BSPM 102 Exam #1 Study Guide
BSPM 102 Exam #1 Study Guide BSPM 102
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drew Nelson on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSPM 102 at Colorado State University taught by Whitney S Cranshaw; Matthew A Camper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Insects, Science, and Society (GT-SC2) in BSPM at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
BSPM 102 Insects, Science and Society Fall 2016 – Exam 1 I. Understand the advantages/disadvantages of being large and small (pg 89) ● Disadvantage of Being Large ○ Need for extensive support structure, due to mass (skeleton) ○ Large amount of energy to overcome inertia ○ Large amount of energy to sustain ○ Large amount of energy and resources to survive ● Advantages of Being Small ○ Allows exploitation of ecological niches ○ Able to access nutrients too meager to support larger life forms ○ Small gravitational forces ○ Offers protection from physical effect of energy movement ■ Something 1/10 the length, hit ground with 1/1000 the force ○ Insect muscle can appear very strong ● Disadvantages of Being Small ○ Ratio of surface area to volume As animals get bigger they have less surface area to volume proportionately ○ Air resistance ○ Water Loss ■ Solution development of exoskeleton 500 million years ago II. The arthropod exoskeleton (pg 815) Know the benefits. ● Protection from: ○ Pathogens ○ Physical Trauma difficult to kill ● Rigid Framework for muscle attachment ● Allows for the development of: ○ Appendages ○ Specialized structures ○ Anthropod Tracheal System of Gas exchange (efficient breathing, tracheal system that allows air to move to cells) leading to decreased water loss Know the disadvantages. ● Ecdysis (Molting) limits size, must molt to grow What are apodemes, apophysis, and sutures? What are they used for? ● Apodemes internal ridges of the exoskeleton that support organ/muscle attachment ● Apophysis a natural protuberance from the exoskeleton for the attachment of muscles ● Sutures indentation showing external evidence of apodemes What are chitin, sclerotin, resilin, arthropodin? Which of these is the primary constituent of the arthropod exoskeleton? ● Chitin Polysaccharide laid down in opposition directions as plywood (laminate) 40% ● Sclerotin hardening proteins of scleortization ● Resilin elastic material, found in hinges and ligaments of wings ● Anthropodin Class of proteins found in the cuticle of insects (Chitin, slerotin, resilin) What is sclerotization? ● Irreversibly hardened ● Usually associated with darkening ● Becomes water insoluble What are the different layers of the exoskeleton and what are their specific functions? Pay attention to which layers are sclerotized and which are not ● Epicuticle (outermost) very thin with cement, wax and cuticulin ○ Main Function Waterproofing ● Exocuticle portion that undergoes scleritization ○ Main Function structural support hardening ● Endocuticle doesn’t get sclertized dissolved ○ Main Function These are areas that flex ● Epidermis (hypodermis) living cell layer ○ Main Function produces the other layers of exoskeleton ● Basement Membrane protective layer beneath epidermis ○ Regulate movement of nutrient and hormones in, and wastes out What is molting and what is involved? Pay attention to which layers are shed during molting ● Molting (Ecdysis) the process of casting off the outer cuticle “Cast Skin” ● Instar stages between molts Molting Sequence 1. Cuticle separates from epidermis 2. Epidermis secretes digestive enzymes 3. New epicuticle is formed 4. Enzymes are activated and digest old endocuticle a. Nutrients from endocuticle are reabsorbed and used to create new cuticle b. Old exocuticle and epicuticle resist digestion, remain intact 5. Remaining exoskeleton splits at lines of weakness (ecdysis sutures) 6. Insect extracts from old exoskeleton, leaving “cast skin” (exuvia) 7. Insect expands new cuticle by hydrostatic pressure generated from muscle contraction 8. New exocuticle sclerotizes/hardens and “sets” What is tagmosis? What are tagmata? ● Tagmosis the grouping of body segments into regions (tagmata) of defined functions ● Tagmata body regions, i.e. (head, thorax, abdomen) III. Know the structures of the head, thorax, and abdomen HEAD (pg 1617) What functions occur in the head? ● Structures for taking food in (Mouthparts) ● Sensory functions visual, chemical, mechanical (vibration, light) eyes and antennae Know the general structure of insect mouthparts and some modifications discussed