Study Guide Exam 1 Collopy HIST 106
Study Guide Exam 1 Collopy HIST 106 HIST 106
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara_vanae on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 106 at Texas A&M University taught by William Collopy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
… = TEST QUESTIONS Evan Carlson United States marine in WW2 Leader of Marine Raiders in Pacific WW2 Gung Ho! = Work Together James Ewell Brown Stuart 1833-1864 Major-General, CSA Virginian West Point 1854 Cavalryman “You can count on me” Dr. Martian Luther King Jr. Born January 12, 1929 Boston University (ph.D) Clergyman Civil Rights Activist Nobel Peace Prize (1964) Died April 1968 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom August 28, 1963 Asking for jobs and freedom Martian King Jr. gave his speech “All men are created equal…” July 4, 1776 stated in Constitution August 28, 1963 people are still arguing they are not free and not represented equally. “I have a dream…” Famous words by MLK America is a nation and Americans are people who treasure freedom Course Themes Change Continuity Character Giacomo Puccini (1858 – 1924) Kiri Te Kanawa Della Reese Born 1931 Detroit, MI Gospel Jazz, R&P, Pop (Listened) Two songs Question #1: What are differences? English vs. Italian Yearning for someone vs. Someone yearning them Opera vs. Pop “Lessons from Japan about War’s Aftermath” When did John Dower write this? October. 2002 When did the combat phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom begin March 2003 Main idea: Don’t think you can look at history and predict what will happen U.S. is going to have to occupy a war zone In second WW U.S. occupied Japan United States Supreme Court 1967 Loving vs. Virginia Mr. Richard Perry Loving Mrs. Mildred Jeter Loving A white man and a black woman got married but caused controversy because interracial marriage was illegal Invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage Thoughts on Historiography and History George Bancroft (1800-1891) “Romantic Nationalism” Progress Liberty Anglo-Saxon destiny The History of the Formation of Constitution of the United States (1882) Charles Austin Beard (1874-1948) Progressive Historian An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913) Major Points Bancroft: Philosophical ideals Beard: Economic Determinism All historians have pension; some are called economic determinism History is not static Sources Primary: the document itself Secondary: a book, series of letters; etc about the primary All suspicious of lying; preconception Fredrick Jackson Turner Famous for the word “frontier” and frontierism What characteristics are common to nationalism and religion? It’s a way of living Music: songs, hymns Symbols Scriptures (specifically: Constitution, Declaration of independence) Analysis Social: race, class, gender because they have affected history Political Economic Cultural Day 3 The Agony of Reconstruction Du Bois First AA to get a Ph. D at Harvard What is Reconstruction? 1863-1877 Adjustment to the end of slavery Re-admittance of states of the Unions A very violent time Impediments (What was instituted to stop reconstruction) Political compromises Immensity of the task Southern fear: whites were afraid that the black would rebel Focus on expansion: o Overseas o Westward Industrialization (North and South) Resistance vs. reconciliation National Government Executive: President of the U.S. Legislative: Congress o HOR and Senate Republican Power “Waving the bloody shirt” Won the war Saved the Union Freed the slaves Passed by Republicans During War Pacific Railroad Act (1862) Homestead Act (1862): free or inexpensive land to the west Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862): created state universities for agriculture Presidential Reconstruction Andrew Johnson (Dem.) o Was a unionist; didn’t like the idea of the states seceding o Ends up getting impeached by Radicals Property ownership restored Generally lenient: in terms over rules to get the states back in the union Radical Reconstruction Refused to seat southerners Passed a Civil Rights bill of 1866: insuring rights of POC; infuriates whites Extended Freedmen’s Bureau Five military districts A Free People Freedom for Freed Slaves Leaving the plantation o Problem was that most slaves only knew agriculture and most slaves were in the south where agriculture was the most prominent Town and City Jobs Marriage New names o Slaves got their names from their master African Americans Priorities AA knew they needed two things if they wanted to be successful o Land o Education Freedmen’s Bureau Labor contracts Schools Judicial services (other than contracts) Pediments to Freedmen’s Bureau Underfunded Understaffed o Had to rely a lot on the Army Blacks sentenced to compulsory labor o Blacks were no allowed to testify against a white man Constitutional Amendments th 13 : abolished slavery 14 : citizenship and due process th 15 : states