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UTEP / Biology / BIOL 2313 / What is the production pathway for white blood cells?

What is the production pathway for white blood cells?

What is the production pathway for white blood cells?



What is the function of erythrocytes?



Blood - special type of connective tissue 6552 )

Plasma -55% of whole blood

- wast dense component

pff arkacine Buffy coat -uukaustes & platelets more viscus

. 47 of whole blood

than 120 Erythrocytes -45% of whole blood

What is the function of blood in human beings?

- Most dense component. *Functions of Blood

- transport of respiratory gases oxygen

iungs heart body

CO2 body heart lungs. -transport of waste material

wasie material nitrogenous waste

body kidneys. - transport of hormones & Regulatory functions

maintanance of biody timp. blood absorbs heat

What happens to blood in a centrifuge?

lose to skin

storing heat. is Hidden in visceral organs maintanance of pH." - buffers prevent changes in ptt. maintanance of finid (biodd) voiceme. We also discuss several other topics like Why is it important to analyze and calculate profit and loss?

proteins are water-loving attract

water * Protection

1. Protection against infection leukocytes 2. formation of a blood clot proteins in plasma

protection from loss of blood.


Plasma ground Sunbsizina If you want to learn more check out When does slavery demolish?

"nd matrix

Centrifugation of blood

Withdraw bloods place in tube 2.untrifuge the blood cell Plasma

- Water: 90% vovime - Piasma provins:87. (synthesized in liver- biood)

- Albumin most abundant

maintains Fluid volume carrier protein

binding to other chem. messenger. - Giobulins; We also discuss several other topics like What are fats?

alpha, beta: plasma prouins transport/carrier gamma. not produced by liver. Antibodies

produces by plasma cuis.nautivation of

Buils Fibrinogen-a550 Unted with biod clothing

converted fibrous proteins forming fibron mesh. Formed tlements

bali war auments C

WBC -compie te incomplete cells. Red blood cells - no organelles.

Thromboutes-allular fragments of huge wii. y Short life-span

avg-life RBC-120 days. thrombocytes - 10-15 daijs. (unless involved in bioed Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of physiological stress response?

do not divide to form new alls. usually organet originate from stem

calls formed in bone marrow hemocytoblast





RBC- Diconcave all > Looses nucleus becomes concave.

complementary of structure s most funtion.

1. biconcavity

97% hemoglobin and ODIL

small size

spectrin-protein mechanisms

no organeiles capable of changing

no nucleus

its shape allows RBC i. any point cose to Surface a to change shape. 2.987 hemoglobin Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of fertilization in sexual reproduction?

isqueeze to small blood is) ; 3. no organus.


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07291 Week 2 Hemoglobin-prozein-globin

laupm chains 4 polypeptide chains 2 beta chains Heme pigment center of each popeptide We also discuss several other topics like What happens when nacl is dissolved in water?

by pigment group.contains most imp. a element for transport of oxygen.

Oxygen binds to the iron atom. Hemoglobin can bind to a maximum of 4 oxygen

molecules. Because there is 4 ivon atoms. Binding

s Oxymoglobin - Oxygen binds

- more likely i Deoxy hemoglobin-Oxygen wnwaded to bind to con

CO2 cah bind to


nemoglobin-binds to amino auds of hemoglobin Carboninohemoglobin

(not iron atom). Production of Erythrocytes

Basophilic Erythroldast - Farly Erythroblast Polychromatic Erythroblast - late Erythroblast

Orthocroromatic Erithroblast - Normal Red bone marrow-takes place in

reversible) Oxymog


Production Of RBC. w Hematopoitie Stemcell Myeloid stem all Yu photo excepts


committed cell-signified by surface receptors an prembranel Proerythina blast)

Early Erythroblast - Basophilic Erythrocyte Winbosomes-synthesis protein

late Erythrodiast - Porychromatic Whennoglobin accumulation

Normalblast - orthochromatic-Shows you to change in

s breakdown of organelles a ejection je nuclear degeneration Cell assumes biconcave shape "Reticulocyte-does not have organelles but has

small networks af rubosomes ► digesting of networks Erythrocyte leaves bone marrow by enzymes after

