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chapter 6 study guide

by: rachel kelliher

chapter 6 study guide 1004

rachel kelliher
Virginia Tech

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the study guide for chapter 6: development
Introduction to Psychology
Benjamin DeVore
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by rachel kelliher on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/16
[CHAPTER 6: DEVLOPMENT]  Life stages o With change in age, changes in physical, intellectual and social factors occur o Age stages/ period  Infancy: motor development and attachment to caregiver  Childhood, 2-12: increase in logical development+ mot development+ abstract thinking, and peer influence is a think  Adolescence: thinking+ reasoning is more adult like, ID search occurs  Adulthood, 20-65: love+ committed relationship & career stability= goals, decrease in physical abilities  Old age, 65+: reflection on life and work, decrease in physical health and preparation for death  Development overview o Fields of psych  Developmental: looks at life span development  Looks at age difference between groups  Wants to see if later life events can be predicted by earlier events : are earlier events causal events  Child: looks on childhood of human children  Wants to describe behavior of kids  Looks at change in age of children and impact on behavior  Development pysch research methods  Cross sectional study: observing and testing and comparing different age groups o Age differences- people in different age groups are studied o Problems with design: cohort effect- different people have different backgrounds  Longitudinal study: looking at the same group of children and testing them over and over as they age- repeat same test just at different ages o Same subjects are studied- just at different ages o Problems with design: cost, reactivity effects, attrition, outdated technology, choice of measurements, cohort effect  Third design= cross sequential study o Possible solution for cohort effect- look at variable of interest as they existed in a defined population at a set period of time o Two meta theories in regards to development  Empiricists: nurture= critical to development  John lock= key: “Mind= wax tablet”  You are a sum of your total experiences/ product of your environment  Focus is on life experiences- development= smooth, con’t process  Rationalist: nature= key  Descartes and Kant  Human mind has innate ideas at birth  Focus= on maturation- development= abrupt changes in biological stages  Individual makes their environment o Development= interaction between maturation and experience: bio= maturation and experience= learning o Developmental psychologists:  Sigmond Fraud: trained from the bio model- stage theory  His stages= oral anal, phallic, latent, genital  Order of development= set- does not change  Linked maturation to early experience  Structural model: o ID= what you are born with- born with animal instincts and need for immediate gratification o Superego: who we are/ who we develop into o Ego: efficient pleasure seeking- balance between ID and superego  Piaget- stage model  Thought that parents can accelerate rate of child’s development  BIG IDEA= egocentrism  Developmental goal= ability to see things from another POV, abstract thoughts and hypothesis out comes: occurs through assimilation and accommodation o Critical periods: window of time that certain things have to occur during  Examples: German measles during pregnancy-> deformities o Environment enrichment and deprivation  Classic research  Orphans: struggle with motor development and have lower IQ b/c of unloving environment  Monkeys reared in diffused light- able to bounce back  BASICALLY RESEARCH HAS SHOWN: environment enrichment can help reverse the changes AND the early deprivation occurs the bigger the impact  Environment must allow children/ infants to practice and test out different skills during critical periods or else skills will fail to develop  Increasingly complex interactions with the environment helps children learn that behavior is connected to events going on around them  Prenatal development o 2 factors influence development;  Genetic combo of egg+ sperm  Environment of womb: one of the X chromosomes in women is silenced during development- can still be passed onto child tho- silenced due to denaturing of its proteins o Stages of development st  Zygotic stage: 1 2 weeks  Embryonic stage: 2-8 weeks) rapid development and able to react to stimuli, teratogens= really dangerous at this stage, sexual development starts (W=XX and M=XY)  Fetal stage: 8-end) final stage o Threats to development  Mother’s diet, teratogens (drugs, smoking, alcohol, some antibiotics and environmental factors)  Childhood o Physical and perceptual development  Newborns are not passive- they quickly develop skills and behaviors that shape their interactions with their caregivers  Motor development  Follows distinct pattern dictated by nervous system and maturation of muscles  At birth the most important motor skills= automatic movements- rooting, swallowing and sucking  Development requires practice and maturation of muscles: certain skills wont be achieved until certain age  Perceptual  Early on infants can ID smells (contributes to mother baby bond) and can ID mother’s voice( prefer her voice) o Theory: preference for mother comes from frequency of hearing her voice in the womb  The ? is; does perception exist on birth? o Form perception: visual perception develops and becomes more advanced with time  1-2 months: cannot perceive whole shapes  3 months: clear pattern recognition  4-5 months: able to ID different faces o Distance perception: ability to perceive 3D shapes comes at early stage  Proved by Gibson and Walk  Critical and sensitive periods of perceptual development: shows that development consists of interaction between physical maturation and environmental stimuli  Critical period: time period that certain experiences must occur if infant is to develop normally- RELEY ON THESE EXPERINCES  Sensitive period: abilities that have weaker degree on dependence on experience- do not have to occur at a certain time period: ie second language o Cognitive development  Process that babies get to known things about themselves and the world  A responsive environment= huge  Key step= learning that behavior impacts events going on in the environment and that their behavior has tangible effects o Watson and Rasmeny showed importance of behavioral development and responsive environment with the mobile experiment  Learning how to interact with others and learning elements of personal and social functioning= HUGE IN ADULTHOOD  Brain NEEDS normal stimulation during childhood  A sequence of distinct and ordered stages