New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide For Midterm #1

by: Priscilla Lopez

Study Guide For Midterm #1 Zool 110 (44727)

Priscilla Lopez
GPA 3.68

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

I have covered the major Points that the professor had told us about.
Zoology 110
Dr. Eve Robinson
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Zoology 110

Popular in zoology

This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Priscilla Lopez on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Zool 110 (44727) at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Eve Robinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Zoology 110 in zoology at Humboldt State University.


Reviews for Study Guide For Midterm #1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/16
      Zoology Midterm Study Guide     Animal & Science Groups of Life Zoology:​ The scientific study of Prokaryotic (No Nucleus) animals. ➔ Bacteria Science:​ An organization body ➔ Archaea knowledge about the natural world. Eukaryotes (with Nucleus) ➔ Protists (Single-celled) ➔ Plants Gustav Kramer’s Experiment ➔ Fungi ➔ Animals Birds use the sun as a navigational cue ➔ Using mirrors, kramer altered the apparent position of the sun. Diversity of Animals The birds shifted their migratory 1.5 million species named to date. Approximately 35 phyla of animals, direction by the same angle. Birds compensate for the sun’s each with a distinct body apparent motion. ➔ Caged starlings alter the Life is O Chem & Chem   direction of their attempted Living organisms are made of Carbon C) migratory movement with respect to the artificial sun, as if chains with other molecules. Other elements included: Hydrogen H), assuming that the ‘sun’ is moving Oxygen O), and Nitrogen N). What is in a Animal Carbohydrates Nuclei:​ in cells (Eukaryotes) Consists of ​C,H,O Many cells:​ (Multicellular) + have 3 Types: development Eat Other Things:​ (Heterotrophic) ➔ Monosaccharides ➔ Disaccharides Move ➔ Polysaccharides Other: Heart, complex organs *​Starch Kingdom Animalia *​Cellulose *​Glycogen Cladograms & Monophyletic Groups *​Chitin Cladogram:​ is a diagram used in cladistic which shows relations among Lipids organisms. Consists of ​C,H,O Monophyletic Group:​ All descend from Insoluble in water (oil and water) 3 Classes: a single common ancestor.         *​Neutral fats (Triglycerides) Receive information and pass into cell *​Steroids ​ *​Phospholipids + ​Receptors  Amino Acids & Proteins Consists of ​C,H,O,N Cell Structure - 20 or so distinct amino acids in Nucleus: c​ ontains genes = animals chromosomes containing DNA bound to - AA hook together ​(peptide bonds)​ to histone proteins. form long chain ​(polypeptides) - Surrounded by a double membrane - These combine & fold to make proteins - DNA transcribed into messenger RNA (one or more polypeptides chains) - Cytoplasm: Cytosol Proteins variety of functions: Cytoskeletion *​Structural Protein: Collagen, Keratin Organelles: *​Contractile Protein: Actin & Myosin * Mitochondria *​Enzymes: Act as catalysts to regulate * Ribosomes all metabolic reactions. * Endoplasmic Reticulum -Lactase * Golgi apparatus Nucleic Acids Diffusion Long polymers of nucleotides The random movement of molecules Two types of Nucleic Acids: from an area of higher concentration ➔ DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) of those molecules to an area of lower ➔ RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) concentration. DNA:​ Carries genetic information RNA:​ Allows that info to be translated Osmosis into protein. Osmosis:​ Diffusion of water ➔ Isotonic Solution​ = ​Same Plasma Membrane concentration as cytoplasm. Phospholipid Bilayer-​ ​primary ➔ Hypertonic Solution​ = ​More concentration. component of the cell membrane, 2 layers of phospholipids. polar head ➔ Hypotonic Solution​ = ​Less (phosphate head) allows head to concentration interact with h2o. non-polar (lipid tails) hate water. Mediated Transport   Gated Channels ➔ Chemically gated Plasma Membrane Proteins Control movement of substances in and ➔ Voltage gated out of cell Facilitated Transport *No metabolic energy ​+ ​Ion channels +​ Permeases *In direction of concentration gradient +​ Transporters *Many Substance cannot get through Attach cell to surroundings the cell membrane. ​+ ​To other cells (junctional complexes) *Permeases help by forming pores that ​+ ​To extracellular matrix (integrins) let specific molecules through.         