PSY 205; Study guide
PSY 205; Study guide PSY 205
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Epstein on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 205 at Syracuse University taught by S. Houck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
PSYCH OLOGY Zoe Epstein Test date: 09/27/16 Chapter 1: Early definition of Psych: acquired the meaning “study of the mind” in the 18 century Current definition of Psych: scientific study of human and animal behavior and mental processes looking at the mind behavior and interaction btwn them psychologist study many types of topics very diverse Major figures: William Wundt German: founder of psych Est 1 research lab at the University of Leipzig st Est 1 pysch journal for research pub G Stanley Hall: Student of Wundt Brought pysch to American st Est 1 US research labJohn Hopkins Est APA; elected the 1 pres Edwards Titchener: Method of introspection careful, being observation of one’s own conscious experience Sensations, feelings, images etc. Trained subjects to be aware of their thoughts so he could observe diff components of them Led structuralist movement William James: Applied natural selection to human consciousness Consciousness must have a purpose Sigmund Freud (Austrian): Wanted to know about mental disorders, personality, etc. Focuses on the unconscious determinants of behavior A lot of his ideas don’t have empirical (info gained by observation) evidence Ppl aren’t in control of things Believe unconscious influence how we think/act behavior Not aware of influence who we are John B Watson: Founder of behaviorism Downplayed heredity; behavior is governed by the environment Extreme view on behaviorism Genes don’t influence environment does B.F Skinner: Fundamental principle: o organisms will repeat things if they lead to + outcome and won’t repeat if they lead to – outcome layered foundation to train animals Carol Rogers: behavior is governed by one’s sense of self Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of needs Functionalism: psych should investigate the function of purpose of consciousness rather than its structure didn’t care about all working part what to know why we have consciousness Structuralism: task of psych is to analyze consciousness into its basic tenants and investigate how these elements are related Psych: scientific study of human and animal behavior and mental processes Psychiatry: branch of medicine concerned with psychological disturbance have medical degrees main diff they can prescribe medicine Behaviorism: scientific psych should study only observable behavior Ex: what are the effects of violent videos games on aggression? o Behaviorist would give 1 group of children violent vid game nd o 2 group nonviolent game 2 o research/measure aggression that’s observable focus on behavior such as yelling and punching o don’t report feeing/internal states I feel angry Humanism: Human = Unique; fulfill potential if given opportunities Highlights the unique qualities of humans and their personal worth Ppl are rational and logical beings, unique from other animals Humans fulfill their potential if given the chance as well as opportunities Cognition: Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Memory, language, reasoning, problem solving, decision making Emerged out of response to strict behaviorism Want to study mental process Cognitive neuroscience: Physiological brain states directly correlate w/ mental states Hemisphere work indecently when corpus damage almost like 2 sep ppl Social: WWII How and why did the nazi war criminals do what they did? How and why did they go along w/ the orders? How we are influenced and what we are influenced by? How ppl influence each other Evolutionary: Don’t look physical traits that are past down Look at behavior Which are most useful to past down to generation? Chapter 2: Positivism: 3 scientists largely adhere Truth exists, can know it assume we can find the truth Why is it necessary? 1. We have no other standards for judging theories except how true they are 2. How else do we face our theories or laws? Doesn’t say we can prove truth exists Goes close to the truth Have to assume we can get to the truth w/ knowledge we have Corollary of positivism: An orderly universe ex: flipping an coin gravity exist Allows us to be able to predict things Foundation of science prediction Empiricism: an approach to comprehending the world that involves collecting data or making observations not only truth exists but we can find out abt it in a certain way Multiple ways to run empirical tests: 1. experimental 2. nonexperimental methods surveys, naturalistic observation, participant, correlational design Experiments: strengths: good for answering practical questions weaknesses: bad for answering meaning type questions 4 hypothesis: testable, predictions abt what you expect to happen in an experiment tentative statement *goal is to predict an outcome* theory: system of interconnected ideas used to explain must be testable *goal = understanding* independent variable (IV): the thing doing the causing condition or event experimenter varies; to see its impact to another variable dependent variable (DV): what we’re measuring variable that is affected by the manipulation of the IV ex: what is the effect of caffeine on sleep? IV DV operational definition: describes actions used to measure or control a variable variable: