Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 #3377 Human Development 101
Popular in Human Development through the Lifespan
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Smith on Friday September 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to #3377 Human Development 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Scofield in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views.
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Date Created: 09/23/16
STUDY GUIDE 1. Self‐reports like surveys and questionnaires offer some advantages over other research methods including that they are usually inexpensive and that they can be completed quickly. However, they also have weaknesses. Which of the following is a weakness not typically associated with self‐reports? a. dishonest or inaccurate responses b. items that are poorly worded or confusing c. high illiteracy rates among respondents d. using the wrong scale for responses 2. To determine whether a local gas station was unfairly practicing in ‘price– gouging’ by dramatically raising the cost of gas shortly before a winter storm, a police chief decided to price gas at 8 different service stations. Here’s what he found a gallon of gas cost at each one: $4, $3, $5, $4, $5, $3, $4, and $8. What was the mean cost of a gallon of gas at these 8 stores? a. $4.50 b. $4.00 c. $3.00 d. $5.00 3. Curious whether teenagers have better friends than adults, a researcher asks 15‐yr‐ olds to rate the quality of each of their friendships and then, 10 years later, asks those same individuals to rate the quality of each of their friendships again. She then compared the two sets of ratings. What type of research design is being used in this example? a. natural observation design b. longitudinal design c. cross sectional design d. sequential design 4. To determine whether cell phone use during class effects grades, a researcher had some college students turn off their phones before class while others left them on. The researcher then compared test grades of the two groups. In this example, the independent variable is the: a. test grades b. turning phone on or off c. age of the student d. gender of the student 5. Every time Ada sees a Volkswagen bug she says “slug‐bug” and punches her brother’s arm. Yesterday she saw a Volkswagen bug and said “slug‐bug” and her brother flinched before she even punched him. In this example the phrase “slug‐ bug” is an example of: a. an unconditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned response c. a conditioned stimulus d. a conditioned response 6. According to Freud, solving the oedipal (or electra) complex is an important event for the development of a child’s: a. superego b. ego c. id d. unconscious 7. Most theories of human development take a stance on core issues, one of which is whether or not development follows one course or many courses. Which of the following questions best characterizes this particular issue? a. Are humans more influenced by biology or environment? b. Do all humans follow the same path through development or do they follow different paths? c. Do humans undergo several small changes or a few big changes during development? d. Do humans grow up to be the same as their parents or do they grow up to be different? 8. In Pavlov’s original study on the classical conditioning of dogs, the conditioned response and the unconditioned response were actually the same behavior. a. true b. false 9. Andre is a 4‐year‐old at a family reunion. His mother asks him to guess which of his uncles is older. Andre looks at her and matter‐of‐factly say “Uncle Bruce, because he’s taller.” What concept from Piaget best explains Andre’s choice? a. Andre hasn’t mastered conservation b. Andre doesn’t yet have deductive reasoning c. Andre doesn’t yet have symbolic thought d. Andre doesn’t have mature sense of self 10. A score of 0‐3 on the APGAR scale usually means that the newborn: a. is the normal height and weight b. is at risk for fatality c. needs follow‐up testing d. is healthy 11. As the brain develops in infants, some unused neural connections are lost. This process trimming these unused connections is referred to as: a. neural plasticity b. synaptic pruning c. lateralization d. anti‐connectivity 12. Vocabulary size is an example of: a. Active Development b. Continuous Development [Quantitative Change] c. One course of development d. Discontinuous Development [Qualitative Change] 13. In the nature vs. nurture debate, an 8monthold saying her first word is an example of which: a. Nature b. Nurture 14. As a child develops, they tend to have growth spurts. This is an example of what kind of development? a. Active Development b. Continuous Development c. Passive Development d. Discontinuous Development 15. The philosopher Locke believed that children were born without talents, characteristics, or personality. This debate is called: a. Preformationism b. Darwinism c. Tabula Rasa d. Freudian Theory 16. An early historical perspective on development believed that children were the equivalent of small adults. As a result, children were treated as adults with their diets and responsibilities. This was called: a. Tabula Rasa b. Darwinism c. Preformationism d. Behaviorism 17. An infant has the natural urge to place everything in their mouth from food to toys to dirt. This shows that the infant is in which of the stages in Freudian psychological development. a. Phallic b. Latent c. Oral d. Anal 18. When a twoyearold needs to use the restroom, he/she tends to just go. However, when you get closer to the age of four, and you need to use the restroom, you are told to wait. The fouryearold has the ability to control this instinct. This is the emergence of which part of the human psyche according to Freud? a. Ego b. Id c. Superego d. Unconscious mind 19. During the “Little Albert” experiment, researchers held up various objects to an infant named Albert to observe his reaction. At first, he was not scared of anything. At one point, the researchers began to show Albert a rabbit and then made a loud noise behind him to startle him. After a few times, Albert began to shy away from the rabbit without the loud noise happening. This is an example of what? a. Operant Conditioning b. Classical Conditioning c. Behaviorism d. Social Learning 20. During a study, a group of children were watching adults be violent to a Bobo doll. After watching the adults, the children were introduced to a Bobo doll and were also violent with the dolls. However, another group of children observed adults