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Exam One Study Guide! Biol 120
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Noratel on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 120 at Towson University taught by Jennifer M Wenzel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
LECTURE ONE 1. Biology is the study of life or living things. 2. In order to be a living thing, an organism has to have a nucleus, has to be able to reproduce, and has to contain both Carbon and Hydrogen. 3. For something to be alive, it has to contain genes. 4. Asexual reproduction is the process of something reproducing by itself. The "children" are identical to the "parent" 5. Asexual reproduction is beneficial because there is no need to find a mate, so the offspring isn't likely to die off. 6. A drawback of sexual reproduction may be the offspring's ability to adapt to its environment. 7. Sexual reproduction requires two organisms, each having its own set of genes. The offspring has a combination of the parents, and is not genetically identical to its parents. 8. A benefit of sexual reproduction is the uniqueness of the offspring, as well as a possibly higher ability to adapt to the environment because of evolution. 9. A possible drawback of sexual reproduction is the possibility of not being as adapted to the current environment. 10. A dynamic unit is an organism whose every cell is constantly changing, adapting, and reacting to its environment. 11. A living thing interacts with its environment in order to find/hunt food bad stay away from predators. 12. Charles Darwin's Survival of the Fittest tells us that the organisms best equipped to the environment are the most likely to survive and reproduce. 13. A virus is a small, infectious agent, like the cold, the flu, or the chicken pox. 14. Viruses are alive because they: contain DNA/RNA, they are dynamic units, they adapt to their environment, and they evolve. Viruses however, cannot reproduce on their own—they must be inside of a host (another species) and can only reproduce there. 15. Our body contains 65% water 16. Our blood contains 85% water 17. Our bones contain 22% water 18. Our muscles contain 75% water 19. Our brain contains 74% water 20. The earth's surface contains 70% water, (02% fresh water, 68% saline, or salt, water) 21. As a chemical compound, water is made of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, or H20. 22. Water is also a polar molecule, because the molecules have opposite charges. The oxygen has a positive charge and pulls negatives to it—because the hydrogen is negatively charged and pulls positives to it, both molecules attract one another. 23. The oxygen and hydrogen form a covalent bond because they both attract and repulse one another at the same time. 24. Water has a high heat capacity. The hydrogen bonds hold in the heat energy and maintain moderate temperatures. 25. When we sweat, water is released from our bodies. The evaporation cools us and the hydrogen bonds are broken and transferred from a liquid to a gaseous state, allowing us to cool off. 26. The ocean takes in heat from sunlight, keeping the planet warm enough for us to live here. 27. In solid water, the heat energy is removed. 28. In liquid water, the water bonds casually. 29. In gas water, the molecules don't bond, and because of this, the molecules are rushing around. 30. What kind of molecule is this? solid water 31. What kind of molecule is this? liquid water 32. What kind of molecule is this? gaseous water 33. Water sticks to itself through hydrogen bonds (coherence), which results in surface tension. 34. Water sticks to other thing by forming slight hydrogen bonds (adherence), like how our skin gets wet in the shower instead of gliding off. 35. Because water is a polar molecule, it is able to dissolve hydrophilic molecules (aka water loving) like salt, alcohol, paint, etc, though it is unable to dissolve hydrophobic molecules (aka water fearing) like oil. 36. pH stands for "power of hydrogen." 37. Water is neutral, having a level of 7 on a scale of 014, 0 being very acidic, and 14 being very basic. 38. At room temperature, water is selfionizing, which means that the molecules will separate themselves at any time into ions. 39. When there are more H+ than OH ions, the solution is acidic. 40. When there are less H+ than OH ions, the solution is basic. 41. When there are equal amounts of H+ and OH ions, the solution is neutral. 42. Acids and bases neutralize each other, like salt and water. 43. Unless there is a perfect balance of pH in the body, it won't work correctly. 44. Blood can only carry oxygen between 7.357.45 pH, and if this is not in balance, you could experience health problems, such as a coma or even death. 45. When we get heartburn, it is because our esophageal sphincter opens and allows stomach acid back up into our esophagus. In order to neutralize this, we take a basic solution like a Tums (which as a pH of 89). 