Active Transport + Against concentration gradient + Requires energy (Form of ATP) Endocytosis & Exocytosis Endocytosis:​ The taking in of matter by Translation a living cell by invagination of it mRNA goes to cytoplasm to a ribosome. membrane to form a vacuole. mRNA nucleotide sequence is used to Exocytosis:​ A process by which the code for amino acid sequence of a contents of a cell vacuole are released polypeptide (protein). to the exterior through fusion of the the 3 nucleotides form a codon coding for 1 vacuole membrane with the cell amino acid. membrane. Transfer RNAs (tRNA) bring amino acids to ribosome. Genes & Protein Synthesis DNA holds all genetic information Central Dogma Genetic information is in sequence of →​ DNA ​ RNA ​→​Protein nucleotide bases Transcription → ​Translation + Four different bases: A - adenine Energy Metabolism G - guanine 99.9% of energy for life comes from T - thymine C - cytosine sun. Trapped by plants as chemical bond DNA is a double helix, with two strands energy in carbonhydrates by process of of nucleotides held together by photosynthesis: complementary base pairing: *6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy > C6H12O6 A with T +6O2 G with C Released by animals for their use by eating plants or other animals, burning DNA Replication carbohydrates DNA replication occurs by unzipping *C6H12O6 +6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O +Energy helix. Energy can be released anaerobically Each strand serves as template for (without oxygen) or aerobically synthesis of new complementary Energy released is used to make ATP strand.   from ADP + Pi ATP is used to supply energy for cell Transcription processes: ATP > ADP +Pi + Energy Protein synthesis begins with transcription. Copying of DNA information to RNA.    Levels of Organization Atom → Molecule or Compound → This RNA is called messenger Organelle → Cell → Tissue → Organ → RNA(mRNA). Organ System → Organism.              Tissue Types Glial cells (Neuroglia) 1. Epithelial Tissues 2. Connective Tissues 3. Muscle Tissues 4. Nervous Tissues Epithelial Tissues Number of Layers: Cell Division 2 Parts to cell division: ● Simple ● Stratified 1. Nuclear division (Mitosis) Shape of cells: 2. Cytokinesis: ​  ​usually associated ● Squamous with telophase    ● Cuboidal Stages of Mitosis: 1. Interphase ● Columnar     2. Prophase Connective Tissue     3. Metaphase Cells widely spaced surround by: 4. Anaphase Extracellular Matrix 5. Telophase   Ground Substance Fibers Interphase   Loose (Areolar) CT DNA Replication Cells =​ ibroblasts Phases: Many fibers G1: Prepare for Replication Collagen protein S: Replication occurs Elastin protein G2: Prepare for Mitosis Dense CT Cartilage Cells = ​Chondrocytes Prophase Sit in ​lacunae *Chromosomes condense Matrix is solid *Spindle begins to form Bone -Microtubules Cells = ​Osteocytes -Centrosomes Matrix is ​mineralized Blood Cells = ​RBCs & WBCs Metaphase Sister chromatids lined up a metaphase Matrix = ​Plasma      plate. Muscle Tissues    3 Types: Anaphase * Cardiac Muscles * Smooth Muscles Sister Chromatids separate. * Skeletal Muscles Cells becomes elongated. Nervous Tissues Telophase 2 Cell types: 2 cells (2N) Neurons Chromosomes loosen         Nuclear membrane forms + Have half the number of chromosomes of somatic or body cells (2N or diploid) Fertilization unities sperm & egg to form a zygote. Meiosis Reproduction   Meiosis:​ Special form of cell division that produces gametes Asexual -​ Budding, Fragmentation, Two phases: Parthenogenesis. ➔ No Specialized reproductive Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2 organs ➔ Less genetic variability Sexual Sex & Meiosis ➔ Find a mate Meiosis 1 (Reduction division) ➔ Homologous Chromosomes pair ➔ Competition * Many Invertebrates use both! (synapsis) ➔ Crossing over occurs, exchange of genetic material Gametogenesis ➔ Homologous chromosomes The process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes. separate (2N to 1N) Meiosis 2 ➔ Just like mitosis, but with half the Spermatogenesis T​he process in which spermatozoa are chromosomes ➔ Sister chromatids separate produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis. Why Sex? What is the advantage of sexual Oogenesis reproduction? The formation of gametes in the Creates Genetic Diversity ovaries, oogenesis is regulated by FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone. ➔ Independent assortment of chromosomes ➔ Crossing over between Reproductive Systems homologous chromosomes. External v.s. Internal Fertilization   Oviparity More Sex & Meiosis (; Egg-birth Viviparous Sexual reproduction occurs in most animals. Live birth Sexes can be separate, or animals can Ovoviviparous be hermaphrodites (male & female). Both Involves gametes (Sperm & eggs)   Sex Determination         Chromosomal sex determination: Preformation:​ ​is a formerly-popular ➔ Mammals: XX = Females, theory that organisms develop from XY = Male miniature versions of themselves. Temperature - dependent sex determination Epigenesis​: ​the theory, now generally ➔ Reptiles (turtles, lizards, held, that an embryo develops alligators) progressively from an undifferentiated   egg cell. Mammalian Reproductive System   Contains two main divisions: Fertilization ➔ The vagina and uterus, which act Acrosome releases digestive enzymes as the receptacle for the sperm, Membrane fuse and the ovaries, which produce Nuclei fuse the female's ova. All of these 1N + 1N = 2N parts are always internal. Blocks to polyspermy: Fast / Slow Development   From fertilization of egg to adult Cleavage Gamete Formation → Fertilization → Rapid cell division that follows Cleavage → Gastrulation → fertilization Organogenesis → Growth • No growth involved The Organism is the life cycle! • Cells that form are called​ blastomeres (blast = bud, sprout, mere = part) Distinctions animal‐vegetal axis: Indirect v.s. Direct Development ➔ animal pole = top of egg Indirect:​ ​ the fertilized egg divides ● less yolky many times to produce a hollow ciliated ➔ vegetal pole = bottom of egg ball of cells (blastula); cleavage is total, ● more yolky indeterminate, and radical. The blastula cleavage pattern depends on: invaginates at one end to form a ➔ how much yolk is present primitive gut, and the cells continue to ➔ group of animals divide to form a double-layered embryo isolecithal egg​ - Sea Star, Mouse called the gastrula. holoblastic cleavage – divides completely Direct:​ The newborn is born or mesolecithal egg​ - Frog emerges from its egg as a miniature holoblastic cleavage version of the adult. It looks like the adults of its species, and it also feeds telolecithal egg​ - Worm, Chick like an adult of its species. Mainly discoidal meroblastic cleavage occurs in fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals.   Blastulation Preformation v.s. Epigenesis Opening up of cavity within the developing embryo.         Cavity = ​Blastocoal ➔ Coelom forms by outpocketing Stage = ​Blastula = Enterocoelous   Mosaic Embryos Examples: ➔ Polar lobe in snails ➔ Blastomere with polar cytoplasm becomes mesoderm ➔ Shows cytoplasmic determinants Gastrulation Formation of a gut tube determine fate   Opening is blastopore Regulative Embryos Gut cavity is ​archenteron​ (​gastrocoe​l) Now have two germ layers Cell interactions determine fate Outer - ​Ectoderm​ (outside skin) Influence of one tissue on fate of another is​ induction​. Inner - ​Endoderm​ (inside skin) Gut tube can break through to other side, forming a complete gut (mouth to Anamniotes or Amniotes Fishes & amphibians = Anamniotes anus) A third germ layer forms between the Reptiles, bird, mammals = Amniotes other two Protoplasmic Grade of Organization The ​ esoderm​ (middle skin) A cavity opens up in the mesoderm ➔ Unicellular groups are the The coelom or body cavity simplest eukaryotic organisms ➔ Perform all basic functions of life   Protostome V.s Deuterostome within the confines of a single Development cell ➔ Protoplasm contains organelles Protostome = ​mouth first, ANUS with specialized functions (E.g., second ➔ Spiral cleavage Paramecium)   ➔ Mosaic embryo ​Ex. Mollusc ➔ Blastopore becomes mouth, Cellular Grade of Organization   and the anus forms * Form metazoans—multicellular organisms ➔ Coelom forms by splitting = * Greater structural complexity by Schizocoelous Deuterostome = ​ANUS first, mouth combining cells into larger aggregates second * Cells are specialized parts of the whole organism but cannot live alone ➔ Radial Cleavage ➔ Regulative embryo​ (Sea Urchin) * Cells demonstrate division of labor ➔ Blastopore becomes anus ,then and perform specialized tasks (E.g., Volvox) the mouth           Cell-Tissue Grade of Organization Bilateral Symmetry * Cells group together into tissue - Organism divided along a sagittal * Patterns or layers to perform a plane into two mirror portions