in class. ● Labrum flap on the front (clypeus and labrum) “upper lip” ○ Function holds food in place ● Mandibles behind the labrum jaws ○ Function chewing, used for tearing/crushing food, nest building and defense ● Maxillae help move food to mandibles like a fork ○ Function manipulate and “taste” the food being ingested ● Labrium lower lip ○ Function works with the maxillae and assists in manipulation ● Palps contain a myriad of chemical receptors ○ Function used to sense the environment or food Mouthparts Modifications ● Piercing Insects Have all mouthparts in a beak, or needle (mosquito, biting flies) ● Butterflies/Moths Proboscis used to siphon ● Flies Large labrium to suck up fluids ● Bees Uses jaws to chew and cut, but not eat ● Vestigial Mouthpiece Some don’t feed at all after becoming an adult (Mayflies) Know the general structures of the arthropod eye. What are the differences between simple and compound eyes? Compound/Simple Eyes ● Compound Eyes large eyes we can see, made of many individual facets ○ Don’t create 100’s of images, but one complete image ○ Ommatidium contain 68 cells (retinula) that recognize averaged light input ■ Rhabdomere inner part contains visual pigments ● Visual Activity is based on number of ommatidia ■ Perception may differ from human vision (Polarized light, Ultraviolet light) ● Simple Eyes/Ocelli ○ Usually have three of them hardwired to brain to pick up simple light ○ Function is unknown possible daylength, flight orientation Understand the function of antennae. What are the different receptors/sensory organs associated with antennae? Antennae key sensory organ Sensilla/Sensillae various kinds of receptors ● Chemoreceptors detect chemicals associated with taste, smell, pheromones (male location) ● Mechanoreceptors detect motion, orientation (gravity, wind) movement ● Thermoreceptors detect changes in temperatures ● Hygroreceptors detect changes in moisture THORAX (pg 1819) What are the three segments of the thorax? ● Prothorax 1st pair of legs, Often spiracles ● Mesothorax 2nd Pair of Legs, 1st pair of wings ● Metathorax 3rd pair of legs, 2nd pair of wings What structures are found on each of the three segments? ● Spiracles opening that allow oxygen and air, usually large one on the prothorax ● Legs insects have 3 pairs, arachnids 4 pairs, centi (one pair) milli (two pairs) crust (five to seven pair) ○ Coxa next to body ○ Trochanter small similar to knee cap ○ Femur largest region ○ Tibia second largest and longest region ○ Tarsus multiple segments (pads, spines) essentially a foot ● Wings always on thorax, adult stage, usually two pairs (except flies, mosquitos) ○ Wings hold by fusing to cuticle, projection of cuticle ■ Veins longitudinal main veins, cross veins for strengthening ■ Alternating concave, convex What are some modifications of these structures discussed in class? Leg Modifications ● Jumping (saltatorial) crickets, grasshopper, fleas lengthy femur ● Swimming (Natatorial) fins, water beetle ● Grasping (Raptorial) preying mantis one pair of legs for holding food ● Digging (Fossorial) mole cricket ● Walking/Running (Cursorial) beetles Wing Modifications ● Tegmina Leathery, tougher front pair of wings, protect main wings (grasshopper) ● Hemelytra Single wing in two segments, one membraneous and one leathery ● Elytra Beetles, hardened sheath wing, and membraneous wing (Protecting wings from tearing) ● Clothing Setae scales, butterflies and moths, color and ability to fly ● Haltere modified hindwing gyroscope on flies and mosquitoes (one pair of wings) Understand what stage of the insect has wings (larva or adult??) ● Usually the adult has wings, there are exceptions but these are rare ABDOMEN (pg 20) What structures are found here? Functions? Modifications? Abdomen usually 11 segments ● First 7 segments lack Appendages often have openings (spiracles) Reproductive Organs ( Segments 89 ) ● Claspers holding female in place during mating ● Aedeagus structure used to pass sperm ● Ovipositor structure used for laying eggs ● Cerci (Segments 1011) structures on end ○ Sensory detect vibrations or chemical ○ Defense exude defensive chemicals ○ Grasping/manipulating hold food or maite (earwigs) IV. Insect Insides DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (pg 2122) Know the basic regions, what their functions are, and which is shed with each molt. ● Foregut starting with the head ○ Bringing food into the body, and preliminary digestion (enzymes, grinding) ○ Foregut is shed during ecdysis ● Midgut final breakdown of food