interact with the Bobo doll passively. When this group of children were introduced to the Bobo doll, they had no inclination to be violent with the doll. This is an example of: a. Operant Conditioning b. Classical Conditioning c. Behaviorism d. Social Learning 21. If a mother tells a child that he/ she doesn’t have to do the dishes that night if he/she plays with their little sibling after school, this is an example of: a. Positive Reinforcement b. Positive Punishment c. Negative Reinforcement d. Negative Punishment 22. If a mother tells a child that he/ she doesn’t stop crying in the store, then he/ she will be grounded for the rest of the week, this is an example of: a. Positive Reinforcement b. Positive Punishment c. Negative Reinforcement d. Negative Punishment 23. If a mother tells a child that he/ she doesn’t stop hitting his sibling, then he/she will receive a spanking, this is an example of: a. Positive Reinforcement b. Positive Punishment c. Negative Reinforcement d. Negative Punishment 24. If a mother wants a child to clean his/her room, then he or she will earn a dollar. This is an example of: a. Positive Reinforcement b. Positive Punishment c. Negative Reinforcement d. Negative Punishment 25. The whole idea of using reinforcement and punishment is called: a. Classical Conditioning b. Operant Conditioning c. Behaviorism d. Cognitive Development 26. When a child begins to ride a tricycle and then moves up to a small bicycle of training wheels, this is an example of: a. Accommodation b. Assimilation c. Organization d. Equilibration 27. When a child master the ability to ride a small bike with training wheels and then moves to a regular bicycle, this is an example of: a. Accommodation b. Assimilation c. Organization d. Equilibration 28. Playing peekaboo with an infant and how the absence of your face shifts their focus from you to something else is an example of what stage of cognitive development? a. Preoperational b. Sensorimotor c. Formal Operations d. Concrete Operations 29. A teenager is able to look at a picture of a simple puzzle and can put it together in their head without physically seeing it and holding it. This is an example of what stage of cognitive development? a. Preoperational b. Sensorimotor c. Formal Operations d. Concrete Operations 30. The learning theory that theories should be focused on the actions and behaviors, and less on the mind defines: a. Classical Conditioning b. Operant Conditioning c. Behaviorism d. Social Learning 31. In an experiment to determine if blondes have more fun, what is the independent variable? a. Laughter b. Sound c. Hair color d. Duration 32. In an experiment, variable such as age, sex, religion, and height are examples of what? a. Independent variable b. Dependent variable c. Person variable d. Control variable 33. In an experiment to determine if time does fly if you are having fun, ____ is an example of a dependent variable. a. The activity placed b. Speed of time c. Religion d. Hair color 34. What is the correlation of this statement: The more money you have, the more you shop. a. Positive b. Negative 35. What is the correlation of this statement: The less money you have, the more you borrow money. a. Positive b. Negative 36. In a crosssectional design, _______ of individuals are studied _________. a. Same group; at the same time b. Different groups; over time c. Same group; over time d. Different groups; at the same time 37. In a longitudinal design, _______ of individuals are studied _________. a. Same group; at the same time b. Different groups; over time c. Same group; over time d. Different groups; at the same time 38. A group of students are tested for IQ. These were the scores: 120, 100, 110, 100, 100, 80, 90, 105. What is the mode of these results? a. 120 b. 100 c. 80 d. 105 39. During a cross of parents with the genotypes Rr, which expressed the trait of being round. What are the possible genotypes of their children? a. RR b. Rr c. rr d. All of the above 40. In behavioral genetics, a parent passes on the genes to the child. For example, a child is born with webbed feet. This is what type of effect? a. Evocative effect b. Active effect c. Passive effect d. None of the above 41. In behavioral genetics, a child’s genes bring out responses from their environment. For example, the child’s peers call the child “frog boy.” This is what type of effect? a. Evocative effect b. Active effect c. Passive effect d. None of the above 42. The full gestation for a baby is: a. 38 weeks b. 40 weeks c. 35 weeks d. 42 weeks 43. Once the zygote become a ball of cells, it is called a: a. Placenta b. Blastocyst c. Embryo d. Fetus 44. Substances that can harm a fetus are defined: a. Chemicals b. Toxins c. Teratogens d. Hormones 45. Today, parents are choosing to give birth in a place that has no lights, no loud noises, and the umbilical cord is still attached for longer than usual. This is a birthing procedure called: a. Leboyer b. Lamaze c. Waterbirth d. Csection 46. A baby being position bottom down, or breeched, having a large head, or having a very low heartbeat can cause doctors to insist on the mother having a ______. a. Waterbirth b. Homebirth c. Lamaze d. Csection 47. If a child scores between 46 on the APGAR test after birth, it means that they are: a. Healthy b. High risk c. Require attention d. Dead 48. During a study, when showing a newborn a picture of their mother, then reshowing the same picture of their mother did not show a renewed interest. However, if you show a baby the picture of their mother, and then, later, show them a picture of an aunt or a stranger, there would be a renewed interest in the baby. This is an example of: a. Preferential Looking b. Habituation/ Dishabituation c. Deferred Imitation d. Reflexes 49. The natural instinct of a child putting their arms and legs up when they startled to grab the closest thing is called: a. Plantar reflex b. Suck c. Moro d. Mouthing 50. The belief that babies big heads and big eyes to evoke the need to care for them is called: a. Neotony b. Reflexes c. Instincts d. Fontanelle 51. When neural fiber are insulated to improve conduction, this is called: a. Synaptic pruning b. Lateralization c. Plasticity d. Myelination ANSWER KEY: 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. B 8. A 9. A 10.B 11.B 12.B 13.A 14.D 15.C 16.C 17.C 18.A 19.B 20.D 21.C 22.D 23.B 24.A 25.B 26.B 27.A 28.B 29.D 30.C 31.C 32.C 33.B 34.A 35.B 36.D 37.C 38.B 39.D 40.C 41.A 42.A 43.B 44.C 45.A 46.D 47.C 48.A 49.C 50.A 51.D
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