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# Physics study guide- part 1 PHY 220

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Pini on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHY 220 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. David Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Physics in Physics at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16

Study Guide- Exam One Physics: develop a complete, unified theory in nature Measurement: SI system, meters, seconds, kilograms Dimensional analysis Scalars: magnitude only Vectors: magnitude and direction o Arrow direction: direction of the vector o Arrow length: magnitude of the vector Unit: something Is one o Unit vector: magnitude is one, but not direction Constant: does not change over time Uniform: does not change over distance Vector quantities are usually bolded or have an arrow above them For one-dimensional vectors, direction can be described with “+” or “-“ o Other ways to indicate direction Length and angle Magnitudes and vectors Vector mathematics o Place vectors tip to tail and draw an arrow from the start of one vector to the end of the other o Coordinate system: a vector must be described relative to something Describing a position o Choose a reference point, called the origin o Distance from the origin and its direction Can be described by its x-coordinate How far the object is from the origin and on which side Displacement o Defined as the change of the position- the final position minus the initial position o Delta x = x(final) – x(initial) : where delta x is the displacement *note: the magnitude of the displacement is not necessarily equal to the distance traveled the displacement depends only on the starting and ending positions, not on the path taken o Total displacement is the sum of two or more successive displacements o The magnitude of the displacement is the shortest distance between two points The distance traveled can be greater than or equal to the displacement, depending on the path taken Velocity o A quantity with magnitude and direction (speed and direction of am object) o Depends on both the displacement and the time interval o When a displacement (delta x) occurs during a time interval (delta t), the average velocity during that time interval is (delta x)/ (delta t) Since delta t is always positive, the direction of the average velocity is the same as the direction of the displacement o On an axis where west east, west is expressed with a negative sign in front of it o If distance is used in the numerator, in place of displacement, the equation expresses average speed, not velocity The average speed, unlike average velocity, depends on the path taken o Instantaneous velocity: a quantity whose magnitude is the speed and whose direction is the direction of motion What we refer to when we simply say “the velocity” Can be used to calculate the displacement of the object during a very short time interval, as long as neither the speed nor the direction of motion change significantly during that time interval The sign of the velocity Vx indicates the direction of motion Delta t must be short enough that we can treat the velocity as constant during that time interval Motion diagrams o Shows the position of an object at equally spaced times o Closely related to a graph of x versus t o The notion x(t) represents position x as a function of time t Graphical relations between position and velocity o The displacement is the rise of the graph o The time interval is the run of the graph o The slope of the chord (the line connecting two points) is the rise over the run o Slope of tangent gives instantaneous velocity o Vx is the slope of the line tangent to the graph of x(t) at the chosen time o The graph of position vs time shows a curving line, but that does not mean the train travels along a curved path o Horizontal portion of graph= position not changing o The steeper the graph, the larger the speed o The sign of the slope indicates the direction of motion Acceleration o Defined as the rate of change of velocity o Can indicate decreasing speed and change in direction How the velocity is changing Direction of change in velocity isn’t necessarily the same as either the direction of Vi or Vf Average acceleration o During a time interval is defined as: (delta Vx)/ (delta t) Instantaneous acceleration o Average acceleration during a very short time interval o The time interval must be short enough that we can treat acceleration as constant throughout the time interval

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