forming common function; coordinated right and left halves * Most cells can still be scattered all - Much better fitted for directional around the body (forward)movement * Jellies - Nerve net for coordinated - ​Cephalization​ ‐ differentiation of a swimming head region, concentration of nervous   tissues and sense organs -Mouth to allow for more efficient feeding and detection of prey Tissue - Organ Grade of Organization Body Symmetry • Aggregated tissues assembled into organs • Anterior‐ head end • Posterior‐ tail end • Organs can be composed of more than • Dorsal‐ back side one kind of tissue and have specialized Functions (Ex. flatworms) • Ventral‐ bottom or belly side • Medial‐ midline of body • Have eye spots, proboscis, • Lateral‐ right and left sides reproductive   • Distal‐ parts farther from the middle of body Organ - System Grade of Organization • Proximal‐ parts are nearer the middle • Several organs work together to of body perform a common function for the • Frontal plane (coronal plane)‐ divides survival of the animal body into dorsal and ventral halves • Considered the highest level of • Sagittal plane‐ divides body to right organization and associated with most and left complex animal phyla • Transverse plane (cross section)‐ (E.g., annelids, echinoderms, chordates) divides body into anterior and posterior   halves Body Symmetry Symmetry is balance of proportions and Body Cavities the correspondence of size and shape of Body cavity parts on opposite sides of a median ➔ Internal space plane ➔ Gut cavity and fluid‐filled body Types of Animal Symmetry coelom ➔ Spherical: ball shaped ➔ Cushions and protects internal ➔ Radial: tube‐ or vase‐like organs ➔ Bilateral: right and left sides         ➔ Mesodermal pouch formation Enterocoelomate during gastrulation In Deuterostomes ➔ Mesoderm formed by cells from Types of body cavities the central gut lining ➔ Acoelomate: no body cavity ➔ Pouch wall forms mesodermal ➔ Pseudocoelomate: partial body ring and pouches enclose ‐ the cavity coelom cavity ➔ Bounded by mesoderm ➔ Coelomate: true body cavity ➔ Forms two body cavities‐ gut and Schizocoelomate coelom ➔ Mesodermal mesenteries Mesoderm cells fill blastocoel suspend organs in the Coelom Form a true coelom - Completely lined by mesoderm Radial Cleavage Two body cavities are formed - gut and Blastopore becomes the ​anus coelom. and new opening becomes the m ​ outh​. Coelom formation is by ​enterocoely​. Cleavage is​ regulative​ = Deuterostomes Acoelomate Spiral Cleavage (E.g., sponges) Blastopore becomes the m ​ outh. ➔ After blastula formation, cells Acoelomate, pseudocoelomate,or reorganize to form adult body coelomate formed by ​schizocoely. and do not form gastrula Cleavage is ​mosaic​ = Protostomes ➔ No gut cavity (E.g., flatworms) Gut Design ➔ Mesoderm fills blastocoel ➔ Gut cavity only body cavity Few diploblasts and triploblasts form blind or incomplete gut cavity ➔ Parenchyma​ ‐ transport and ➔ Same opening for entrance of disposal of wastes   food and exit of wastes Most common animal groups form a Pseudocoelomate complete gut False body cavity ➔ Allows for one‐way flow of food ➔ Invagination of surface cells from mouth to anus form the archenteron ➔ Tube‐within‐a‐tube design is ➔ Embryo now has two cavities‐ gut and blastocoel adaptive to the various types of ➔ Mesoderm lines one side of food blastocoel ● Inside gut is lined by Segmentation endoderm ● Outer layer of cells is “Metamerism” ectoderm * Repetition of similar body segments along longitudinal axis of body ● Middle area lined with mesoderm * Each segment is a metamere or somite         * Contains internal and external • pellicle structures of several vital organ Epidermis systems •epithelium * Permits greater body mobility and Cuticle • non‐cellular, dead covering complexity of structure and function layer • proteins and/or chitin Extracellular Components Body fluids Platyhelminthes ➔ Intracellular space‐ within body Syncytial tegument cells Resistant to immune responses. ➔ Extracellular space‐ outside of   body cells like blood plasma and interstitial fluids Molluscs Extracellular structural elements • Soft epidermis ➔ Connective tissues – cartilage, • Mucous glands • Secrete calcium carbonate shell cuticle, bone ➔ Mechanical stability and • Cephalopods protection • Cuticle includes iridocytes   Integument (Skin) Cephalopods Outer covering: • Iridocyte membranes have lots of *Hair *Setae *Scales tightly