BIOL 1543, Exam 1 study guide
BIOL 1543, Exam 1 study guide BIOL 1543
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 466 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
Chapter 1 1. Are viruses living or nonliving? a. nonliving 2. What are the 2 main components of a virus? a. capsid → group of proteins surrounding DNA b. Envelope→ made of proteins 3. How does a virus reproduce? a. It requires a virus 4. What is a property that complex systems have but individuals alone do not have? a. An emergent property b. example : if you were to eat the components Na and Cl alone they wouldn’t result in the same way NaCl (salt) would. 5. What are the 3 main components of science? a. Reason b. Logic c. Observation 6. Science should be presented in a way so that… a. everyone / anyone could understand what was happening 7. What is the whole basis of science? a. So we can predict future outcomes 8. What describes a pattern? a. Law 9. What does a Theory do? a. Explains a law 10. What are hypotheses based off of? a. Theories 11.If I were to see a male driver run a red light and then assume that all men run red lights, what kind of reasoning would this be? a. Inductive i. Based on what you’ve seen, you predict everything like that will be that same way. 12. You heard a statistic about how “all men run red lights,” then while driving later that day you saw a man driving in the car next to you, you thought to yourself “this man is going to run a red light.” What type of reasoning is this? a. Deductive reasoning 13. With a null hypothesis, you could assume that the experiment will have… a. No effect 14. What does the alternative hypothesis state? a. That there is an effect from the experiment 15. An experimental drug is being tested for headaches. One group gets a sugar pill (placebo), the second group gets the old drug used to help headaches, and the third group gets the new experimental drug. What is the control group? Experimental group? Independent variable? Dependent variable? a. Control group: gets the placebo pill b. Experimental group: gets the new experimental drug c. Independent variable: the new experimental pill d. Dependent variable: whether or not the headache gets better 16. Variables that the experimenter wasn’t planning on that throw off data are ______. a. variables. b. Confounding 17. How can you help stop confounding variables? a. Use a large sample size b. Make it as random as possible 18. Why are double blind studies necessary? a. To keep out observer bias 19. What are the 3 domains? a. Bacteria b. Archaea c. Eukarya 20. What is the order of hierarchy? a. Biosphere b. Ecosystem c. Community d. Population e. Organism f. Organ system g. Organ h. Tissue i. Cell j. Organelle Chapter 2 1. What are polymers made up of? a. Many monomers 2. What is a monomer? a. molecule that is able to bond in long chains 3. How do monomers bond to make polymers? a. Through dehydration synthesis b. It removes water and links the monomers i. Remember because dehydrated means you don’t have enough water, so they are removing the water with dehydration synthesis. 4. What is the reaction that separates polymers by adding water? a. Hydrolysis i. Remember because “hydro” is water 5. Polysaccharides and monosaccharides are just 2 examples of what? a. Carbohydrates 6. Glucose is a ________. a. Monosaccharide (a simple sugar) 7. 2 monosaccharides would make a ________. a. Disaccharide (which can also be a polymer) i. Example: maltose 8. 2 or more monosaccharides makes a __________. a. Polysaccharide i. Example: starch, cellulose 9. What does cellulose contribute to the cell wall? a. Structure 10. What are examples of lipids in animals? a. Fats b. Steroids 11.What is an example of lipids in plants? a. Oils 12. Phospholipids linked together equals a _________ _______. a. Phospholipid layer 13. What are proteins? a. Monomers of proteins that are amino acids 14. A long chain of amino acids is a _______. a. Polypeptide 15. An enzyme is a protein in the body that acts as a biological _________. a. Catalyst: it speeds up a reaction without being consumed 16. What does the shape of an enzyme do? a. Distinguishes their function 17. What does it mean when an protein is denatured? a. Its broken down, causing it to change shape and thus lose their function 18. What are some causes of denaturing? a. Temperature b. pH 19. Which are polymers? a. Proteins b. Polypeptides c. Enzymes d. All of the above ← 20. RNA and DNA are _____ _____. a. Nucleic acids 21. What is RNA made out of? a. A phosphate backbone, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base. 22. What is a monomer of a nucleic acid? a. A nucleotide 23. What are the 4 nitrogenous bases for DNA, and what are their pairings? a. Adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine 24. What are the 4 nitrogenous bases for RNA, and what are their pairings? a. Adenine with uracil and cytosine with guanine 25. Which nucleic acid has a double helix and which has a single strand? a. DNA-double helix b. RNA-single strand 26. What is different about sugar between RNA and DNA? a. RNA’s sugar is ribose- contains oxygen b. DNA’s sugar is deoxyribose- it oesn’t contain oxygen 27. Properties of water include what 4 things? a. High heat capacity b. High surface tension c. High heat of vaporization d. Polarity 28. What is cohesion? a. Water molecules that are attracted to each other Chapter 3 1. What are some main components of bacteria? a. Cell wall b. Capsule c. Flagella d. Nucleoid (but oesn’t have a nucleus) i. Since there’s no nucleus there's one long chromosome in cytoplasm 2. What is bacteria classified as? a. Prokaryote 3. What are some main components of eukaryotic cells? a. Nucleus b. Chromatin c. Ribosomes d. Endoplasmic reticulum i. Rough ER ii. Smooth ER e. Golgi apparatus f. Lysosome g. Vacuole h. Mitochondria 4. What is the component of a eukaryotic cell that produces ATP through cellular