particles, nutrients picked up by living cell layer ○ Only part of digestive tract that isn’t shed during molting ○ Works like a stomach/small intestine area of active digestion ○ Nutrients move from midgut into body cavity/blood ● Hindgut final nutrient absorption, waste collection/expelled, waters/salts/acids balance maintained (similar to large intestines, ileum, colon, and rectum) ○ Up to 90% of leftover water is absorbed into the body ○ Colonization site of microorganism for some insects What internal structures are found in each region? ● Foregut ○ Buccal (preoral) cavity opening into foregut food/nutrients enter body ○ Pharynx internal entry tube sometimes has a pump, mixed with enzymes ○ Esophagus/Crop allows food to move to a crop (enlarged area to store food) ○ Proventriculus grind food into smaller particles ● Midgut ○ Gastric Caeca increase surface area of midgut ○ Peritrophic Membrane lining of the midgut prevents large nutrient molecules from damaging the living cell layer (like a cheese cloth) semi membrane ● Hindgut ○ Termites can break down cellulose (most things can’t) because of protozoa in the hindgut, but loses these after molting and must find new microbes after ○ Hindgut is lined with intima and is shed during molting EXCRETORY SYSTEM (pg 2223) What are the primary functions? ● Excreting Waste from blood/body What are malpighian tubules? What structure in the human body are they similar to? ● Malpighian Tubules Long tube part of hindgut, funnel in waste from blood, out anus ○ Functions: Act much like a human kidney, extracts waster products and unneeded amino acids, sugars and salts from hemolymph How do the Malpighian tubules and rectum work together to maintain fluid balances? ● Rectum excrete waste ○ Function: Convert waste prior to excretion, return water, salts, sugars or amino acids to hemolymph as needed How does the insect excretory system resemble/differ from the human excretory system? ● Funnels out of open system (Different) then excretes out of an anus (similar) CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (pg 24) Know the definitions of hemolymph/hemocoel ● Hemocoel body cavity, contains all internal organs, which are surrounded in blood ● Hemolymph insect blood Know the functions of the dorsal vessel and basement membrane ● Dorsal Vessel: Insect “heart”. A long tube that moves hemolymph from back of body towards the front Primary organ of the Circulatory systems ○ Accessory pulsatile organs: help pump blood to extremities (wings, legs) ● Basement Membrane Regulate movement of nutrients/hormones in, and waste out Know the function of arthropod blood ● Transport nutrients, waste products & hormones ● Storage H2O and ions ● Hydraulic Function pressure ● Phagocytosis attacking invading organisms ● Coagulation stop bleeding ● Wound Healing seal wounds permanently ● Encapsulation cover up large objects Be able to describe hemocytes and their function. ● Hemocytes similar to white blood cells play a role in immune system What is meant by “open” circulatory system? ● The insect blood (hemolymph) is free flowing in the body cavity (hemocoel) How does the insect circulatory system resemble/differ from the human circulatory system? ● Open, meaning no viens, just floating loose in the body (Different) VENTILATORY (RESPIRATORY) SYSTEM (pg 2526) Know the main functions, structures and modifications. Where are they found? What they do? ● Spiracles are the external openings that allow oxygen to enter the insect ventilatory system. Primarily found on the thorax ● Trachea largest branches of the ventilatory system ○ Taenidia spiral ridges that give trachea strength (like a dryer hose) ○ Tracheoles finer branches of the ventilatory system, plug directly into cells ○ Air Sacs help push O2 further into tracheoles Understand the difference between diffusion and ventilation. ● Diffusion (Passive) via oxygen gradients establishing homeostasis ● Ventilation (Active) muscular contracts, body movements ● Homeostasis achieve stable equilibrium of elements within an organism Know the modifications that are present on some arthropods. ● Spiracle Mosquito's larvae have a spiracle tube on abdomen, to breath like a snorkel ● Gills oxygen diffuses through the exoskeleton of the gills and is then distributed to the rest of the body through internal tracheal system (mayflies, dragonflies) ● Plastron hold a bubble of oxygen next to their body, that covers spiracles ● Cuticular Diffusion some can absorb oxygen through exoskeleton (soil dwellers) How does the insect