packed folds *Feathers *Horns • Creates extracellular channels Interface of animal with surroundings • Contain reflecting Proteins Functions: Protection Arthropods • Barrier Arthropods (and Nematodes)part of • Fluid loss/gain Ecdysozoa. • UV Have well‐developed cuticle that must Regulatory be molted to grow. • Thermoregulation Firm exoskeleton, jointed appendages • Sensation Epidermis. • Respiration Cuticle • Excretion • Procuticle – protein and chitin • Absorption • Epicuticle – proteins and lipids • Secretion One of the toughest animal materials • Communication Cuticle may be (Soft and flexible) • Hiding (Crypsis) Hardened • Warning (Aposematic • ​Calcification​ ‐calcium Coloration) carbonate • ​Sclerotization​ – cross linkages Invertebrate Integument of proteins Unicellular eukaryotes Molting necessary to grow         Mitosis at epidermal cells • Deflect tears to the side of the Enzymes secreted nail New cuticle formed ➔ Structural anisotropy Hardened • Concave shape • Makes nails harder to bend Vertebrate Integument upward Two Layers:   Epidermis (epithelium) Hair - Epidermal Derivatives Dermis (CT) • Consists of dead keratinized cells • Grow from root at base of hair Fish Skin • Function to insulate, also for sensation Epidermis thin. • Follicle (epiderm pit) Bony scales developed in dermis. Tetrapod Skin Epidermis thick, stratified squamous epithelium. Surface of epidermis ​cornified​ or keratinized (​ protein Keratin) Epidermal Derivatives Many epidermal derivatives of keratin: Glands - Epidermal Derivatives ➔ reptile, bird and mammal scales Infoldings of epidermis Sweat glands ➔ claws, beaks, and nails ➔ horns of cows and sheep, etc. ➔ Secrete watery, salty sweat onto (antlers are different) surface of skin ➔ Cools you down by evaporation, ➔ Feathers ➔ Hair also helps excrete salt ➔ Glands Sebaceous glands ➔ Secrete oily sebum into hair Fingernail Composite of long protein fibers follicles and then onto skin (keratin) embedded in a protein matrix ➔ Aids in water retention, keeps hairs happy and healthy Nails need to be able to • Resist upward bending forces ➔ Pimples are due to clogged • Prevent damage to nail bed follicles, which then fill with sebum and WBCs Keratin fibers can be aligned in one direction • Easier to propagate tears in one Skin Color Two types of color: direction Anisotropy Structural color ➔ Material anisotropy Pigments - Pigment cells are called • Transversely oriented keratin fibers chromatophores.         - Melanin is a dark pigment, cells Bone & Cartilage called ​melanocytes Bone -Humans vulnerable to UV radiation -Matrix -More melanin protects from UV CaPO4 -Less melanin, need for vitamin D Collagen production -Cells -Tanning can increase melanin Osteocytes • Oxidizes existing melanin Bone   Color Change Highly vascular Bone Due to change in chromatophores Dynamic tissue • Fish melanophores – Osteoclasts – reabsorb • Squid chromatophores – Osteoblasts – bone‐building   cells Strength ‐ structural organization   Allometry Changing proportions with changing size Skeleton Functions: Support *Against pull of muscles Modes of Movement Amoeboid *Against gravity Protection ➔ engulf chemicals via *From predation pseudopodia Cilia & Flagella *From Injury ➔ Cilia:​ ​Cilia are slender Hydrostatic protuberances that project from the much larger cell body. * Fluid-filled compartment (e.g.cnidarians, nematodes, annelids) ➔ Flagella: ​A flagellum is a * Subdivision of the coelom ‐ individual lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of segments operate independently certain prokaryotic and * Facilitates localized action * Movement more complex and eukaryotic cells. variable Muscular ➔ uses cells specialized for * Rigid -Exoskeleton contraction = muscle fibers -Endoskeleton ➔ depends on interaction of two proteins, actin and myosin   Vertebrate Endoskeleton         Types of Vertebrate Muscle Tissue   Sliding Filament Model of Contraction Skeletal Sliding Filament Model: Actin and ➔ Contracts powerfully, quickly Myosin filaments slide past each other ➔ Fatigues rapidly ➔ “Voluntary muscle” Structure of Filaments   ◆ Stimulated by motor Myosin heads on thick (Myosin) neurons Filament Cardiac Tropomyosin, Troponin on Thin (Actin) ➔ Fast acting Filament. ➔ Involuntary control   Smooth ➔ Slow acting Mechanism of Contraction • Myosin heads form cross bridges ➔ Prolonged contractions, little • Bind active sites on actin filaments energy • Flip toward center