Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide Biol 405
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Comer on Sunday March 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 405 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Mark Dybdahl in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 249 views. For similar materials see Principles of Organic Evolution in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/15
Biology 405 Exam Two Study Guide Fixation Probability the probability that a speci c allele reaches xation starting frequency 12NXX2N FreqA Founder Effect For each founding population diversity decreases Heterozygosity declines with genetic drift Ht1 Ht 112 N where IIt heterozygosity in current generation Ht Ho 112 N Variance among populations PST HT39 HsHT Substitution divergence among lineages due to xation of new mutation within a population Neutral Theory mutation drift 2N 12N I where 2N number of new mutations 12N probability of xation for mutation Deleterious mutations eliminated by purifying selection Deleterious selection when dNdS lt1 Selective constraint when dNdS 1 Nonsynonymous genetic alteration which causes no difference in function Synonymous genetic alteration which affects function Inbreeding mating among relatives or small populations Inbred populations increase occurrence of recessive disorders Where F is the inbreeding coefficient F 139 Hobs Hexp Polygenic Inheritance Combined in uence of mendelian alleles at many loci Phenotypic Variation Environmental variation Genetic variation Vp VEVG Variance IXiXbar2 n1 Heritability VGVp Broad Sense Heritability proportion of phenotypic variance due to genetics Narrow Sense Heritability The proportion for additive genetics to phenotypic variance 112 VP covariance Xi39XbarYi39Ybarn391 Uses of heritability h2 Gives doctors way of knowing whether a disease is predictable Predicts amount of evolution expected with selection Natural Selection phenotypic selection in parents and evolutionary response in offspring Phenotypic Selection selection differential S XaXb Xb All individuals before selection Xa All individuals after selection Used during arti cial selection when breeders are selected Fitness measured at mortality Selection Gradient I used for continuous measures of tness Regression estimates Covw zNarz Covariance between trait and tness is an estimate of S How to measure a Selection Gradient 1 Measure phenotypic value of trait 2 Gather continuous measures of tness 3 Wrel Wabs Wbar 4 Calculate trait value vs relative tness Response to evolution R X Xb R VAlj R h2S if l0 then no natural selection Directional Selection tness is a continuously increasingdecreasing function of a trait Decreases variance increasesdecreases mean Stabilizing selection intermediate phenotypes have highest tness Reduces variance no change in mean Disruptive Selection extreme phenotypes have highest tness Increases variance bimodial Phenotypes does not equal the best of all worlds Affected by migration drift mutation In uenced by genetic constraints on the response selection genetic system slows adaptation Genetic Covariance pleiotropy one locus affecting multiple phenotypes Adaptation A trait or suite of traits increases an individuals survival or reproduction tness compared to individuals without it Testing Adaptational hypotheses Observational test Record observations quantitative Experimental test Often conducted in laboratory conditions controlled qualitative Ensure to test across multiple populations Extravagant Behavior and Morphology Increased predation and energy Combat Courtship and Energy CooperationAltruism Nonreproducing individuals Eitness Survival Offspring per mating Number of matings Eemales Larger energetic and parental investment Males Lower energetic and parental investment Typical tness differences 0 Females limited by number of offspring per matings Males limited by number of matings Bateman s principle reproductive variability due to limitations in number of mates usually in males thus stronger sexual selection on males Sexrole reversal sexual selection higher on females as female tness is limited by number of matings Intrasexual Selection Sperm Competition 0 Competition between members of the same sex Intersexual Selection Female choice Extravagant trait chosen because 0 Direct bene ts resources brood sites 0 Indirect bene ts good genes 0 Fisher runaway process chosen randomly Sensory bias Altrusim traits that incur tness cost to individuals but bene t tness of recipient Display coalitions Inclusive tness direct tness and indirect tness Kin Selection Natural selection based on gains through indirect tness Hamilton s Rule rBgtC When indirect tness bene ts to the receiver reduced by coefficient of relatedness exceeds the cost to the altruist Coefficient of relatedness probability two homologous alleles in two individuals are IBD Trace paths of descent to closest common ancestor r 05k where k number of steps through each common ancestor between individuals Eusociality epitome of altruism common in hymenoptera specialized castes of nonreproductive individuals Haplodiploidy males are haploid females are diploid Life history is an optimal balance between competing needs metabolism repair and growth and reprdocution Quantity of offspring vs Offspring survival and future reproduction Larger eggs vs Clutch size Clutch size vs Probability of survival per offspring Lack s hypothesis Natural selection favors clutch size that produces most surviving offspring Lack s hypothesis does not incorporate other tradeoffs Intra generational tradeoff clutch size vs future reproduction Intergenerational tradeoff Quantity vs Quality of offspring Increased parental investment gt fewer offspring Larger offspring better at survival however smaller eggs led to higher fecundity Tradeoffs depend on environment Life history differs accordingly Senescence decline of reproductive performance physiological function or probability of survival with age Rate of living hypothesis 0 Aging unavoidable Accumulated poisonous metabolic byproducts SGHGSCGI ICG I39GSLlltS from constrain 011 GVOlthlOI39l A limit on ability to repair eliminate Absence of genetic variation for longer lifespan Prediction selection cannot increase lifespan Test select for delayed lifespan Conclusion lifespan responds to evolution Evolutionary hypothesis Force of natural selection Deleterious mutations which occur later in life have weak natural selection acting upon them 1 Mutation Accumulation deleterious mutations which act later in life accumulate 2 Antagonistic pleiotropy positive effect on one trait negative effect on another trait Prediction Senescence depends on ecological mortality Test Compare mainlandisland populations Conclusion Higher ecological mortality gt Faster decline in reproductive performance
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