ventilatory system resemble/differ from the human ventilatory system? ● Air directly transported to each individual cell, since they don’t have hemoglobin in their blood (Different) FAT BODY (pg 26) Know the functions ● Principal organ for intermediary metabolism in insects “Liver” ○ Consists of tissue sheets/ribbons distributed throughout the body ○ Produce carbohydrates, proteins and hormones needed ● Pupal Stage (Immature Stage) ○ Primarily produce and store compounds to be used later ● Adult ○ Produce and store compounds used for reproduction, diapause and flight ● Enzyme Production ○ Mixed Function oxidases (detoxification) How does the insect fat body resemble/differ from the human system? ● Similar to human liver, but around the body cavity in loose tubes, not solid structure REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (pg 27) Know the various structures and their function ● Ovaries (female gonads) produce the eggs ○ Spermatheca special organ for storage of sperm. Sperm can be stored for extremely long periods of time ○ Accessory Glands most commonly produces protective casing for eggs ■ Ootheca egg casing, produced by accessory gland ● Testes (Male gonads) produce the sperm ○ Accessory Gland produce the nutritional ‘basket’ depending on the insect this packet may be used to nourish eggs, sperm and/or the female insect ■ Spermatophore structure passed on with sperm, that provides nourishment to the eggs NERVOUS SYSTEM (pg 2829) Why was knowledge of acetylcholine/acetylcholinesterase important in early insecticide development? Early Pesticides worked on nervous system some that bugs and humans share ● Acetylcholine transmitter substance ○ In the peripheral nervous system it activates muscles. ● Acetyl Cholinesterase enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ○ Organophosphates 1st of “modern” insecticide. Breakdown acetylcholinesterase make nerves fire continuously until the insect died, Know what a ganglion is. ● Ganglion “mini brains” associated with almost every segment of the insect ○ With the largest section residing in the head “brain” ○ Inputs and outputs in each segment ● Ventral Nerve Cord on belly opposite of humans Know the 3 primary ganglia that make up the insect brain and their functions. ● Tritocerebrum associated with mouthparts ● Deutocerebrum associated with antennae ○ Can be fairly large ● Protocerebrum receives visual inputs, involved in sensory synthesis ○ Largest part of the brain What is the function of the mushroom bodies? ● Mushroom Bodies “Seat of learning” learning cells, very few so can’t learn much mostly due to short lives, most cells follow instincts/genetics What are nocireceptors? Do insects have them? ● Nociceptors pain signals are created by class of cells in mammals ○ Pain is for learning (Mantis eating male (while he is still mating) no pain ● Do insects feel pain? No (general consensus) How does this nervous system resemble/differ from the human nervous system? ● Ventral Nerve Cord on belly (opposite of humans) with multiple mini brains for various parts of the body. Don’t feel pain. V. The Neuroendocrine System (pg 3032) What is juvenile hormone, what is its primary function, and what structure produces it? ● Juvenile Hormone Insures growth, without metamorphosis ○ If present would remain juvenile and if not would become adult ● Produced by Corpora allata gland What is ecdysone, what is its primary function, and what structure produces it? ● Ecdysone “molting hormone” tells and insect WHEN to molt into the next stage ○ Produced by the prothoracic gland Understand the function of the other neurohormones discussed ● Coordination of growth and development ● Behavior (mating, molting, oviposition) ● Metabolism and homeostasis ○ Most produced in Suboesophageal Ganglion What are Insect growth regulators? ● IGR prevent insects from reaching maturity (used mostly on mosquitos) VI. Development (pg 3334) Know the general life history, stages, and advantages/disadvantages (if given) of the 3 types of metamorphosis. ● Metamorphosis the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages “Change in Form” ● 3 Patterns of Metamorphosis for Insects ● “No metamorphosis” the pattern of development of ametabolic insects ○ Looks the same, just bigger after molting, and sexually matures ● Simple Metamorphosis the pattern of development of hemimetabolous ○ The young stage is very similar to the adult, can recognize young and adult Often found together, feeding on the same thing ○ May need to develop wings and reproductive