of sarcomere ➔ Involuntary and unconscious • Requires energy in form of ATP (hydrolyzed to ADP + Pi​)  Organization of Muscular Systems   Basic Principle:​ muscles can only Excitation (Nerve - Muscle)   actively shorten (contract) • Nerve impulse (action potential) ➢ Something else must lengthen travels to neuromuscular junction them ➢ Therefore organized into • Release of neurotransmitter antagonistic systems of muscles (acetylcholine) • Binds to receptors,opens gated channels in membrane   • Get excitation of muscle cell Levels of Organization of Muscle membrane (sarcolemma) Organ Excitation (Muscle - Contraction) Tissue • Excitation of muscle cell membrane Cell travels into cell along T‐tubules Muscle • Causes release of stored calcium from Muscle Tissue sarcoplasmic reticulum Muscle fascicles • Calcium binds to troponin, causes Muscle fiber tropomyosin to uncover active sites Myofibril   Filaments Muscle Energy Supply & Fiber Types The Sacomere Energy supply Muscle fiber Aerobic Respiration: Myofibril – Glucose + O2 CO2 + H2O + Filaments energy (ATP) Thick (Myosin) Anaerobic Respiration Thin (Actin) – Glucose Lactic Acid + energy (ATP)         – Oxygen debt accumulates Remove nutrients Extra Energy Stores in Muscle Mucus to trap particles – Glycogen – Creatine Phosphate Bulk Feeders Fiber Types Carnivores – Slow Oxidative: 1 (Red) - Predators locate, capture, hold, and – Fast Glycolytic: 2A (White) swallow prey – Fast Oxidative: 2B (Red) - Some swallow food whole   - Beaks or teeth to bite and hold - Some employ toxins Bivalve Muscle Fibers - Invertebrates shred or tear Two types: Smooth muscles - Mammals have true mastication + chewing or crushing food • Sustain long‐lasting contraction Herbivores for hours or days - Mechanisms to break down tough • Slow adductors use very little cellulose energy, require very little neural   stimulation to remain contracted Fluids Striated muscles Of Animals • Fast‐acting muscle fibers close ➢ Parasites valves during swimming ➢ Internal – absorb nutrients • Can contract rapidly ➢ External – bite, pierce, feed on   blood or body fluid Elastic Energy Storage & Movement ➢ Vectors of disease Tendons and cuticle can store elastic Of Plants energy. ➢ Nectar (E.g., butterflies, hummingbirds) Food Plants - Herbivores Route thru Digestion   Animals - Carnivores Ingestion of foods ​→ ​ digestion Both - Omnivores Foods reduced by digestion: ➔ Absorbed and distributed to the Suspension Feeders tissues of the body Plankton ➔ Assimilated into the structure of Organic debris cells Active vs Passive ➔ Oxidized to yield energy and Feeding Strategy found in many heat habitats ➔ Stored for future use Use cirri, tentacles, gills, baleen to trap • Metabolic wastes are excreted particles • Undigested material is egested as feces   Deposit Feeders Digestion   Extract organic material from substrate * Mechanical and chemical breakdown         * Lipids → fatty acids (and other small -Catch food lipids) -Mechanically break down food * Carbohydrates → glucose (and other Often a muscular tongue monosaccharides) -Catch food * proteins → amino acids -Manipulate food   -Sensory organ Salivary glands Intracellular vs. Extracellular Intracellular: Protists and sponges -Salivary amylase Choanocytes and Flagellum Pharynx Extracellular: Everybody else -Gills here in fishes Involves: -Terrestrial vertebrates must Alimentary system push food down to esophagus ‐ Absorption (​swallowing) Distribution   Assimilation Conduction & Storage Anabolism Esophagus Storage (Crop in birds) Catabolism   Grinding & Early Digestion Movement of Food in Gut Stomach Segmentation:​ ​muscular movement ➔ Muscular churning ➔ In → cardiac sphincter that occurs in the small intestine.  Peristalsis:​​ s a series of wave-like ➔ Out → pyloric sphincter muscle contractions that moves food to ➔ Secretes enzymes Gastric juices start chemical different processing stations in the digestive tract breakdown: ◆ Gastric acid (HCl) ◆ pepsin (a protease)   Regionalization of Gut ◆ mucin to protect lining Functional regions of complete gut: Stomach 1. Reception Ruminants (cows, sheep) are f ​ oregut 2. Conduction and storage fermenters 3. Grinding and early digestion Cellulase from bacteria 4. Terminal digestion and Anaerobic conditions absorption Terminal Digestion & Absorption 5. Water absorption and Small intestine (duodenum is first part) concentration of solids Terminal digestion: Enzymes   Absorption: Length or