Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Psyc 1101 a
Popular in INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Loos on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 a at Georgia Southern University taught by Dr. Steirn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia Southern University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
CHAPTER 4: SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT Prenatal Conception Embryonic l a t e F Birth Puberty Aging *Nature favors the production of females over males; this is why anthropologists see more harems or 1 man with multiple wives instead of the other way around Physical Development Mom Dad XX XY XX-Girl XY-Boy Basically the sex of the child is determined by the FATHER Soon after conception the child either has XY or XX What happens when it is XY Protein HYAndrogen- produced ONLY in boys 1st step in sexual differentiation is what causes a boy to start developing takes undifferentiated reproductive organs and tells it to start developing testes After testes develop they take over and createsAndrogens Androgens are a class of hormones typically called male sex hormones Primordial Gonads-primitive sex organsAKAundifferentiated sex organs *Sex hormones actually affect the brain and not just the sex organs Female Male ovaries testes clitoris penis womb ———— *Male infants CAN lactate for the first few days after birth PUBERTY FEMALES MALES Pubic Hair Increase in Testosterone Pubic Hair Axillary Hair (Arm Pit Axillary Hair Hair) External Genitals External Genitals Maturation Maturation Large release of Large release of Estradiols (Estrogen) Androgens (Testosterone) Menstrual Cyle and Voice Deepens Ovulation Begins Hips Widen Muscle Development Breasts Develop Continue to growAFTER Attain FINAL height OLDER FEMALE MALE (Follicular Stimulating Hormone AKA FSalways)srone levels drop (possibly it does not the egg to get tossed once a month ABNORMALITIES Androgen Sensitive Female- more sensitive to androgens;overly developed clitoris MAY look similar to a penis at first at birth; if too enlarged corrective surgery is possible; MAY have trouble getting pregnant Androgen Insensitive Male- when testes produce testosterone, the fetus does to recognize; body will develop as female; testes are inside and underdeveloped; child will be a girl and develop like a girl through puberty normally; tend to be really “girly-girl” and “super nurturers”; NO axillary or pubic hair or menstrual cycle; STERILE; tend to live a female life CHAPTER 5: SENSATIONAND PERCEPTION -how everything from how the energy gets in (sensation) and how the energy is perceived (perception) The process of energy coming in and impenging on a nerve cell is called “Transduction” the light comes in through the pupil hits the retina then touches the optical nerves Arm and Light Touching is an excellent example Organs are specialized for Transduction vestibular system, eyes, ears, several in skin, taste-tongue, roof & side of mouth, nose Taste is eventually lost due to the reduction of taste receptors Touch is far more complex than skin is pressure, heat, light touching, pain ventral is more sensitive than dorsal different receptors for hot and cold Extreme cold can be interpreted as heat and extreme heat can be interpreted as cold also both receptors are stimulated at the same time it is interpreted as intensely hot Who the hypothalamus is cooled or heated it will cause a temperature response shivering, decreasing surface area, rubbing hands sweating, increasing surface area BODY POSITION movement of the body and where everything is located Basically touch sensors on the muscles, bones, and connective tissues proprioception-perception of self drunk, unconscious, paralysis, leg falls asleep THRESHOLD-Limen point of stimulation that can be perceived half the time subliminal-below threshold supraminial- above threshold whenALL visual information taken away it is called “GANZFELD” cause issues for orientation Cell Exhaustion-what happens when eyes stare at one spot until it disappears CHAPTER 6: LEARNING Pavlovioan/Respondent/Classical Conditioning Pavlov was a physiologists working in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), Russia, studying the early digestive process, interested in how saliva works in digestion, worked with dogs, during Russian Revolution and WWI Pavlov’s Lab was actually a no fight zone due to the fact that both sides RESPECTED him so much Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus (Neutral Stimulus becomes Conditioned Stimulus) Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response Acquisition- the process of learning Extinction-way to get rid of or reduce the Conditioned Response Generalization- when a stimulus is similar to another stimuli Discrimination- treating different stimuli differently from each other Operant/Instrumental Conditioning researched in the early 1900s by Ed Thorndike who studied domesticate cats Thorndike’s 2 Laws 1. Positive Law of Effect- in a specific context behavior followed by a satisfying event then behavior in that context will get stronger 2. Negative Law of Effect- in a specific context if a behavior followed by an annoying event then the behavior in that context gets weaker People realized that satisfying/annoying event could go two other ways taking away something adverse can make the behavior Stimulus Present Remove Positive Negative STRONGER Behavior Reinforcement Reinforcement Positive Negative WEAKER Punishment Punishment *Negative just mean taking away SD R SR S=STIMULUS D=DISCRIMINATE R=RESPONSE R=REINFORCER
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