Negative feedback mechanisms 1 Stimulus Hypoxia; low or

Decreased RBC count Decreased amount of hemoglobin

Decreased availability of Oz-high altitude (2 Kidney & uver

o release hormone- enythropoietin

is proerythroblast B! Erythropoietin stimulates Red bone marrow 11 Enhanced erythropoisis



ind vessels

Life of RBC Spleen- graveyard of RBC

Old RBC's loose

flexibility & get enquiped by macrophages Recycling mechanisms

120 days after broken down into original components in macrophages - Protein: globin amino auds> back

to the circulation

ferritin Heme pigment >ron Stored in protein-stored in liver oy Spleen transport protein binds to iron facilitate back to bone marrow I transferin back to arvation heme - digested in macrophage through

Billirunin attach to cation to liver into the intestine converted to

protection against infection WBCcomplete cus I capable of performing -contain organelles functions in circulation &

tissues. Exit of circulation - ne WBUS more in direction of - drapedesis cytoplasmic affected area. Attracted

extensions; anu bort motion by chemicals due to tissue damage.

WBC Types Granuiocytes: Atta mimbrane-bond sackleke Structures

Agranuwaytes: lack visible astoplasmic gnanelles on

Never let monkeys tat Bananas ime Neutrophies Lymphocytes Monocytes tosinophils Basophils


•Sphencal shapes

Mericbrane ipond Salkuke Structures

• Nucleus segmented many lopes connected by extremely nuclear strands to

Study SO

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granulosa small



Granulocytes disease due

se tue Neutrophils (50-70%)

*qranules absorb

2oth aude to bactena a range of 3-6 lobes for nucleus. Be

basil portions of cytoplasmic granules Clarge

hence unentro" 8/31

Plarge granule-lysosomes-digestive enzymes Pantimicrobial Brot agent - Sonali granule

phagorytes engulp Agents

Proteins as

• Respiratory burst - neutrophils

purce hores in

bartenal agent. converting Oxygen to oxidation agents ED sinophil (2-470)

• Nucleus-bilobed (2 lokes) ocytoplasmic granules-absorb acidic portion of

Stain (eosun) o call that are assouated W. parasitic infections o Releases digestive enzymes when in contact of

Parasite Basophil

a muitriobed nucleus -sos maped

• Oranules-dark clor; absorb basic portion

of the stain" baso contain histomine

• Expresses receptor on its membrane

binging (IGE) EX. Alergic reaction, asthma

Histomine symptoms of allergy granules not Visiate undert Agranulocytes ught microscope sw

Small lympholyte

• huge nucleus, not muitilobed Myeloid - RBC Yantigen

foreign to body

• B & I lymphocyte <types-originate lymphad stem #antibodies:

B lymphocyte: stay in Red Bone Marrow proteins antibodies bind

T uymphocyte: Red Bone Bargow Thymus glanda to antigen

*B lymphonyte + antigen 7 activate ? poutcrated daugther memory B & plasmacells



stem cell as

from same

all blood cells









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granulocyte Factors: yoony

o hormone luke


tot lymphocyte once mature capable of encountering

antibodies Oja Monocyte Hak onucleus Woks like a horseshoe om

Anot nuut lobed IT TO ME two very imp. protecting against viral infections

la inside blood uruiatron; capable of leaving úrculation o once leaves circulation Macrophage I changes

7stur-chaped, citoplasmic extensions, I leaves

→ capable captaining antigens in 725sues arcu engulfings digestion of antigens s presenting

so peptide fragments to T lymphocytes

Tactivation of internal enzymes can Production pathway of WBC

* Colony Whemical Myeloid stem cell: WBC granulytes V committed cellimyeloblast

Promylocyte synthesis & accumulation of chemicals V appearance-dark uke structures appearance of granuiles

chemicals surrounded by membraness Bad cell: Red Bone Marrow circulation=completion of

nuclear segmentation Monocyte - Production of granulocyte

Monoblast v promocytes

Formed elements:

cular elements Monocujte Platelets P


oytoplasmic) characteristic: incomplete ceu; cunar fragment of a huge cell Megakarjocyte. - Platelet contains 2 major region outer-tighter

inner-parker. imp. chemicals.7 calcium 472, Serotonin, actin, miyesin

#interucant glycoprotein



) stue

of platelets.