Coiling Reception thru Villi or microvilli Oral or buccal cavity 2 accessory glands empty here: Usually jaws Liver Usually teeth -Bile         -Bile salts -Pancreatic amylase: starch → -Bile pigments disaccharide Pancreas -Nucleases: DNA, RNA → -Pancreatic juice nucleotides -Sodium bicarbonate   -Trypsin (a protease) Cont. 3: Breakdown of Food -Pancreatic lipase Membrane enzymes -Pancreatic amylase -Aminopeptidase: small proteins -Nucleases → amino acids -Maltase: maltose → glucose Terminal Digestion & Absorption -Sucrase: sucrose → fructose + In mammals, the small intestine has glucose three sections: -Lactase: lactose → galactose + -Duodenum – secretions from glucose liver and pancreas -Alkaline phosphatase:phosphate - Jejunum – produces various compounds digestive enzymes -Nucleotidases, nucleosidases: - Ileum – absorbs nutrien​ts  nucleotides →   ribose,deoxyribose sugars and Breakdown of Food into Molecules 1 purines, pyrimidines Saliva   Salivary amylase: Different Guts *starch → sugars No Guts Gastric juices Intracellular digestion only Gastric acid (HCl): (Sponges) Pepsin (a protease): Incomplete Guts Mucin: - Single opening *proteins → smaller proteins to protect - Gastrovascular cavity lining - Combination of intracellular &   extracellular digestion   Cont. 2: Breakdown of Food Bile Complete Gut Bile salts: emulsifies fats, Two Openings increases surface area for Alimentary canal enzymes to act Sequential processing of food Pancreatic juices -Sodium bicarbonate: neutralizes Specialized Gut stomach acid Hydrothermal Vent Communities -Trypsin (a protease): proteins → Lack gut, mouth, anus smaller proteins - Larvae have transient digestive -Pancreatic lipase:fats → fatty system acids + glycerol Absorb nutrients in seawater         Host chemoautotrophs Thiamine (B1) - Korsakoff syndrome - Use organic compounds from   bacteria Gastrointestinal Diseases   Celiac Disease Absorption of nutrients Crohn’s Disease Movement of nutrients into epithelial Ulcerative colitis cells Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Cross cell membrane - Depends on permeability, Water & Osmotic Regulation concentration on either side, Animal bodies are mostly water whether energy is required. ● All Metabolic activities happen in - Fatty acids and glycerol → water Diffuse into lymphatic system ● Threat of desiccation (terrestrial (Simple diffusion) animals) - Simple sugars, amino acids: ● Lose water through evaporation, Diffuse into blood (facilitated diffusion) excretion of urine, and With concentration gradient → elimination of feces facilitated diffusion Maintain internal solute concentration Against concentration gradient → active ● Selectively permeable cell transport membrane Nutrients ● Cell volume rises and falls * ​Carbohydrates – ​ fuel for energy depending on environment *​ Fats​ store fuel for energy   *​ Proteins​ – synthesis of   species‐specific proteins,nitrogenous   compounds   * ​Water​ – universal solvent   * ​Mineral salts​ – anions, cations of   body fluids, structural components   * ​Vitamins ​– not synthesized; necessary   for specific cellular functions   Vitamins Osmoregulation Must be obtained from diet Salt and water balance B complex - B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 Isosmotic:​ animals at the same C solute concentration as A,D,E,K (vertebrates) surroundings Hyposmotic:​ animals at lower Deficiencies concentration Iodine - in U.S.A., iodization of table salt Hyperosmotic:​ animals at high Folic acid - Prenatal vitamins concentration Calcium   Potassium         Invertebrate excretory systems Terrestrial Animals Water loss a big problem Arthropods Gain by ● Antennal (Green) Drinking ● Gland of Eating crustaceans Free water ● Malpighian tubules Metabolic water of insects and Lose through spiders Evaporation   Excretion of wastes Excretory System - Vertebrates Conserve by Excretory system and reproductive Concentrated urine system from mesoderm Behavorial strategies Vertebrate Kidney   ● Make of kidney(renal) tubules ● Basically metanephridia Nitrogenous Waste ● But connection to coelom Product of protein breakdown generally lost 3 possible forms to excrete: ● Fluid is filtered from blood into Ammonia glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule - Urea this is glomerular filtration Uric acid Glomerular Filtration Excretory System ● Hydrostatic pressure Generally regulates water and salt (ion) ● Blood plasma but no cells or balance