respiration? a. Mitochondria 5. Ribosomes _____ proteins. a. Synthesize 6. Which endoplasmic reticulum, rough or smooth, has ribosomes studded on it? a. Rough ER 7. Which component breaks down waste? a. Lysosome 8. True or False: vacuoles are in both plant and animal cells. a. True 9. What is stored in the nucleus? a. DNA (genetic material) 10. The component that collects, sorts, and ships material is called the ______ ________. a. Golgi Apparatus Chapter 33 1. Behaviors are passed down by ______ and _______. a. Genetics/ nurture b. Learning/ nature (how environment impacts you) 2. What is any action that can be observed or described? a. Behavior 3. What is the concept of nature vs. nurture? a. How much your environment affects your behavior and how much genetics affects your behavior. i. Example: test done on mice was to switch their mothers. If the behaviors changed it meant it was affected by nurture (genetics). If the behaviors did NOT change, it meant that it was affected by nature (environment). 4. What does fitness mean for animals? a. The ability to reproduce 5. What does proximate cause mean? a. The immediate cause for a certain behavior. 6. What does ultimate cause mean? a. The actual reason for something 7. If a bird were getting a drink of water and heard another bird make an alarm call, that bird would immediately begin to fly away from that spot. What is the proximate cause, and what is the ultimate cause? a. Proximate cause of the bird flying away would be the alarm call from the bird. b. Ultimate cause would be the actual reason for flying away, which would be for survival. 8. What is it when there are 2 different forms of a gene? a. Allele 9. What type of behavior would a dogs “kill shake” be? a. Innate behavior i. An innate behavior is something that has strong genetic control 10. What is associative learning? a. A change in behavior that involves an association between two events 11.When baby ducks are at an impressionable stage in their life and they ______ on the first moving thing, their mom. a. Imprint 12. When 2 things are associated with the same thing, this is __________ __________. a. Classical conditioning i. Example: pavlov's dog 13. When you get a reward for a certain reaction to a stimulus, this would be _________ ________. a. Operant conditioning 14. What are the 4 types of communication? a. Chemical (pheromones) b. Tactile (touch) c. Visual (body language) d. Auditory 15. What is inclusive fitness? a. The ability of an organism to pass on its genes to the next generation through the shared genes of it’s relatives 16. “The amount of energy expended must be less than the amount you get back,” what is this? a. The optimal forgey model 17. Who is more sexually selective, males or females? a. Females i. Females focus most on how the males can provide for them. 18. What is the disadvantage of group living for animals? a. Territorial disputes Chapter 34 1. The interactions of organisms with each other and their environment is __________. a. Ecology 2. If there are 1000 people in the population, and 30 are born and 10 die, what is the growth rate? BornDie 20 a. ( total )x100 → 30-10= 20 → 1000º 100 = 2% 3. What is the ability of a population to increase under certain conditions? a. Biotic Potential, it is the highest a population can be i. Biotic potential goes past carrying capacity 4. What is carrying capacity for a population? a. The number of things a certain region can support 5. What are the 3 types of survivorship curves? a. Type I b. Type II c. Type III 6. What type of survivorship curve do humans have? a. Type I i. This is when you live a long time and then die 7. A type III survivorship curve is when you live a short time and then die, what would be an example of this? a. Birds 8. What is a type II survivorship curve? a. When death rate is relatively constant at any age 9. The competitive exclusion principle states that no 2 species can share the exact same ______. a. Niche 10. Demographic transition is the transition from a ____ growth rate to a high death rate to a ____ growth rate to a low death rate. a. High, low (respectively) 11.What are incorrectly folded proteins called? a. Prions 12. Prions cause other proteins to unfold and fold incorrectly, what disease is associated with this? a. Chronic wasting disease 13. How much energy is passed in each trophic level? a. 10% 14. What is a density-dependent factor? a. Factor whose effects on size or growth of the population vary with the population density 15. What is a density-independent factor? a. Factor that isn’t based off the density of the population 16. If there were a fire, or other natural disaster, which factor would this be? a. Density-independent 17. What is the main factor of a density-dependent factor? a. Availability of food 18. A role a species has in its environment is an __________ ______. a. Ecological niche 19. What is it called when one species evolves to get away from a predator, but the predator then evolves to keep up? a. Coevolution 20. What are the 3 main symbiotic relationships? a. Parasitism b. Commensalism c. Mutualism 21. When one thing is being benefitted and one is being harmed, this is an example of _________. a. Parasitism 22. What is commensalism? a. One benefits and the other is neither benefiting or being harmed 23. Mutualism is what? a. When both things are benefitting 24. What is primary ecological succession? a. Newly formed vegetation, it’s there for the first time 25. When the environment is there, disappears, and then comes back a second time, this is called the ________ _________. a. Secondary succession. Chapter 35 1. What is it when CO2 is dissolved in the atmosphere and water. a. Exchange pool 2. What are some examples of a reservoir? a. Soil b. Plants c. Living in dead things 3. Where does carbon start flowing from? a. Comes through air to the plant
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