9/7 Patelets

Lo variety of chemicals:Arp, serotonin, actin, myesin endothelium inner linning of blood vessels.

short life span : 10-15 days lumess involved in brood clothing

Production pathway of platelets Thrombopoutin: trematopoectic stem cell Megakaryouste - Stage 1 hormoni assoc. w the actuation myeloid stem cell

6= Mega Kanyoblast Ncommitted cell megakanyobliste promegakanjoajte-Stage W/112

promeganyocyte (stage Il/in megakaryocyte) Megakaryocyte (Stage IV Megakanyocyte)

b> nucleus is getting larger Locompartilharmonia e pasur membrane

La formation Of cytoplasmic extensions →Sinusolió capilaresa

Vplatelets Tissue damage:


1). Vascular spasmo vasoconstriction due to contraction of smooth

decreasing preventing blood 1085-stons down blood flow. 2). Platelet plug Formations to close area of Hissue dariage.

badherence of platelets to colagen fibers - Eformation of bridge

Platelets go through release reaction @Platelets will enkrgee change Shape Become sticky schem., serotonin, thromboxin

releasing ADP spromoting more vasocanstruction ddregating agent Platelets coming through vessel will adhere to 1st set..

? will go taróugh release reaction.ppositive feedback 3). Coagulation-formation of blood dot.

blood clothing factors: activation of plasma proteins circulating in inactive form

cuts in blood

decrease in










blood clotting factors activation of AAASMA proteins

numbering of factors according to sequence of being found Extrinsic pathway

both leading to formation

of factor X

Activation Lintristic pathway: outside body. Prothrombin activator

-End phase a PE3-portion of

aitwation of intermediates exposure to negatively

charged surfaus membranes

- membranes of a'ctwa tedes HASTE Intrisc Pathway: blood Gothing Factors Borderase platelets.

glass material g within blood @triggered by E) charged surfaces actware de platelets

Jactivated outside body. lower than extrinsic pathway inside body ( Extrinsic Pathway: factor usually outside blood

frigger. Tissue factor in tissue surrounding vessel tissue outside endothilum, wall of vessel. shorter Than intrish.

Phase 2 clot Retraction

Prothrombin > Prothrombin senzyme Platelets have actins

converting thrombin) myesin >contract

bol (Plasma reino Phase 3 soluble-n soluble

(bundled) protein contraction have calaum They can contract-final trigger

=formation of Gsqueezing serum out of clot oplasmă minus clotting factors * Platelet derived growth Factor

- part of repair process Fibroblasts: fiber forming alls -activated to rebuild congen fibers vconnecture tissue

bconnective tissue. Vasular Endothilial Growth Factor Vendothelial cells mitosis

Endothelium (gestion-fibrin mesh) Digest Blood clot->fibrinolysis

EPA → Plasminogenl plasma protun) > Plasmin Lenzymes (Endothelial )

within clot


Fibrin molecules

Å brous



foran mesh



Week 4 9112


blood suping

i th


Blood Groups

antigen-foreign to body markers-guycoprotein (membrane of RBC) RBC antigens, agglutinogen

Leto body considered as foreign clumping of RBC foraign to body w

caused by antiboches A or B aggutirnogen spresence or abscensed

A type - presence of A antigen B type- presence of B antigen AB type- presence of AB antigens. otype - absence of ABB antigens

Antibodies found in Plasma A type Bantibody B type- A antibody

* в туре. - norte lotype- A&B antibodies

Theompatible Blood Transfusion Recipient

Donor Type A

Type B

A Aglon RBC) anti-Blplasma)

> takes time

0- Universal donor in th no antigens AB- Universal reapient - both antigens, no antibodies on Rh blood grouping the dood nuwbar

Presence or absence (+ or -)



. antibodies Immune system activated to produce antigens to attack rn foreign to body, transfusion reaction' [if done it times] Rh- receives Rnt → transfusion reaction no matter age. Homeostatic imbalance to Pregnant female Rh

1st birth

perfectly Lobaby Rht

fine placental detachment:some blood; baby's blood could go to mom

Gher immune will be activated antibodies against in factor If not treated or diagnosed affect 2nd Rnt baby

antibodies in mom's system could kill baby/

cause brain damage. > Rogam -anti Rihanti body < treatedent for mom before Lavoid anti Rn antibodies

pregnancy or before

sometimes Right after aTalking antibodies than baby. - birth of 1st baby.

Lcontinuosly inject mother] - limited time period.

Stue Sour


a) Study

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