New Testament BIBL 110 Study Guide Exam 1
New Testament BIBL 110 Study Guide Exam 1 BIBL-110
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Teague on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIBL-110 at Lee University taught by Dr. Mark A. Proctor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see New Testament in Religion-Christianity at Lee University.
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Study Guide What is the New Testament?- Historical Answer What is the New Testament? a collection of 27 early Christian writings written in Koinē Greek. Who wrote the New Testament? 4 Evangelists, Paul, and 10 others. Who were the 4 Evangelists? Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. What were the different varieties of genres in the New Testament? Gospels (Ancient Biography), Ecclesiastical (church) “History”, Letters, Apocalypse, Sermon What is the New Testament?- Religious Answer What does the New Testament do? It reveals God’s identity and shows how God relates to humanity through Jesus. What is “tetraevangelium?” the 4-fold Gospel. Canon (kanōn) (measuring stick) - The New Testament serves as an accepted standard that Christians can use to “measure” matters pertaining to their faith. Canonization Process Stage 1: Composition & Reception (49-125 CE) Stage 2: Collection & Circulation (90-175 CE) Stage 3: Need for Selectivity & Deﬁnition (150-275 CE) Stage 4: Emergence of Deﬁnitive Lists (170-400 CE) When was the Canon set? end of the 4th century What are the 4 Criteria of Canonicity? -Apostolicity- the work must be of an apostle OR someone closely associated with an apostle. -Catholicity- the work must be universal to the life of faith. -Antiquity- it must set from the earliest periods of church history (before 125 CE) -Orthodoxy- must agree with received church tradition Which was the primary concern for what made it into the NT? (tradition or inspiration) Tradition. Without the effects of tradition, there would be no NT. Inspiration was not a primary concern. They did not believe that all inspired works belonged in the NT. Study Guide “sola scriptura”- “only scripture” Who was Tatian? A Syrian church ofﬁcial who wanted to produce a Syrian translation of the 4 gospels. He harmonized all 4 into 1, and called it the Diatessaron. All copies of it were gathered and burned. Who was Marcion? He said that the God of the OT and the one of the NT must be two different gods. He wanted to do away completely with the Old Testament. and chose Luke to be the only gospel. (He cut out 2 chapters, though.) He also edited some of Paul’s letters. Who was Bishop Athanasius? An Alexandrian who wrote a letter to churches and said that the 27 speciﬁc books were beneﬁcial (Easter of 367 CE). The Synods of Carthage and Hippo agreed with the Bishop. How did the NT reach its current form? What is the current state of manuscript evidence pertaining to the NT? There are no autographs (originals), but there are approximately 5735 Greek Manuscripts. Facts about the Greek Manuscripts They are on Papyri, Uncials, Minuscules, and Lectionaries. The oldest (partial) manuscript is P^52 (written in 125 CE). The oldest complete copies date to the 4th century. No 2 are alike. There are an abundance of some intentional, some unintentional, scribal errors. What are two modern critical editions of the New Testament? -Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament -United Bible Societies Greek New Testament History of the English Bible -Wycliffe Bible- handwritten (1320-1334) -William Tyndale- printed only the New Testament. was burned at the stake. (ca. 1526) -Coverdale Bible- printed the entire Bible (1535) -King James Version- a 7 year task that produced a vernacular translation for the Anglican Church. Greek Period Alexander the Great (356-63 BCE) Aristotle’s student, who became king at 22. He called himself the New Achilles. He died in Babylon at 33, leaving behind Diadochi (generals) to rule. Study Guide Ptolemies & Seleucids -Ptolemy 1 (Egypt) & Selecicus (Syria) -Had a hands-off cultural policy Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ruled 175-163 BCE) A Seleucid ruler who forcefully imposed Hellenism. He looted the Jerusalem Temple in 169 BCE. He committed the “Abomination of Desolation”- set up an alter to Zeus in the temple & slaughtered a pig. He actively persecuted the Jews. Maccabean Revolt & Hasmonean Dynasty (163-63 BCE) Who were the Hasidims? “Holy Ones” who wanted to preserve their culture despite Antiochus IV. Mattathias instigated the revolt against Antiochus IV. Judas Maccabeus (“The Hammer”) Mattathias’s son who gained control of Palestine. He started Hanukkah/ Feast of Dedication. Simon (140-134 BCE) Judas’s Brother & Successor. Was named the High Priest, Commander of the Army, Leader of the Jews. He ofﬁcially founded the Hasmonean Dynasty. John Hyrcanus (134-104 BCE) Simon’s son & successor who expanded Jewish territory, despite God saying the original territory of the Jews was all they needed. This led to conﬂict with the Pharisees, plus they did not like that he also wanted to be called High Priest, etc., like Simon. Roman Period (63 BCE- end of NT era) Who was the ﬁrst Procurator to control Palestine for the Romans? Antipater (54-43 BCE) Herod the Great (ruled 43-4 BCE) Antipater’s son of Idumean heritage. He was named “King of the Jews”, and took control of Jerusalem in 37 BCE. He extended the Hasmonean dynasty, and created extravagant building programs. What were Herod the Great’s greatest architectural accomplishments? New Jerusalem Temple (20 BCE-62 CE) Caesarea Marítima Fortress at Masada Study Guide ***What year was the Temple destroyed? 