exists; if they are disrupted then development can be delayed  Info processing models  Piaget: no memory before 6 months  Rover- Coluter: memory and retention span increase over 2-18 months  Case: Cognitive development= child becoming more effective using memory (short term) and other cognitive process o Central conceptual structures= network of schemas- allow children to ID relations between objects and events represented by schemas  Changes in cog. Development increase in complexity with time  Theory of mind: expectations and beliefs about HOW experiences should occur effects mental states o Social development  Attachment= close relationship important for infant’s social development  Social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver: involves warm feelings and comfort- shared by both parties  Studies have shown that it is natural for many species  Certain variables and cultural elements have strong influence on attachment development  Babies do things that shape and control the behavior of caregivers  Nature and quality of attachment effects how infants deal with o Stranger and separation anxiety o Strange situation= test of attachment: discovered 4 patterns  Secure: ideal pattern- distinct preference for caregiver  Resistant: tension in relationship; mother is impatient- baby has avoidance behaviors  Avoidant: baby does not mind being able- reacts to stranger and caregiver in the same way- mothers= insensitive to needs of child  Disoriented: lowest quality: infants react to caregiver in a confused way  Experiment: Harry Harow- looked at love o Thought mother love was the critical ingredient to parenting BUT discovered that Contact comfort was key  Contact comfort= mother love  Approaches to child rearing  Lack of love/ contact comfort= HUGE: NEED LOVE  4 approaches o Authoritarian: set rules that must be followed- strictly enforced and punished if not followed  Kids are unhappy and distrustful o Permissive: few rules, little influence on the child’s behavior o Authoritative: rules are enforced BUT they are explained and allows expectations  Kids= independent and self-controlled o Indifferent: lack of intrest in child’s behavior to the point of possible neglect o Gender roles  Physical and social aspects to development  Gender ID) persons private sense of being male or female  Gender role) cultural expectations for how Men and Women should think and act- closely related to gender stereotypes  Many people base their gender role and ID based off of social stereotypes  By age 3 kids have grasp of stereotypes and start associating attitudes, actions and behaviors with a gender  Gender differences come from cultural and the different rates that males and females develop at- biological and cultural factors  Bio= differences in hormones and brain structures and roles in evolution  Cultural= socialization and influence of parents and peers o Moral development:  Moral behavior= behavior that follows a generally accepted set of rules  Piaget’s stages 1. Moral realism: egocentrism and blind adherence to rules- evaluate events in how they will be impacted 2. Morality of cooperation: rules= flexible and can change with mutual consent- able to ID effects behavior/ rules will have one others  Adolescence o No official end to this stage of life- thin line between young adulthood and Adolescence – differs by culture , and rate of physical development o Sexual maturation= factor: girls develop quicker then boys  Primary sex characteristics= production of egg and sperm  Secondary sex characteristics= change in appearance due to hormones o Hormones impact behavior and self consciousness o During this period in life, responsibility increases and relationships with peers+ parents’ changes  Search for identity  When it comes to forming an identity there are 2 theories o Erikson- encounter conflicts in social relationships and the ways they are resolved determines nature of ID development  8 stages 1. Trust vs mistrust 2. Automny vs self doubt 3. Intative vs guilt 4. Competence vs inferiority 5. Identify v role confusion 6. Intimacy vs isolation 7. Gerativity vs stagnation 8. Integrity v despair o Marcia: need 2 components for developing an ID and the different combinations of these 2 components-> identity  The 2 components- crisis and commitment (decision you make based on your goal) o Cognitive development: analytic processing and experimental processing  Jean Piaget o Viewed development as a maturational process  Studied his own children and discovered that they have distinctive behaviors and make mistakes- both based on age  Behavior and mistakes= same amongst all kids  Too progress onto the next stage you need to complete the first stage and develop certain skills o Theories:  CAUTION: isolation/ deprivation= aversive  Children will seek level of stimulation that meets their needs- appropriate to their level of development  Schemas= mental reps/ frameworks that are used to understand and deal with environment  Infants develop them by interacting with environment- 2 abilities help them adapt 1. Assimilation: new info is incorporated into existing schemas 2. Accommodation: existing schemas are changed by new experiences:  At certain points assimilation and accommodation fail to adjust- divide cognitive development into 4 stages 1. Sensormimotor pd) 0-2: the orderly progression of increasing complex cognitive development a. Cognition are linked to external stimuli& grasp of object permanence- realizing that objects do not cease to exist when they disappear from sight 2. Preopertinoal pd) 2-7: ability to logically and symbolically think & rapid development of the abilities of lang & begin to classify and categorize objects a. Egocentrism= HUGE AND LACK idea of conservation b. USE OF LANGAUGE 3. Period of concrete operations) 7-11) develop idea of conservation principle & increase in ability to empathize feelings and attitudes of others & understand complex relationships a. End marks the transition from childhood to adolescences 4. Period of formal operations) 11+: capable of abstract reasoning & able to think about abstract objects and hypothetical events& learn that difference behaviors lead to different consequences  HIS THEORIES HAD HUGE IMPACT ON DEVLOPMENT PYSCH EVEN THOUGH IT WAS NOT EXPERIMENTALY  Socialcultural theory o Russian: Vygotsky  Agreed with Piaget- experience with physical world impacts cognitive development o Suggestion that culture has role in cognitive development- cultural context and interaction with people around them influences the ideas that children develop about the world around them o Speech impacts development Proposal: skills and problems solving abilities a child shows indicates level of development- actual d


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