measureable condition, event, or behavior that are controlled or observed in a study Want these as similar as possible –helps know if experimental group: receive treatment in regard to there’s a diff then IV manipulation affected control group : no treatment received extraneous variable: possible thing that could influence might not o any variables (not IV) seem like to influence/effect DV ex: age, gender, noise, level, lighting, bad day how do you control? o Random assignment: wont grantee, most common method Equal chance that all subjects can be assigned to any group or condition Confounding variable: variables researchers fail to controltwo variables linked tg but can’t sort out their specific effects Expectancy(placebo): change in DV outcome in result of the subject’s expectancy that there should be chance ex: person consumes grapefruit juice that they believe contains alcohol and “feel” intoxicated Expectancy is controlled withdoubleblind study: both the experiment nor the participants are not aware of the group the participates are assigned to ex: participants/experimenter should NOT know which group gets juice and which gets alcohol Experiment bias is based on ^^ Ad abt experiments: conclusions = causeandeffect relationship btw diff variables Disad abt experiments: nonnatural as results of the need to control study some research question can the used 5 Nonexperimental methods: Survey: questionnaires, interviews; ways to gather info abt ppls attitudes, beliefs, or behavior Ads: inexpensive easy way to collect data from large samples Disads: social desirability bias: don’t get true behavior of the person Naturalistic observation: researchers observe and record behavior in person rather than relying on subject’s descriptions of their tasks o Useful in settings where experimentation can be difficult or not possible ex: prison, school Participant observations: researchers involve themselves into experiment see what it is like ex: researcher were curious in cult members attitudes and beliefs Case study: very detailed description of a single individual usually intended or used to investigate rare, unusual, or extreme conditions Sampling bias: occurs when the sample does not represent the whole population where the sample was taken from Correlation studies: measuring 2 naturally occurring items and see if they relate to each other correlation: relationship btw 2 or more variables pos correlation: when 2 variables vary in the same direction; both go up or both go down neg correlation: when 2 variables vary in the opposite direction one goes up and the other goes down 3 variable problem: when there is a possibility that neither variable has a causal effect on each other, which results in a 3rd variable Chapter 3: Biological psych: branch of psych which studies physiology causes of behavior Neuron structure: Dendrites: receive the info Soma: the cell body, contains the nucleus 6 Axon: moves the info away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin Sheath: makes communication faster, info processing, fatty substance hat insulates the axon Terminal buttons: stores and secretes chemicals called neurotransmitters Synapse: gap or junction btw neurons, it is where the info is transmitter Motor neurons: motion transmits messages from the spinal cord or the brain to muscles and glands Sensory neurons: sensation transmits messages from the sensory organs to the spinal cord or brain Mirror neurons: allows the mirror experience we see in the world brain “mirrors” the movements it sees allows us to connect w/ other ppl Gila: supports and nourishes neurons glue Resting neurons: ions= Na+, K, Cl the ions go back and forth across the cell membrane, but don’t cross at the same rate there are more – ions inside the cell which means voltage of neurons at rest contain potential energy Resting potential: when neuron is stimulated the channels open and ions rush in changing the neurons charge to become more + electrical signal which travels along the axon Absolute refractory period: the amount of time that it takes for a neuron to return back to the resting potential state after an action potential Allornone law: either the neurons will fire of not there is NO inbtwn action potential is the same way freq of neuron firing reflects intensity of the stimulus Postsynaptic potential (PSP): neurotransmitter and receptor molecule come together to create a voltage change at the receptor site on a post synaptic membrane allornone law doesn’t apply probability of a neutral impulse will depend on a voltage charge 2 types of messages: 1. excitatory: + voltage shift occurs increase in the probability that the neuron will fire an action potential 2. inhibitory: – voltage change decrease in the probability of neuron firing ***Both depend on receptor sites that are activated*** 7 Neurotransmitters: stored in the terminal button in the synaptic vesicles chemicals that transmit info from transferring one neuron to another neurotransmitter gets released into the synapse fundamental to behavior Reuptake: absorb left over transmitters Dopamine: voluntary movement, pleasure, emotions allows us to stand up, move, be in control of our movements too little: Parkinson’s too much: schizophrenia Serotonin: sleep, mood, hunger too little: depression (other things can cause contributing factor) too high: OCD anxiety disorder Endorphins: pleasure, pain relief and