 Views 16 Unlocks
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GY 101 – SEPT 22 MIDTERM 1 REVIEW


What is a insolation?



Insolation – incoming solar radiation

Insulation – inverse of conductivity

∙ ALL jet streams flow west to east (can flow backward for short distance, but net direction is west  to east)

∙ Geography is a framework for understanding:

1. Patterns

2. Relationships

3. Processes

4. Conceptualizing

5. Modeling

6. Visualizing

∙ Geography is defined by method, not subject, and is very generalized

Why Geography?

∙ Linking human and natural systems

∙ Global nature of our society

∙ Understand patterns and processes

∙ View earth holistically

∙ Move toward interdisciplinary approaches to solve problems

Traditions:

∙ Spatial: technological advances, techniques

∙ Regional: NGS, long history, area studies

∙ Human-environment: changes in views

∙ Earth sciences: physical geography


What is the meaning of radiation?



Physical Geography: spatial analysis of patterns and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that  create them (plus linking patterns and processes)

Systems Approach:  

∙ Regional v systematic geography

∙ Focus on the physical environment of specific world regions, and on a specific earth  process/feature

Instrumentation: 

∙ Rain gauge: “bucket that collects the rain”

∙ Mercury Barometer: used to measure atmospheric pressure (mercury rises = storm is leaving ∙ Anemometer: measures how fast the wind is blowing

∙ Sling Psychrometer: measures relative humidity (principle: more moisture, harder it is for water  to evaporate)

Atmosphere: layer of gases around a planet held in place by gravity, modulates surface environment  (radiation/heat flow)

∙ First atmosphere: 4.6 billion years ago, mainly H2 and He


What is a coriolis force?



∙ Second atmosphere: formed by “outgassing”, mainly H2O, CO2, SO2, CO, N2 ∙ Modern: loss of oxygen compounds, increase in O2 If you want to learn more check out dollar votes definition economics

∙ Composition

o Main gases – nitrogen, oxygen, argon, CO2, H2O

o Trace gases – methane, CO, ozone, NO2

o Aerosols

Ideal Gas Law: p = P/RT p = density, P = pressure, R = gas constant, T = absolute temp Ceteris Paribus: “everything else equal”

Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient: P = pgh g = gravity, h = height

∙ Almost all natural systems on Earth derive from energy by the sun, but not all of these systems  receive the same amount of sunlight

Conduction: heat transfer by direct contact

Radiation: energy transmission by means of electrical and magnetic fields

Convection: the vertical heat transfer by the vertical movement of a material

Advection: the horizontal heat transfer by the horizontal movement of a material -Radiation near surface: Don't forget about the age old question of crisis intervention practice test

∙ Reflected (albedo)

o Reradiated as shortwave

∙ Absorbed

o Reradiated as longwave

-Rayleigh scattering gives the atmosphere it’s blue color

∙ Black absorbs all colors

∙ White reflects all colors

-Radiation Balance Equation 

∙ Energy neither created nor destroyed Don't forget about the age old question of braun v soldier of fortune magazine

Q* = (K down – K up) + (L down – L up) NOTE: does not have to be memorized

o Q* is net radiation

o K is shortwave (sun)

o L is longwave (earth)

∙ If Q* does NOT equal zero, warming or cooling must be occurring

-Water vapor is extremely efficient at absorbing radiation (considered single most important  greenhouse gas)

Earth’s Energy Budget: NOTE: Does not have to be memorized, understand concept Incoming solar energy – 100%

o Reflected by atmosphere – 6%

o Reflected by clouds – 20%

o Reflected from earth’s surface – 4%

o Absorbed by atmosphere – 16%

o Absorbed by clouds – 3%

o Absorbed by land and oceans – 51%

▪ Radiated to space from clouds and atmosphere – 64%

▪ Radiated directly to space from earth – 6%

▪ Carried to clouds and atmosphere by latent heat in water vapor – 23%

▪ Conduction and rising air – 7%

(NOTE: AT NIGHT, ALL K DOWN STOPS, THE ONLY RADIATION AT NIGHT IS THE RERADIATION FROM THE  LAND. THIS IS WHY LAND CONTINUOUSLY COOLS OVERNIGHT—This means the coolest time of the day is  right before sunrise)

