HDFS 334 Exam 1 Study Guide
HDFS 334 Exam 1 Study Guide HDFS 334
Popular in Parenting Across the Lifespan
Popular in Human Dev&Family Studies
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Tufford on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 334 at Colorado State University taught by Jaime Marie Rotner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Parenting Across the Lifespan in Human Dev&Family Studies at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Exam #1 Please use the following as a guide to what you should focus on for your exam. You will be expected to understand all the information that was discussed around each topic in class and from your textbook and readings. You may not be asked questions on all topic areas but you should be prepared as though you would Chapter 1-Defining Family and Historical Perspectives Definitions of family (USCB and JofMFT) U.S. Census Bureau: two or more people living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Very narrow definition, leaves out a lot of people Journal of Marriage and Family: a relationship by blood, marriage, or affection, which members may cooperate economically, may care for children, and may their identity to be intimately connected to the larger group. Includes family of orientation (blood relatives) and family of procreation (marriage, children) What is the function of families? Regulate sexual behavior Reproducing and socializing children Property and inheritance Economic cooperation Social placement, status, and roles Care, warmth, protection, and intimacy Microlevel perspective Focuses on individual interactions in specific settings Macrolevel perspective Focuses on the interconnectedness of marriage, families, and intimate relationships in relation to the rest of society Examples: Culture, history, power inequality, economy, political system, religion, and social status History of Family Life in in US 1. Colonial society (17 century): o Families were the center of economic production, education (educated their own children), and religion (families prayed together) o Very close family unit o Slave trade was well underway o Opposite effects on black families: broke families apart, but these families displayed a lot of resilience 2. 19 and 20 century: o Industrialization o Shift of working from home to out in society o Child labor laws were created o Urbanization o Result of industrialization o More people moving into cities o Immigration o Huge amount of immigration during this time! Companionate family emerged after technological advances, world wars, and the depression More focus on personal happiness, intimacy with partners (choosing them out of love), dating, sexual attractions Families Today Increase of women in the workforce Shift in gender roles More women in higher education Increased social inequality Recession impacts on lower classes Potential negative impacts on families with increased work hours Minimum wage doesn’t support families Both men and women are postponing marriage Family sizes are shrinking Divorce rates have declined Social construction of childhood What was Aries’ view of childhood? Childhood didn’t exist 7 years old = adult Adult centered No individualism as children No protection of children Religion Christianity view the child and the role of the parent in regards Child was born with natural sin Parents role was to discipline and steer away from a life of sin How did the following early philosophers view children and the role of parenting? Early Psychologists? Start of child study Early influences are important Babies are a “blank slate” (not born any certain way) – no original sin Believed that children are good and have innate talents Prefer reason over punishment and rewards – valued communication “Hardening” for survival – parents being harsh on children with physical punishments and unattainable expectations to make them “stronger” th 20 Century Physicians? Dr. Ben Spock and Lutheran Hult Focus on daily care, milestones, and stopping bad habits Studies found the important of breastfeeding Nutrition and building the motherchild bond Shift of focus from discipline to enjoying parenting Theoretical Perspectives Conflict Theory o Emphasizes issues surrounding social inequality, power, conflict and social change Macrolevel analysis (big picture) Distribution of power and wealth Developmental Theory o Families go through stages of development Traditionally thought: the stages are inevitable Recent research: have seen some unpredictability due to varying family dynamics like not having children or delaying having children o Uses both macro and microlevels of analysis Family Systems Theory o The family system and the roles played are larger than the sum of individual members Coparenting: a more egalitarian view on parental roles regarding raising children Triangulation: example – a couples’ conflict that entangles a 3 person (most often a child) Evolutionary Psychology o What factors that promote survival of infants according to this theory? Charles Darwin – concept of natural selection Parenting as promoting survival of an infant and their genes As a parent, understanding what crying and facial features mean Degree of parental investment Attachment Theory: Bowlby o What are the four attachment behaviors? o Proximity maintenance: child stays in visual contact with parent or visually “checks in” with them frequently o Safe haven: child feels like parent/home is a safe place to be o Secure base: child feels secure being around parent/ feel secure that they will come back even if they leave o Separation distress: Strong indicator of child’s type of attachment Mary’ Ainsworth o Be able to describe the Strange Situation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU o Be able to define the attachment classifications in regards to the responses in the Strange Situation Secure: Child is upset when parent left the room; parent typically quickly tended to upset child; both reached an equilibrium Anxiousresistant: Child is distressed when parent leaves the room; avoided parent when they returned. Researchers finding that they are experiencing the same level of distress as other attachment behaviors, but tend not to express these emotions Anxiousavoidant: Child is distressed; responsive to parent when they return/try to comfort them, but show some frustration towards them Disorganizeddisoriented Mary Main: Inconsistent responses when put in these situations o Usually extreme responses (on either end of the spectrum) o What are the parenting qualities associated with each attachment style? Be able to make connection between parent qualities and child’s behaviors in the Strange Situation. Bowlby: Internal Working Model o What is the Internal Working Model of Self? Cognitive framework including mental representations for understanding yourself Effected by how others view you/society influences/personal experiences/etc. o What is the Internal Working Model of Others? Cognitive framework including mental representations of others o How do Internal Working Models change? Influences from culture, society, and experiences shape our internal working models and cause them to be susceptible to change Social Class and Culture Social class and SES o Socioeconomic Statues (SES): based off income, education and vocational opportunities How does social class affect our family and close relationships? o Health and life expectancy Lower SES > poorer health and shorter life expectancy o Gender expectations More egalitarian (equal) roles in middle and upper classes o Values children are socialized with Conformity/obedience: lower SES Independence/creativity: upper SES o Higher education Opportunity more common in upper classes o Dating and sexual expectations o Age of marriage Higher SES – don’t ever marry or marry older Lower SES – marry younger and higher divorce rates What are the patterns of social mobility? o Little upward mobility from lower classes due to social norms, privileges, and constraints What are general consequences to poverty? o Impacts on family More stress and disorganization on family unit Lower quality home environment Fewer resources on learning Family Stress Model (Conger): o Impacts on children Impacted socially, physically, and emotionally Low social competence School failure due to fewer resources (grade retention, drop out, unemployment) Poorer health Behavior problems Depression/low selfconfidence Experiencing discrimination Affluence and Parenting (Luther & Latendresse, 2005) o What problems are presents? o What are the reasons? o Why are these problems despite the resources they may have? How does child rearing differ among the following groups according to the slides? AfricanAmerican parenting (Smetana – 2011) o Mostly middle class o Mothers and grandmothers Highly valued Head of households A lot of single mothers Respect for elders o Value family ties and attachment Encourage independence Education very highly valued Self esteem is important o Infant mortality highest with this group o Child centered socialization o Internalized racism and oppression o Common saying on parenting: “love your sons, raise your daughters” LatinoAmerican parenting (Grau – 2009) o Two parent system Mothers take on traditional role of child care o Strong focus on extended family Help with care for children Families live together – example: three generations in one household Impacts on development are different o Not high in discipline Parents show rules through actions and modeling o Respect for elders and education highly valued AsianAmerican parenting (Russell – 2010) o Living conditions: typically, above average o Mother/father roles: both husband and wife have financial responsibilities Equal duties between parents o Authoritarian parenting styles Low warmth Children never sleep with parents, even as young infants Parents expect children to be independent, but are very controlling o Family, academic achievement, respect for elders and independence are highly valued Collectivistic views Know at least three child rearing customs and practices and three child rearing values and goals for each culture. Use your work in class with your group as well as the readings for this. Parenting Programs Current Family Strengthening Approaches Kumpfer & Alvarado (2002) • Protective family factors for improvement: • Parentchild relationships • Positive discipline methods • Monitoring and supervision • Communication of prosocial and healthy family values • Parental support to be able to support their children to develop goals, dreams and life purpose Effective Family Focused Approaches • Behavioral Parent Training • Includes parents only • Small group lead by a skilled trainer • 615 sessions on child management strategies • Cognitive affective (emotional), and behavioral • 45 hours is most effective with high risk families • Most clients show clinically effective improvements • Family Skills Training • Similar to behavioral parent training, but includes children/family dynamic • Children’s social skills and life skills