response to stress natural pain relief structure is similar to opiate drugs Acetylcholine (Ach): important for memory, voluntary movement, attention, arousal Norepinephrine: mood and arousal low amounts lead to ADHA depression Oxytocin: released when touched attraction and bonding w/ another being “ love hormone” Antagonist: chemical that blocks the neurotransmitters action Agonists: chemical that copies neurotransmitter Reuptake inhibitors: chemicals that connects to the neurotransmitter and prevents reuptake from occurring 4 Lobes of the brain: Frontal Lobe: responsible for reasoning, thinking, planning, problem solving, parts of speech, motor control, sense of smell Broca’s Area: Left frontal lobe speech production (Rare)Broca’s Aphasia: problems producing speech but can comprehendnothing comes out when attemps to speak broken Broca Temporal Lobe: auditory info, organizes verbal mater aka talking, comprehension of language Wernicke’s Area: comprehension of language left part of temporal lobe Wernicke’s Aphasia: struggle to comprehend language, can lose completely, “jumbled speech 8 Occipital Lobe: visual info, if there’s demand to the primary visual cortex blindness can result not only cause of blindness Parietal lobe: processes all 5 senses combines sensory info from various part so the body ex: hand touches a hot store sensory neurons activespatial sens and navigation ex: knowing left and right, feeling pain and sensation Cerebellum: “little brain” coordination, equilibrium, balance, posture The Limbic System: emotion and memory Thalamus: sensory way station all sense except smell Hypothalamus: below thalamus, works w/ pituitary, regulates hunger thirst, sex, sleep, temperature controls, hormones, motivation and emotional drives Hippocampus: helps retrieve memory and formation of new memories if you are very stressed your memory gets worse Amygdala: 2 almond shaped sets of neurons located deep in the temporal lobe linked w/ emotion (fear and aggression) and linked with some memory processes Chapter 4: Psychophysics: the branch of psych that deals w/ physical stimuli and mental phenomena Sensation: stimulation of sense organs Perception: selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory info Vision: stimulus is light multiple events to get Brain processes Visual info by… receiving info from the retina L eye info goes to the R side of the brain and visa versa info goes to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain Flow through each part of the eye to the brain: starts at the cornea where light enters Next the pupil lets the light pass to the rear chamber of the eye colored ring of muscle around the eye is the iris Then info goes to the lens which focuses the light ray falling on retina and inverts (flips) the visual info 9 Next retina which is the neutral tissues lining in the inside back surface of the eye takes info organizes it and sends it to the brain and transforms into visual scene. **Bc we have a brain we see everything the right way eyes see upside down brains flips** Blind spots occur as a result of the optic disk which is a hole in the retina where the optic fibers exit the eye cross over the opposition side optic chiasm Rods: key role in night and peripheral vision sensitive to dim light Cones: key role in daylight and color vision visual activity Dark adaptation: going from bright light to dark light Rods favored, cones inhibited ex: going into a movie theater Light adaptation: going from dark light to bright light Cones favored, rods inhibited ex: leaving a movie theater Synesthia: rare neurological condition which leads to unusual sensory experiences goes haywire ex: tasting color, head sounds w/ visual images, hearing shapes, and tasting shapes Theories of color vision: Trichromatic Theory: 3 types of cones w/ differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths: RED, GREEN, BLUE The colors we see are the result of a combo of the differing amounts of lights absorbed by the 3 types of cones Explanation for some types of colorblindness o Monochromats: ppl who are totally colored blind More common in rare hereditary o Dichromats: ppl who are blind to either redgreen or yellowblue Opponent process theory: color perception depends on the receptor that make antagonistic response to 3 pairs of colors 1. Red vs Green 2. Yellow vs blue 3. Black vs White 10 Explains afterimage: a visual image that continues after a stimulus is removed o ex: continual viewing green weakens the ability to inhibit red you see the other color in the 3 color pairings Perceptual set: based on past relations have readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way Inattentional blindness: failure to see objects or events bc one’s attention is focused elsewhere when you don’t perceive something or someone ex: person swap experiment person giving the direction didn’t see the person who was asking for directions changed when blocked by the painting to focused in the directions Bottomup processing (data driven): part whole –moving from dissecting info whole ex: vision starts w/ sense receptors and progresses to brain’s incorporation of sensory info Topdown processing: (concept driven): whole part Sensory adaptation: gradual decline in sensitivity to prolong stimulation Ex: eating a tub of ice cream sweet at 1 then sweetness goes away after a while 11
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