70 CE. Herod Antipas (4 BCE-39 CE) Tetrarch of Galilee & Perea who killed John the Baptist. Philip (4 BCE-34 CE) Tetrarch of areas North & East of Lake of Galilee, who built new residence at Caesarea Philippi. Rebuilt Bethsaida- ﬁshing town. Herod Archelaus (4 BCE- 6 CE) Ethnarch over Judea, Samaria, and Idumea. (the most “important” areas). He was vicious and incompetent, and was removed by the Romans. Pontius Pilate (ruled 26-36 CE) He condemned Jesus to death, and was extremely unpopular among the Jews. Felix (ruled 52-60 CE) He allowed Paul’s trial to drag on for over 2 years in hopes of receiving a bribe. (Read Acts 24:26-27) Porcius Festus (ruled 60-62 CE) Granted Paul’s request to be sent to Rome for trial. What happened during the Jewish War? (66-73 CE) It was a disastrous revolt that led to Jerusalem’s Destruction (70 CE), and led to Titus burning the temple. Masada was the last stronghold of Jewish Zealots, but they committed mass suicide suggested by Josephus because they knew what the Roman’s would do to them would be much worse. What were the effects of the Bar Kochba Revolt? Simon bar Kochba (“Son of a star”) began the revolt, but it was quickly crushed by Hadrian. Hadrian then razed Jerusalem, constructed Aelia Capitolina, erected a Roman shrine on the site of Herod’s temple, and forbade Jews to enter Jerusalem. Religious Context of 1st Century Christianity What is the Greek Pantheon? Consists of 12 Olympians & Anthropomorphic deities. Who was Asclepius? Greek god of healing and supreme patron of medicine. Study Guide What was the Emperor cult? Emperors believed they were turned into gods once they passed away. However, some demanded to be worshipped as gods while still living. Some examples of these emperors are Gaius Caligula, Nero, Domitian, and Commodus. What is Mithraism? A religion that worshipped Mithras, a solar deity born from a rock on December 25th. Wise men visited his place of birth, and Mithras killed a bull after he was born, whose blood and semen was used to create new life. This religion was popular amongst the military, because all males that were initiated were drenched in bull’s blood. This was Christianity’s #1 competitor until 312 CE. What is Orphism? A religion that worshipped Dionysus/Bacchus, the Greek god of wine. He had a divine father, and a human mother. He was the only Greek god to experience birth, death, resurrection, and ascension. Salvation was reached through deliverance from sin. They believed they would be rewarded or punished in the afterlife. What is the Isis cult? They worshipped an Egyptian mother goddess who helped in resolving life’s dilemmas. There was a possibility for a happy existence after death. They participated in ceremonial washings and communal meals. Jewish Religious Context Pharisees Called “seperated ones”. A middle class movement with an emphasis on ritual purity. They had unique beliefs of ﬁnal judgement, angels & demons, eschatological resurrection, post-mortem rewards & punishments. They consisted of Torah scholars who called the ﬁrst 5 books of the OT the ‘mosiac pentateuch’. They were Synagogue- centered, and had an oral law. Sadducees Religious aristocrats, political realists, and Heirs of Zadok. They did not have an oral law, and did not believe in resurrection, angels, and demons. They had a controlled sacriﬁcial system and temple cult. They disappeared after temple’s destruction in 70 CE. Essenes Religious Reactionaries who preserved the Dead Sea Scrolls. They had a monastic community at Qumran with a simple lifestyle. Their leader was named the Teacher of Righteousness. They had ritual washings and communal meals of bread and wine. They had 2 Messiahs (Priestly & Kingly). It is said that John the Baptist was an Essene. Zealots Political and Religious Activists, who were strict monotheists. They precipitated the Jewish War. They held an Eschatological worldview. Study Guide Deﬁning Gospel Relationships What are the Synoptic Gospels? Matthew, Mark, & Luke. What is the etymology of “synoptic”? Sunopsizō: “to view at the same time, see all together. Statistical Information about the Synoptic Gospels -Matthew contains about 90% of Mark. -Luke contains around 50% of Mark. -20% of Matthew is unique. -about 35% of Luke is unique. -only 3 stories/ 30 verses of Mark is left unrepeated. Triple Tradition- found in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Double Tradition- found in Matthew & Luke Single Tradition- found in Matthew OR Mark OR Luke Synoptic Arrangement of Events -John the Baptist -Jesus’s baptism -Jesus’s Temptation -Galilean Ministry -Journey to Jerusalem -Ministry in Jerusalem -Teaching at the Temple Precincts -Passion -Resurrection What is the synoptic problem? The striking similarities and subtle differences suggest a literacy dependency. 