46. The increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) in our environment goes into the ocean, causing the pH to rise and causing it to become more acidic and harder to marine life to survive. LECTURE TWO 1. 99% of living things contain at least one of the following: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or sulfur. 2. In order to be organic, something has to be alive. 3. An organic compound has to contain both carbon and hydrogen. An inorganic compound may contain one of these, but never both at the same time. For example, CO2 is inorganic because it lacks hydrogen. 4. The four types of organic compounds (macromolecules) are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 5. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches which give us quick energy. 6. Monosaccharides are "simple sugars" and are the most basic units of carbohydrates like glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose (milk sugar). 7. Glucose is the only regularly utilized energy source for the brain (it uses 20% of your daily brain intake!) 8. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides bonded together, like sucrose (table sugar), which is a bond between glucose and fructose. 9. Disaccharides are only able to be digested after they are broken down into monosaccharides by our cells. 10. Enzymes are our "biological scissors." They are proteins that create different chemical reactions in our bodies. 11. Polysaccharides take the form of starches, which are the most common carbohydrate in the human diet. This is the way that plants store energy. Cellulose, which is mainly used for paper, provides the structure of a plant. 12. Glycogen is stored mainly in the human liver, and is used as storage in animals (as well as in humans). 13. Our stomach lacks the bacteria needed in order to break beta glucose in cellulose. Unlike starch, cellulose does not dissolve in water. We are unable to digest it, but we can still get nutrients from eating it. 14. Lipids are fatty acids that ar not water soluble, but are soluble in organic solvents. 15. Triglycerides are fats, and they can be either saturated or unsaturated. 16. Unsaturated fats are hard at room temperature, like butter. These are made of animal fats, and have straight molecules. 17. Saturated fats are liquid at room temperature, like olive oil. These are made of vegetable fats and have bent molecules. 18. Trans fats are made by adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats so that they will be solid at room temperature. Eating these increase the risk of coronary heart disease, by way of raising cholesterol. 19. Steroids are cyclical organic compounds, with a common precursor being cholesterol 20. Low Density Lipoprotein (aka LDL) is "bad cholesterol," and too much of this can form plaques on your arterial walls. 21. High Density Lipoprotein (aka HDL) is "good cholesterol," which carries extra cholesterol to the liver for processing and removal. 22. Proteins are made of amino acids, each having its own shape (and each shape defines its function) that do different things for our bodies. 23. Proteins provide structure for our body (like collagen, which supports our skin and keeps it firm). They also facilitate biological reactions by way of enzymes. They help cells communicate via receptors, and facilitate transport in cells. Last but not least, proteins defend against invaders with antibodies. 24. The shape of a protein is very important, because if it isn't folded in the correct way, they are unable to complete their tasks. In sickle cell disease, the hemoglobin protein (which carries oxygen in blood) is misshapen, so the red blood cells can become stuck in capillaries, which could possibly lead to stroke, pain, or organ damage. 25. Denaturation is the process in which proteins lose their structure, by way of some external stress, which also leads to loss of function. When you have a fever, the proteins in your brain lose function, which may lead you to have hallucinations or be unable to think properly. 26. Nucleic acids take the form of either DNA or RNA. They are formed of Adenine, Thymine (or Uracil in RNA), Guanine, and Cytosine, which are paired together in AT(U)/GC combinations. They carry all of the genetic information that make us who we are. 27. Nucleotides are formed of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and a base linked together in order to form nucleic acids. 28. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. 29. RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid. LECTURE THREE 1. Digestion is the bodily process of breaking down food into contents that our body can use. It is completed by the use of both mechanical (like chewing) and chemical (like enzymes) processes. 2. The five processes of digestion are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and egestion/elimination. 