organs ● Complete Metamorphosis the pattern of development of holometabolous insects ○ Larvae to Adult most insects, with special kinds of larvae ○ Resting Stage (Pupae not restful fulling reforming) ex. Moths, butterfly ○ Usually can’t recognize immature form as the same species ○ After they’re adults they are done morphing ■ Full developed bugs are adult, regardless of size ● Advantages of Complete Metamorphosis ○ Allows different life stages to specialize don’t compete for same food ● Larvae feeding, nutrient/energy acquisition ● Adult Reproduction and dispersal What general effects do temperature and time have on insect development? ● Arthropods are coldblooded (poikilothermic) ○ Rate of development is correlated with temperature ● Base Temperature the temp at which no development occurs for a particular species of insect ● Degree Days measure of temperature about base temperate, required to allow completion of some developmental period ○ Can be used to predict development What is quiescence and how is it terminated? ● Quiescence growth cessation due to temporarily unfavorable conditions ○ Temperature, moisture, light ○ Not genetically determined and immediately reservable once conditions are favorable What is diapause and how is it terminated? ● Diapause Genetically determined state of arrested development ○ Allows survival during adverse conditions ○ Induction requires certain environmental cues ■ Day Length (photoperiod) ■ Temperature shifts ■ Change in food qualities ● Physiological changes of diapause: ○ Cessation of development, reproduction ○ Increase in production and storage of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins ○ Changes in exoskeleton may take place to further limit water loss ● Diapause Termination Cues ○ Photoperiod So they don’t resume on a warm january day ○ Passage of a chill period Need to be cold, they’re prepared for it, if you bring them inside they’ll die ○ Resumption of wetting/moisture after passage of a certain period of time VII. Crustacea (pg 3536) Know the life history and habits of pillbugs and sowbugs ● Sowbugs Not as round as roly poly and usually have visual tails ● Pill Bugs Roll into ball, no tail ○ 3 Body Regions (tagmata) ■ Head (cephalon) small mouth underneath ■ Thorax (Pereion) 7 pairs of Legs ■ Abdomen (Pleon) gills Found in moist conditions have to wet gills ○ Eyes simple eyes (ocelli) may be in a loose cluster ● Only crustaceans adapted to terrestrial life ● General scavengers of plant and animal matter What are their similarities/differences to insects and other arthropods? ● 2 Pair of Antennae (one small) ● Some appendages are branched (like claws) ● Oxygen is acquired via gills (Pleopods) must be kept wet all the time Understand the term macro decomposer and how it applies to this arthropod. ● Macro Decomposer break down matter and accelerate the nutrient system ○ Chew soft things detritivores, dead leaves, dead plant litter How many stages does it take for pillbugs/sowbugs to molt? ● 2 step process front half molts first, then second half molts What’s unique about their reproduction? ● Marsupium hold young as they develop and release when they’re ready ○ Juveniles look like adults, go through a simple metamorphosis VIII. Diplopoda (pg 37) Know the physical features of class (e.g. how many legs/segment, how many antennae, etc.) ● Elongate, wormlike cylindrical ● Most body segments have two pairs of legs ● 56 fused segments head ● Similarities to insects include ○ Tracheal system ○ Malpighian Tubes (getting rid of waste) ○ 1 pair of antennae Know the life history and habits (are they predators, scavengers, etc.) ● Macro Decomposers feed on soft decaying plant matter. Accelerate nutrient cycling ● Most are scavengers that feed on decaying plant material, smallmouth require soft food ● Secretive and tend to hide ● Hard exoskeleton but not very waterproof “Rain worm’ phenomenon (migration) ● Eggs may be laid in nest like cavities or in damp soil What is anamorphic development? ● Anamorphic development ○ Newly hatched millipedes have only 3 pairs of legs ○ Legs and body segments added with each molt ● Molting may continue after sexually mature What defenses do millipedes have? ● 1. Hard bodied prevent predation ● 2. Can roll into a ball to protect legs and soft underside ● 3. Hooked hairs (Duff millipedes) can incapacity ants like a porcupine ● 4. Chemical Defense ○ Mild irritants red marks ○ Caustic compounds (burning) ○ Knockout Agents similar to quaaludes, can knock out spiders IX. Chilopoda (pg 38) Know