forbidden to interfere with voting rights based on race Suffrage The 15 amendment helped secure the black (male) vote for Republicans No gains for women Land Ownership Agriculture Gang labor o No chance for a black man to get a head during this time Sharecropping Tenancy Indebtedness to merchants Day 4 Black Self-Help Churches Ministers Schools Land ownership Education American Missionary Association Local schools: develop educators Howard, Fisk, Morehouse, etc. Redemption Reaction to restoration Restoration of white power Violence (militias, KKK) Shift of control from Republicans to Democrats o White voters are always Democrats Black Codes Ostensibly “Protection of right” (WAS BULLSHIT) State and local challenges to federal authority The Codes Firearms Curfew Transportation Reconstruction’s Demise Begins with Emancipation Proclamation 1873-1877 White controlled land and labor Compromise of 1877 (maybe viewed this as the end of Reconstruction) o Settled the 1876 presidential election, naming Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as President of the U.S. Union troops removed Federal support for railroads Local control of race relations Historians’ Consensus No economic base: not enough jobs Race trumps class Legacy “Reconstruction established a framework of legal rights that… planted the seeds of future struggle and left intact a vehicle for future federal…” – Eric ???? The West “We do not want you here. You are scaring away the buffalo.” – Sioux leader Red Cloud to surveyors in WY American Character Frederick Jackson Turner Frontier helped shape America’s character and institutions Taming the wilderness made Europeans into Americans “Rugged individualism” promoted democracy Exceptionalism of American’s society and character Turner’s Frontier Not a fixed phenomenon Moved westward o Atlantic coast o Appalachians o Mississippi River o Across the plains o Rockies Pacific coast Opening the West Transcontinental railroads Defeat of Native Americans Liberal land distribution Eager pioneers and capitalists Territorial government The Great Plains Cattle grazing Public lands Homestead Act 1862 Farmers arrive Barbed wire fencing A Bad Deal for the Buffalo R.R construction R.R construction crews Sport shooting Wasteful practices A bad deal for Native Americans Nomadic culture Forced relocations Forced reliance on whites U.S. army’s campaign Popular image of Native Americans Broken promises, treaties Black Hills gold 1874-1876 Little Big Horn, MT (1876) The Dawes Act 1887 U.S. authority extended to reservations Tribal unity undetermined Land allotted in 160 acre parcels Significant Events (circa 1890) Ghost Dance: have to get spiritually valued ‘ Wounded Knee Creek: a massacre Indian dependency Mining Gold in California 1848 CO, ID, MT, NV Ag, FE, CU, PUB Depletion of timber Environmental awareness Change in Farming Agriculture mechanization Railroad crop shipments Scientific advances Framing Sector Influence Corporate farms farm a small % labor force Farming’s contribution to national wealth decline o Replaced with industry and manufacturing National Grange Cooperatives Accusations against Grain elevator operation Railroads The Industrial Society Growth of Manufacturing Technology Entrepreneurs National resources Capital Labors Leading source of economic growth, 1860-1890 Majority of workforce in manufacturing by 1890 Unequal distribution of wealth and power Government Support Federal: ex. D.C. State: ex. Austin (in my case) Local Land Money Changing Technologies Steam Power (Massachusetts because WATER) Electrical Power Efficient Network Trans-continental railroads Telegraph lines National market Mass production Mass marketing Railroad Finances U.S. capital Foreign capital Government Financial Panics 1873 1893 Arnold C Livesay (author) Andrew Carnegie J.P. Morgan Steel “Rubber Barons” Andrew Carnegie Steel J.P. Morgan Finance Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads John D. Rockefeller Oil Methods for Growth Incorporation: people owned companies but weren’t incorporated *Vertical integration o Exploration o Extraction o Export o Refine o Retail o Sell Trust Holding Companies Retailing Advertising A&P Sears & Roebuck Catalogues The Workplace Workplace Conditions 10 hour days; 6 day week Unsafe, unsanitary conditions “Contributory negligence” No safety net Working class unrest Women at Work The Workforce Men Increasing numbers of women Children Racial Variations – 1900 5% of white married women 25% of African American married women o Southern agriculture o Laundresses o Domestics Railroad Finances Cost-cutting Wage reductions Labor unrest Workplace Changes Expansion among the unskilled and semi-skilled Relentless pressure to produce Ethnic clustering Division of labor: no one does things individually anymore Frederick Windslow Taylor (1866-1915) *”W” stands for work (to remember) Manage production Professional managers Employer control vs. laborer control Tasks divided into