training • Family practice questions • Observations and scaffolding (parents learn from observation, direct practice with immediate feedback from trainer, and child reinforcement) • Family Therapy • Very individualized approach • Most effective with higher risk families • 1216 sessions by mental health professionals • EX: Fast Track Program http://fasttrackproject.org/ Determinants of Parenting Stress impacts parenting o Stem from financial situations/work pressures/etc. o More stressors > additive effect on parenting o Stressed parents are less nurturing, supportive, patient, and involved Lead to irritability, being negative, being withdrawn Social support o What is the difference between emotional and instrumental support? Emotional support: example – asking how someone is, listening Instrumental support: physical favors such as running errands for them o How does social support impact parenting positively? Parents have more outlets to receive advice, more people to reach out to when they need a break/childcare How do prior experiences of parents impact parenting style? o Internal working model in relation to attachment o Parenting Styles tend to reflect the parenting styles they grew up with – passed down How do social cognitions impact parenting? o What is the difference between Temperament vs. Personality? Temperament Personality Biologically determined; highly heritable Shaped by social environment Infants and children Adolescents and adults Relatively stable Less stable until adult (30 years) “Disposition we’re born with that influences how“Temperamental dimensions are integrated with we respond to the world” intellectual interests, habits, and other experiences acquire distinctive personalities” What is goodness of fit? o Parents match their demands or expectations with what their child is able to do in regards to temperament, age, and abilities/development Markham What is mindfulness according to Markham? o Recognizing emotions and letting them pass without acting on them What are here suggestions on breaking the cycle? o Parenting consciously (“pausing”) Knowing developmental stages Being conscious of self and of the context/environment/situation o Understand how emotions work o Hit the “rest button” Understanding, choosing words/reactions, changing responses positively Destressing o Get support o “Take 5” Change your thoughts Listen to your anger (why are you angry?) Wait to discipline until you are calm According to lecture how can you manage anger and frustration? o Making sure to take care of yourself; listening and understanding your own feelings and needs, knowing how you can destress yourself and doing those things According to lecture what are ways parents can nurture themselves? o Choosing to take some “time off” from parenting Walking away from a stressful situation (if possible) o Utilizing your individualized destressing methods Drinking tea, taking a bath, taking a nap Transition to Parenthood Voluntarily childless or Childfree statistics o Pronatalism: societal pressures encouraging couples/women to have children o Childless (infertile) vs. childfree (as a choice) o Motivators/reasons for being childfree More time with partner/for self Financial freedom More time focused on career Dislike the idea of children Infertility Reasons for delayed childbearing o Reasons: Increasing age of marriage More women in careers nd Rise of 2 or more marriages Focusing on other personal goals Infertility o Benefits: Typically, more social support later in life Career stability o Risks: Infertility due to waiting too long (menopause or lower sperm count) Disorders What are the pros and cons of parenthood? Pros Cons Being a guide/pride that comes along with being aFinancial strains parent and passing on genes Increasing relationship intimacy (reaching new Less time and freedom levels with your partner) Love and affection to/from child – satisfaction aLearning curve when tying to figure out how to be joy a parent Added life meaning and fulfillment Worry, fear, stress (psychological strain and mental health) Why is the transition so challenging? o A lot of added responsibility o Role changes Parental role New couple/self roles o Loss of freedom o Sleep deprivation o Most parents have little to no experience with childcare o Marital relationship and satisfaction may decline Depends on initial satisfaction levels Parent Roles and Marital Relationships o Cowan & Cowan (1992) (research focuses on heterosexual parents) Stressful time of role negotiations Gender roles become more traditional when couples have children Even if couple egalitarian roles were normal before Increased risk of resentment and depression Involved fathers are very beneficial Marital satisfaction increases Children higher competence Marital gatekeeping: mom is overbearing in childcare and doesn’t let father get involved much. Can be very critical towards father when he tries to get involved o Kluwer (2010) (research focuses on heterosexual couples) Research focused on martial satisfaction before and after having children Half of couples see a decline in satisfaction The other half stay the same or improve their satisfaction What helps adjustment? o Depends on child’s temperament and parents’ expectations of parenthood o Spousal and social support o Marital adjustment and communication skills o Father involvement o Work demands If maternity and paternity leave is available o Leisure time together o Whether pregnancy was planned or not
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