4 Viable Answers to the Synoptic Problem. #1- Augustinian Hypothesis (ca.400 CE) Matthew -> Mark -> Luke Pre Critical notion inﬂuenced by Matthew’s Popularity (Mark copied from Matthew, Luke copied from both) Study Guide #2- Griesbach Hypothesis (1783 CE) Matthew wrote ﬁrst, Luke used Matthew, and Mark abbreviated Matthew and Luke. 4 problems: Why would Mark abbreviate? How might one explain Mark’s countless additions? No decisive evidence of borrowing between Matt. & Luke. No decisive evidence of borrowing between Matt. & Luke. How might one explain differences between Luke and Matthew? #3- 2-Source Theory (1863) Most widely held solution, says that Mark wrote ﬁrst, Matthew and Luke used Mark. Matthew and Luke also used a source, “Q”. Accounts for double tradition unique to Matthew & Luke. 3 problems: Narrative content in Q. Matthew-Luke agreements in Mark. Theory lacks appreciation for oral tradition. #4- 4-Source Hypothesis (1924) 2 new sources that are “M” & “L” that account for materials peculiar to Matthew & Luke. The Gospel of Mark Who wrote Mark? It is anonymous but traditionally associated with Mark, who was not one of the 12 disciples nor Jesus’s earthly companion, but just a friend of an aging Peter. Papias Says Mark was Peter’s “amanuensis”, and that Mark lacks “systematic arrangement”. What is the Antimarcionite Prologue? “Mark, who was called stump ﬁngered, was the interpreter of Peter. After the departure of Peter, he wrote a gospel in Italy.” The organization of Mark: -Prelude to Jesus’s public ministry -Jesus’s baptism (Marks “Chritological Moment”) -Galilean Ministry -Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet -Journey to Jerusalem -3 passion predictions -Focus on Jesus’s teaching -Jerusalem Ministry -Jesus’s authority over Jerusalem’s religious leaders -Passion Narrative -pace slows to an hour-by-hour account -disciples abandon Jesus -Cry of Dereliction -The Empty Tomb Study Guide Mark as a Writer What was the signiﬁcance of Jesus speaking in Aramaic in the gospel of Mark? Every time he spoke in Aramaic, someone would be healed. Mark included some superﬂuous information, and longer accounts of the same stories that are also found in Matthew and Luke. Intercalations/Sandwich Technique Writer begins one story only to interrupt it & tell another through to completion before ﬁnally ﬁnishing the ﬁrst. Stories share common elements. Examples: Jairus’ Daughter/Hemorrhaging Woman. Cursing of the Fig Tree/Cleansing of the the Temple. How is Mark written? Unsophisticatedly narrated, and rapidly paced. It creates a sense of urgency. How does Mark emphasize Jesus’s humanity? “low” Christology- leaning to describe Jesus as more human than divine. examples: Jesus struggles to heal the blind man, performs no great miracle in Nazareth, frequently tired, and at times seems unable to control situations & appears threatened. He is periodically angry and tires to escape his death by running away. Matthew: Jesus the New Moses Papias Said that “Matthew collected the sayings (logia) in the Aramaic language and everyone translated them as well as he could.” Matthew used his own handwritten notes from Jesus’s earthly ministry to compose a Gospel several decades after Jesus’s death. To disprove Papias: Matthew’s wasn't an eyewitness to the events of Jesus’s lifetime. Also, Matthew wrote in Greek, not Aramaic. Organization: -Preserves Mark’s special arrangement -Inserts 5 discourse sections into Mark’s frame -Mimics Pentateuch’s structure -Genealogy & Infancy narrative -Prelude to Jesus’s Public Ministry Study Guide Discourse #1- Sermon on the Mount Discourse #2- Misson Discourse Discourse #3- Parables Discourse Discourse #4- Ecclesiological Discourse Discourse #5- Eschatological Discourse (between each discourse section is a narrative section, and one after #5). (Matthew wanted to portray Jesus like Moses, which is why there are 5 discourse sections.) Matthew’s Infancy Narrative 3 Sets of 14 Generations from Abraham to Joseph. Matthew included 5 women, Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Bathsheba, Mary. (The common denominator is immoral irregularity, excluding Mary. These disorderly women, excluding Mary, worked for the beneﬁt of Israel in her own way.) Unique Characters: Herod the Great, and Magi QUESTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN EMPHASIZED IN LECTURE THAT WILL BE ON THE EXAM: -How does a person reconcile his or her belief in a fundamentally good god and an all powerful deity with the existence of innocent human suffering? -Moses is to Judaism as Jesus is to Christianity.
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