GY 101 - Midterm 1 Study Guide
GY 101 - Midterm 1 Study Guide GY 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah L on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Professor Douglas Sherman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 232 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Proc & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
GY 101 – SEPT 22 MIDTERM 1 REVIEW Insolation – incoming solar radiation Insulation – inverse of conductivity ALL jet streams flow west to east (can flow backward for short distance, but net direction is west to east) Geography is a framework for understanding: 1. Patterns 2. Relationships 3. Processes 4. Conceptualizing 5. Modeling 6. Visualizing Geography is defined by method, not subject, and is very generalized Why Geography? Linking human and natural systems Global nature of our society Understand patterns and processes View earth holistically Move toward interdisciplinary approaches to solve problems Traditions: Spatial: technological advances, techniques Regional: NGS, long history, area studies Human-environment: changes in views Earth sciences: physical geography Physical Geography: spatial analysis of patterns and the physical, chemical, and biological processes that create them (plus linking patterns and processes) Systems Approach: Regional v systematic geography Focus on the physical environment of specific world regions, and on a specific earth process/feature Instrumentation: Rain gauge: “bucket that collects the rain” Mercury Barometer: used to measure atmospheric pressure (mercury rises = storm is leaving Anemometer: measures how fast the wind is blowing Sling Psychrometer: measures relative humidity (principle: more moisture, harder it is for water to evaporate) Atmosphere: layer of gases around a planet held in place by gravity, modulates surface environment (radiation/heat flow) First atmosphere: 4.6 billion years ago, mainly H2 and He Second atmosphere: formed by “outgassing”, mainly H2O, CO2, SO2, CO, N2 Modern: loss of oxygen compounds, increase in O2 Composition o Main gases – nitrogen, oxygen, argon, CO2, H2O o Trace gases – methane, CO, ozone, NO2 o Aerosols Ideal Gas Law: p = P/RT p = density, P = pressure, R = gas constant, T = absolute temp Ceteris Paribus: “everything else equal” Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient: P = pgh g = gravity, h = height Almost all natural systems on Earth derive from energy by the sun, but not all of these systems receive the same amount of sunlight Conduction: heat transfer by direct contact Radiation: energy transmission by means of electrical and magnetic fields Convection: the vertical heat transfer by the vertical movement of amaterial Advection: the horizontal heat transfer by the horizontal movement of a material -Radiation near surface: Reflected (albedo) o Reradiated as shortwave Absorbed o Reradiated as longwave -Rayleigh scattering gives the atmosphere it’s blue color Black absorbs all colors White reflects all colors -Radiation Balance Equation Energy neither created nor destroyed Q* = (K down – K up) + (L down – L up) NOTE: does not have to be memorized o Q* is net radiation o K is shortwave (sun) o L is longwave (earth) If Q* does NOT equal zero, warming or cooling must be occurring -Water vapor is extremely efficient at absorbing radiation (considered single most important greenhouse gas) Earth’s Energy Budget: NOTE: Does not have to be memorized, understand concept Incoming solar energy – 100% o Reflected by atmosphere – 6% o Reflected by clouds – 20% o Reflected from earth’s surface – 4% o Absorbed by atmosphere – 16% o Absorbed by clouds – 3% o Absorbed by land and oceans – 51% Radiated to space from clouds and atmosphere – 64% Radiated directly to space from earth – 6% Carried to clouds and atmosphere by latent heat in water vapor – 23% Conduction and rising air – 7% (NOTE: AT NIGHT, ALL K DOWN STOPS, THE ONLY RADIATION AT NIGHT IS THE RERADIATION FROM THE LAND. THIS IS WHY LAND CONTINUOUSLY COOLS OVERNIGHT—This means the coolest time of the day is right before sunrise) Thermal properties of Surfaces: NOTE: Numbers/values do not have to be directly memorized Albedo o Snow 75-90% o Clouds 50-80% o Ocean 3-70% o Dry Sand 35-45% o Soil 5-35% o Vegetation 5-35% Conductivity (W/mk) o Air: k = 0.025 o Water k = 0.6 o Ice k = 2.0 o Wood k = 0.04-0.4 o Soil k = 1.5 o Rock k = 1.7 o Sand (dry) k = 0.2 o Sand (wet) k = 0.25-2.0 The higher (k) the harder it is to heat up the source (ex. Dry sand is easier to heat than ice would be) Specific Heat (J/Gk) o Air c = 1.0 o Water c = 4.2 o Ice c = 2.1 o Wood c = 2.5 o Soil c = 1.0 o Rock c = 0.8 o Sand (dry) c = 0.8 o Sand (wet) c = 0.8-2.0 (c) = joules “Mixing” - Degree to which insolation and/or heat is spread vertically o Water High o Ice Low o Soil/sand Low o Vegetation Medium Global “Surfaces” Water Sand (relatively high albedo, low specific heat) Ice/snow (very high albedo, most radiation reflected, high conductivity, highest specific heat, most ice: temperatures become relatively stable) Vegetation (relatively low albedo, absorbs radiation, intermediate conductivity, moderate specific heat) Thermal Properties of Surfaces: Cause differential heating of the Earth’s surface Cause temperature gradients, thus pressure gradients o Pressure gradients drive the wind Drive wind systems across a number of scales Effects of Fluid Density on Flow For unconfined air, density changes with temperature (Ideal Gas Law) T up, p down T down, p up Air pressure changes with density Temperature has an inverse relationship with density Air will flow to equalize pressure o Hot air will rise, cold air will sink (cold air will flow toward location of warmer air, causing circulation) NOTE:When talking about warm and cold, we’re talking about relative differences. Doesn’t necessarily mean Object A is “warm”, but instead Object A is warm relative to Object B, or vice versa. Land Breeze: High pressure moves from land to sea (relatively warming the sea) NOTE:almost always weaker than the sea breeze Sea Breeze: Low pressure moves from sea to land Pressure gradient ONLY REFERS to horizontal pressures The Distribution of Pressure: Pressure maps depict isobars, or lines of equal pressure Pressure gradients depict the rate of change in pressure, they are apparent on maps by the spacing between the isobars o Closer: rate of change in pressure is faster o Farther: rate of change in pressure is slower o Winds are driven from H to L Coriolis Force – objects in the atmosphere are influenced by Earth’s rotation Results in a deflective force that causes two types of motion Overall the result is a deflection of moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere (no effect in equator at all) Increases with latitude (poleward) – meaning maximum effect at the poles Adiabatic Heating and Cooling Temperature changes with constant energy content Rising air expands and cools Falling air compresses and warms As air cools, relative humidity increases As air warms, relative humidity decreases Almost all precipitation is a consequence of air rising somehow If relative humidity isn’t 100% you cannot get a cloud to form Air should be flowing from 60 to 30 degrees in both hemispheres, however that upper level flow is missing o Flow dominated/controlled by jet streams o Determined after pilots could fly higher without worrying about upper level winds in specific areas Troposphere is thicker at the equator than at the poles (due to warmer air expanding and cooler air condensing) Jet streams form over the boundaries between air masses of different temperature
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