sub-tasks Lower morale Worker hostility Division of Labor Single o Component o Function Part of larger finished product Labor Organizes Knights of labor American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers – manufactured cigar markers) o Only members who came into the organization were skilled o Goal: better working conditions and wages American Railway Union Labor Organizes (Continued) Women Ethnic groups Racial groups Workers’ Share Unequal wealth disruption Conflict of wages between the skilled vs the non-skilled Male vs. women wages Unemployment N safety net Workplace Protest’ Production pace Strikes Major Labor Actions R.R. strike of 1877 Haymarket Affair (1886) Homestead Stoke (1892) o Facility: steel Pullman Strike (1894) Government attitude Police Courts Eugene V. Dabs (1855-1926) *conflicted socialist; recognizes that capitalism despite its flaws still works Ran for presidency once in Railroad background Spellbinding public speaker Understood the ballot’s power A conflicted socialist Toward an Urban Society Farm machines replaced hands From: small towns and rural areas Jobs Shops, theaters, restaurants City Geography Steel-framed buildings Elevators Mass transit o Streetcar lines o Elevated lines Middle class out Working class in Immigration to 1880 British Isles o Irish o English o Scots Germans Scandinavians Immigration after 1880 Italian Catholics Eastern European Jews Slavic o Russians o Poles A Nation of Big Cities among the citiesst Q: Ask about the trand By 1900 o 6 cities > ½ million people o 3 cities > 1 million people New York Chicago Philadelphia Not Quite Paradise Overcrowded tenements Deplorable conditions o Putrid air o Impure water supply o Random waste disposal o Industrial pollution o Crime and gangs Muckrakers One of the most famous Jacob Riis Writer o Author of: How the Other Half Lives Journalist Photography Other Immigration Chinese – Pacific Coast Latin Americans o Southwest U.S. o Florida SPEC Ethnic Religious Publications Victorian morality Temperance – non consumption of alcoholic beverages Games at home Baseball, fairs, circuses They Came to Work Politics Political machines “Bosses” “Tweed Ring” (William M. Tweed) Not just NYC Political Parties As the US continued to industrialize into the 20 century, the _____ Party was considered to be more supportive of the working class. Democratic Women Smaller families Single workers Increased legal rights National American Women Suffrage Association (1890) Elementary Education Structured curriculum, discipline, routine *Horace Mann (educator of Massachusetts; wrote the book) Boys = more schooling South lagged the North Higher Education Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 Philanthropy Leland Stanford Univ. of Stanford John D Rockefeller (Univ. of Chicago) made his money in oil Booker T. Washington Former slave Educator Tuskegee Institute founder “Atlanta Compromise” – 1895 o Vote o Civil Rights o Equality Accommodation W.E.B. Du Bois Ph. D Harvard Disagreed with Booker T. Washington “Talented truth” Niagara movement NAACP The Crisis the editor Stresses that the best of AA need to be stressed about and highlighted amongst the community Race Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) o Says separate but equal was justifiable o Jim Crow South North o De fact (segregation by fact) versus de jure (segregation by law) View of Society Herbert Spencer o “Social Darwinism”: People are going to do better naturally Henry George o Wealth gap growing Social Gospel o Society as well as individuals Settlement House (In the city places) Jane Addams – Hull House Sharing the lives of the poor to help people progress in: o Infant medical care o Recreation (dancing, music, poetry) o Employment Information o Cultural exposure o Citizenship education Florence Kelley Child Labor Law degree o Efforts at legislation State Federal African American Migration Beginning around 1800 From: rural areas of the south To: South’s cities (like ATX and Charleston) To: North’s cities Race Local initiatives o Churches o Clubs o Schools NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - 1909) o White progressive o White liberals o Black leaders o Long legal process Political Realignments (1890s) The Gilded Age *a prosperous time Voting White Males South o Poll tax o Literacy (Can you read?) Women A Hobbled government From Lincoln to Teddy Roosevelt Gridlocked legislative branch Weak, reluctant executive branch Depressions of 1873, 1893 o 1873: railroads o 1893: effects the next presidential election in 96’ State Government Initiatives Commissions regulating railroads Prompted deferral legislative o Interstate Commerce Act (1887) o Interstate Commerce Commission Depression of 1893 Began in Europe Shrinking markets abroad U.S. manufacturing crippled Collapsing farm prices Dumping of U.S. securities Symptoms of the Depression Cozey’s Army (1894) o Print money (cheap) o Construction jobs Pullman Strike (1894) o American