proteins Invertebrate excretory system ● Filtrate Nephridia ● Bowman’s capsule + glomerulus Protonephridia (e.g. Flatworms = renal corpuscle and Rotifers)   ● Closed system ● Flame cells ● Water, Metabolites reabsorbed ● Ammonia diffused out Excretory System - Vertebrates Excretory System - Annelids Control of urine concentration in Invertebrate excretory systems Nephridia mammals: ● High concentration of salts & Metanephridia (e.g. earthworms) urea in medulla of kidney ● Open system ● Nephrostome ● ADH (antidiuretic hormone) controls permeability of ● Blood Vessels assist collecting duct to water in reabsorption ● Nephridiopore ● Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion    Excretory System - Arthropods Excretory System         Tubular reabsorption - Due to insufficient insulin, glucose Amino acids bulids up in blood, body cells can’t take Glucose it in. Ions - In kidney, reabsorption of glucose is Water limited by number of transport 60% resabsorbed in PCT molecules, glucose appears in urine. Active transport   Loop of Henle Desert Animals Countercurrent multiplier Mammals Descending limb Long loop of Henle can produce ● Water permeable highly concentrated urine ● NaCI Impermeable. Insects, Reptiles & Birds Ascending Limb Excrete uric acid, almost no ● Water impermeable water needed. ● NaCI pumped out   DCT Circulatory Systems Sodium reabsorbed Transport Collecting duct Nutrients Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Nitrogenous wastes ● Low impermeable Respiratory gases ● High permeable Hormones Starts: Glomerulus → Bowman's Heat Capsule →Proximal convoluted tubule Required for: → Distal Convoluted tubule → Collecting Animals larger in size duct → Finishes: Urine Storage and Animals with higher metabolism elimination. Fluid Environment of Animal Bodies   Intracellular fluid High in K+ Extracellular fluid High in Na+ 2 Subdivisions: Secretion Interstitial fluid Tubular secretion Blood plasma ● Ions   ● Aids in concentrating materials Blood to be excreted. Invertebrates   – Hemolymph Diabetes Vertebrates Plasma (55%) Diabainein - to pass through Mellitus - sweet • water, solutes, gases Cells (45%) • RBCs (erythrocytes)         4.8‐5.4 million per μL Form in red bone marrow • WBCs (leukocytes) 5k – 10k μL Fragments of cells • cell fragments Adhere to break in blood vessels (platelets/thrombocytes) Release thromboplastin 150 – 300k per μL   Prevention of Blood Loss Plasma When a vessel is damaged Soluble proteins • Smooth muscle in the wall contracts Albumins • Special cellular components form clots ➔ Keeps plasma in osmotic Blood coagulation​ ‐ complex equilibrium with cells in body series of chemical reactions Globulins Platelets and damaged cells of ➔ Immunoglobulins, function in blood vessels play a vital role in immunity clotting ​ hromboplastin Fibrinogen Enzyme thrombin (prothrombin) ➔ Functions in blood coagulation Tangled network of   fibers,fibrinogen RBC • Amplified cascade - Formed in red bone marrow • 13 clotting factors (mammals and birds) • Deficiency of one can delay whole - Hemoglobin synthesized process *280 million molecules per • Provides balance between emergency erythrocyte clotting and unnecessary clots - Nucleus shrinks, then lost from cell through exocytosis Deep Vein Thrombosis - Cellular organelles also lost Long periods of inactivity - Biconcave shape Low oxygen, low humidity, and low - Engulfed by macrophages in liver, cabin pressure at high elevation → bone marrow, spleen dehydrating effect   3-5% of air travelers will develop clots Study compared air travels with immobility   WBC Hemophilia Part of the immune system ➢ Clotting abnormality ‐ failure of blood to clot Neutrophils Basophils ➢ Defective clotting protein, factor Eosinophils VIII ➢ Loci on the X sex chromosome Lymphocytes Monocytes ➢ Mutation passed on through royalty   – Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) Platelets         Open Circulation • Materials diffuse into interstitial fluid, then into cells (e.g., most molluscs,arthropods) • Blood not always confined to vessels • Wastes move from cells into the • Hemolymph capillaries • Low BP   • Separate gas transport Venules - Return to the Heart Closed Circulation   • Pressure is low (e.g., vertebrates, annelids, cephalopod) • Thin walled, less elastic Blood confined to vessels • Valves to prevent blood pooling in Diffusion   lower extremities  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.