the physical features that make this class distinctive. ● Distinct Head Frequently have ‘pseudo head’ at tip of abdomen ● Single pair of legs/body segment ○ Most have 1523 Pairs, much more prominent legs ○ Tergite heteronomy change in size of segments, alternating, helps body not sway. Long segment, short segment, long segment ● Single pair of antennae help detect, since hunt in dark ● Simple Eyes Know the life history and habits ● Predators, with nocturnal activity ● Mouthparts are designed to chew and crush What are maxillipeds? What is cytolysin? ● Maxillipeds modified first pair of legs/hardened with a slit like opening at tip inject prey with toxin (cytolysin), Do centipedes make good mothers? Why or why not? ● Courtship/Mating pass spermatophores ● Protection of eggs from mother (very rare among arthropods) X. Arachnida (Araneae only for this exam) (pg 3947) ARACHNIDA Know the physical features of the class ● Absence of Antennae only group without ● Two Body Regions (tagmata) ○ Cephalothorax fused head and thorax ○ Abdomen ● Six pairs of appendages ○ Chelicerae (Jaws) structure for feeding ■ Function capture, tear, ○ Pedipalps small in female, larger in males for sperm transfer ■ Structure can look like little leg, or big ball (passing sperm) or a 5th pair of legs (class of scorpions) ■ Function passing sperm, catching prey ○ 4 pairs of legs ● Eyes simple type Understand what book lungs are ● Book lungs Stacks of alternating air pockets and tissue filled with hemolymph give them an appearance similar to a "folded" book ARANEAE (true spiders) Know the physical features ● Eyes 4 pairs of eyes larger eyes for hunter spiders, spinners have small eyes ● Breath through a combination of book lungs and trachea ● Spinnerets (typically 3 pair) structures for spinning silk, each gland produces different kind of silk ● Cribellum structure in front of spinnerets dictate type of silk ○ Silk can be combed out with special hairs (Calamistrum) on the hind legs ● SImple metamorphosis eggs that hatch into little spider, molt repeatedly until it’s adult ○ Unlike insects molt throughout adulthood ● Mating Males transfer sperm to pedipalps ○ Males often much smaller than female (sexual dimorphism) ○ Two genital openings one on each side of the female abdomen ○ Often elaborate courtship rituals peacock jumping spider ○ Spiderlings newly hatched spiders, they disperse through ballooning ● Ballooning means of long range dispersal for many spiders ○ Use of silk (Gossamer fine silk of many ballooning spiders), as a dragline How does the digestive system and the circulatory system work? ● Know the habits of some common spiders found in Colorado ● Web Spinners (Use sticky web for prey capture) sticky webs ○ Ex. Cobweb spiders, OrbWeavers, Cellar Spiders ● Passive/Ambush Hunters (Some use webs for prey capture) ○ Ex. Funnel Weaver Spiders, Crab Spiders, Tarantulas ● Active Hunters (Rarely use webs for prey capture) ○ Ex. Jumping spiders, Wolf Spiders, Woodlouse Hunter, Long legged sac spiders What occurred in the Tarantism phenomenon? What were the potential causes/cures? Tarantism The greatest spider fear phenomenon of all time classic mass hysteria ● Affected individuals seized with “sort of insanity’ ○ Symptoms difficulty breathing, trembling, frenetic gesturing/dancing ● Suggested Explanations for Tarantism phenomenon ○ Neurotic coping response to conditions during the period of plague (black death) ○ Way to worship Bacchus (drinking wine/dancing were suppressed) may be reason to dance ○ Profitable Entertainment annual, music Know the properties of spider silk, its use by spiders, and its use by humans ● Properties of Spider SIlk ○ Noted for strength and elasticity ○ Breaking point far greater than steel (0.01 cm thread can support 80 grams) ○ Very durable resistant to degradation by fungi, bacteria, organic solvents ● Uses of Silk by Spiders ● Ballooning spiderling parachutes ● Protection of Eggs & Egg Sacs ● Prey Capture & Binding Prey ● Protection and Retreats hole in ground, hiding spots, places to rest/lay eggs ● Dragline ● Web Structures associated with mating ● The Orb Web classic geometric webs Human Uses of Spider Silk ● Fishing catch teeth, or hook ● Textiles and Bandages not sterile, but strong ● Protective Vests United States Department of Defense (USDOD) How long do tarantulas live? ● Tarantula females live 25+ years, males live about 8 What is the primary defense utilized by tarantulas? ● Urticating Hairs irritating hairs
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