Railway Union (Eugene V. Debs) o Obstructed the mail o U.S. Army troops Nation Grange Cooperative Accusations against o Grain elevator operators o Railroads Populism Grange Nation Alliance Have a convention called Ocala Platform (1890) o Form the Populist Party (1892) Mary Lease Populist speaker Farming areas Says “Raise less corn and more Hell!” o Challenge farmers to have a voice and tell Washington they are unhappy; something needs to change National Alliance Ocala Platform of 1890 *foundation of the Populist Party Sub-treasuries o Keep stored away until it gains revenue Increase money supply Reclaim R.R. lands Reduce or eliminate tariffs (tax on imported goods) Graduated income tax Populist Party (1892) People’s (Populist) Party 1892) Popular election of senators 8-hour day Restricted immigration Graduated income tax Populists Farmers Miners Working people The People’s (Populist Party) 1892 Elections Governors in KS, ND 10 Congressmen 5 U.S. Senators 1,500 state legislators Political Realignments, 1890s (II) 1896 Election Many historians consider it one of the most important elections in US history Republican New England Protestant Nativist leaning Prohibitionist (bad for people to drink alcohol) African American Support Democrats Cities Irish, Italian, German Catholic Saloon Patrons Northern Cities The South Election of 1896 “Goldbugs” vs “Silverites” William McKinley (R) o Supports tariffs (tax on imported goods) Domestic manufactures supported him and the tariff o Gold standard o “Full dinner pail” William Jennings Bryan (D) o Populist candidate also o Producing classes o Free coinage of silver Puts silver into currency not just gold You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold” Platform: Gold and silver, unlimited coinage McKinley A revived economy Cooperation with (Republican) Congress Protectionist tariff Gold Standard Act Inflation *Decrease in purchasing power of a currency Where do third parties go to die? They get dispersed and absorbed into one of the two larger parties (Democratic or Republican) Ragtime Film Viewing How does the place where Harry K Thaw was arrested in the film differ from the place reported in the New York Times story? September 23, 2016 Aftermath – US Independent Cuba Puerto Rico Guam Philippine annexation (1899) Platt Amendment (1901) No treaties with third powers o The US insist that their territories cannot sign a treaty with their permission Financial restrictions US right of intervention o Ex. the nation becomes politically/economically unstable; the US would retain a naval base – Guantanamo Bay Filipino – American War *A guerilla war 1899-1902 Emilio Aguinaldo Brutal, murderous guerilla warfare Strong racist element President “Teddy” Roosevelt McKinley reelected in 1900 Theodore Roosevelt, Vice President 1901 – McKinley assassinated Roosevelt became president Theodore Roosevelt in the Americas Roosevelt Corollary American intervention o Santo Domingo o Guatemala o Nicaragua East Asia “Open door: china policy Sphere of influence US England Germany Russia France Japan Italy China No advantage for any county Boxer Rebellion (1900) o Nationalist movement Suppressed by foreign powers Naval Power Emerging Commercial and Naval Powers England France Germany Japan Russia US Industrialized Nation (what it looks like) Expanding manufactures Urbanization Food imports Raw material imports Expert markets The US naval Not a lot of emphasis In decline Larger, often fleets o Britain o France o Germany Vulnerability: US interests in Caribbean and Pacific US Vulnerabilities Three coasts Interaction of commerce. o British or German blockade to interfere with commerce?. Monroe Doctrine British Vulnerabilities Nova Scotia coal fields Coaling station, Halifax; Bermuda Canadian and Southern American grain Short Cut-Needed USS Oregon (BB-3) By the time it gets to Florida, the war is almost over 67 days US Fleet Concept Two-ocean navy Built around battleship Modern Surface Ships Steel hulls and armor Steam Hydraulics Electricity Long range guns Hugh explosive ordnance Alfred Thayer Mahan – Captain, USN Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 The tactics of how a navy fights Says: if you are going to engage, implode global commerce, you require naval forces for protection Naval forces required distant colonies for fueling maintenance and repair England and its colonies served as the model Britain’s Fleet Concept “Two – Power” standard: can handle/fight two major counties/missions Mission o Secure homeland o Secure sea lanes o Secure countries and colonies of Empire \ Admiral Sir John Fisher Chief officer for Great Britain First Sea Lord (1904-1910) Says: Battle fleets based on battleships if US is going to have a navy Long distance steaming exercise Gunnery Improved maintenance German Fleet Concept Based on Admiral Alfred von Tipitz Says: navy needs to be based on battleships Mahan’s influence
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