Thermal properties of Surfaces: NOTE: Numbers/values do not have to be directly memorized

∙ Albedo 

o Snow 75-90%

o Clouds 50-80% We also discuss several other topics like What does the picture tell you about understanding evolutionary biology and understanding the concept of time in evolution?

o Ocean 3-70%

o Dry Sand 35-45%

o Soil 5-35%

o Vegetation 5-35%

∙ Conductivity (W/mk)

o Air: k = 0.025

o Water k = 0.6

o Ice k = 2.0

o Wood k = 0.04-0.4

o Soil k = 1.5

o Rock k = 1.7

o Sand (dry) k = 0.2

o Sand (wet) k = 0.25-2.0

▪ The higher (k) the harder it is to heat up the source (ex. Dry sand is easier to  heat than ice would be)

∙ Specific Heat (J/Gk)

o Air c = 1.0

o Water c = 4.2

o Ice c = 2.1

o Wood c = 2.5

o Soil c = 1.0

o Rock c = 0.8

o Sand (dry) c = 0.8

o Sand (wet) c = 0.8-2.0

▪ (c) = joules

∙ “Mixing” - Degree to which insolation and/or heat is spread vertically

o Water High

o Ice Low

o Soil/sand Low

o Vegetation Medium

Global “Surfaces” 

∙ Water

∙ Sand (relatively high albedo, low specific heat)  

∙ Ice/snow (very high albedo, most radiation reflected, high conductivity, highest specific heat,  most ice: temperatures become relatively stable)  If you want to learn more check out ucins

∙ Vegetation (relatively low albedo, absorbs radiation, intermediate conductivity, moderate  specific heat)  

Thermal Properties of Surfaces: Cause differential heating of the Earth’s surface  

∙ Cause temperature gradients, thus pressure gradients  

o Pressure gradients drive the wind Drive wind systems across a number of scales  Effects of Fluid Density on Flow  

∙ For unconfined air, density changes with temperature (Ideal Gas Law)  

∙ T up, p down  

∙ T down, p up  

∙ Air pressure changes with density  

∙ Temperature has an inverse relationship with density  Don't forget about the age old question of com1000 uf

∙ Air will flow to equalize pressure

o Hot air will rise, cold air will sink (cold air will flow toward location of warmer air,  causing circulation)  

NOTE: When talking about warm and cold, we’re talking about relative differences. Doesn’t necessarily  mean Object A is “warm”, but instead Object A is warm relative to Object B, or vice versa.

Land Breeze: High pressure moves from land to sea (relatively warming the sea)  NOTE: almost always weaker than the sea breeze

Sea Breeze: Low pressure moves from sea to land Pressure gradient ONLY REFERS to horizontal  pressures

The Distribution of Pressure:  

∙ Pressure maps depict isobars, or lines of equal pressure  

∙ Pressure gradients depict the rate of change in pressure, they are apparent on maps by the spacing between the isobars

o Closer: rate of change in pressure is faster  

o Farther: rate of change in pressure is slower

o Winds are driven from H to L  

Coriolis Force – objects in the atmosphere are influenced by Earth’s rotation  

∙ Results in a deflective force that causes two types of motion  

∙ Overall the result is a deflection of moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and  to the left in the southern hemisphere (no effect in equator at all)

∙ Increases with latitude (poleward) – meaning maximum effect at the poles

Adiabatic Heating and Cooling  

∙ Temperature changes with constant energy content  

∙ Rising air expands and cools Falling air compresses and warms  

∙ As air cools, relative humidity increases  

∙ As air warms, relative humidity decreases  

∙ Almost all precipitation is a consequence of air rising somehow  

∙ If relative humidity isn’t 100% you cannot get a cloud to form  

∙ Air should be flowing from 60 to 30 degrees in both hemispheres, however that upper level flow  is missing o Flow dominated/controlled by jet streams  

o Determined after pilots could fly higher without worrying about upper level winds in  specific areas  

∙ Troposphere is thicker at the equator than at the poles (due to warmer air expanding and cooler  air condensing)  

∙ Jet streams form over the boundaries between air masses of different temperature

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