3. Ingestion is the process of digestion that takes place in the mouth when we chew and swallow things. This is where the salivary glands are, which help break down the macromolecules of food, as well as the place of mastication (aka chewing) which physically breaks the food down. 4. Digestion is the chemical and mechanical breakdown of food by the enzymes in our stomach. 5. Absorption is the process done by the cells where they take in soluble matter (via cellular transport, which is the taking in of smaller molecules into the cells. 6. Assimilation is the use of digestive molecules by the cells in order to absorb molecules for energy, metabolism, and functions of the cell, such as growth, repair, and multiplication. 7. Egestion is the process of eliminating undigested or indigestible material from the body. 8. Another word for the digestive system is the alimentary canal. 9. In order, the main organs of the digestive system are the salivary glands, the esophagus, the liver, the stomach, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, the appendix, and the anus. 10. The mouth is the site of ingestion! This is where we break down the food by chewing (mastication) and our spit/saliva (our salivary glands secrete salivary amylase), breaks down starch into sugar. 11. The esophagus is the tube from the mouth to the stomach that moves the bolus (literally chunk or glob of chewed food) to our stomach by the way of peristalsis (muscle contractions that push the food down). 12. The pepsin in our stomach helps us to digest protein. 13. The HCL in our stomach kills bad bacteria. 14. The mucus in our stomach protects itself from acidic stomach acids (which at 1.52 pH could really burn our stomach!) 15. The peristalsis move food via muscular contractions and digest the proteins we've eaten, and mixes all of them together. 16. It only takes an hour or two for our chyme (partially disgusted foodstuffs) to get its next stop—the small intestine!) 17. In the small intestine, sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream from the breakdown of food. 18. The villi (little fingerlike protrusions along the lining of the small intestine, and microvilli (even smaller fingers attached to the villi) grab as many nutrients as they can so that our gut bacteria can get all that they need. 19. The enzymes that digest carbs are primarily produced by the small intestine walls. 20. The liver produces bile, which neutralizes stomach acids that work together to cause fat molecules to form droplets for absorption. 21. Bile is more basic than stomach acid at around 56.5 pH, so it neutralizes those harsh acids! 22. The gallbladder stores out bile (aka gall). When food enters the small intestine, the gallbladder contracts in order to release bile into the small intestine. 23. When the gallbladder malfunctions, bile can turn into a hard rock because it is held instead of being released into the small intestine. This can cause pain or obstructions, and food may be unable to be digested and the bile may back up. 24. The pancreas is the spot where enzymes for digesting fats and proteins (lipase and peptidase, respectively) are secreted into the small intestine. 25. The appendix is the meeting place of the small and large intestines. We don't know the function of the appendix though some prevalent opinions about its use are as a vestigial organ, an organ that is now useless because we have evolved from whatever it was needed, a place to store good bacteria for rebooting our digestive system after diarrheal illnesses, among others. 26. The large intestine absorbs water and dehydrates our chyme from the small intestine in order for it to become feces. 27. The anus is the site of egestion, or elimination of feces (solid waste). 28. The "forgotten organ," or gut bacteria (aka gut flora, gut microbiota, or gut microbes) live inside of the small intestine, and help you digest food, as well as synthesizing vitamins B and K. They assist in immune functions by attacking harmful bacteria. There are 10x more bacteria in your digestive track than are total in number of human cells in your entire body! 29. By altering the microbiome, diseases and disorders in the brain are being treated! Little gut microbes have big implications in the body. 30. Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that produce energy in the body by breaking down chemical bonds in our food. 31. 33% of food's energy is used for digestion. 32. 55% of food's energy is used by basal metabolism, like keeping our body at a good temperature, keeping our heartbeat and respiration regular, etc. 33. 13% of food's energy is used for leftover activity, which we store for later use. 34. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that removes glucose from the blood by assisting uptake in the cells. 35. When we eat, the food gets broken down and glucose enters the bloodstream along with insulin. 36. The cycle of blood sugar: Glucose in blood → high blood sugar → pancreas releases insulin to combat it → inulin and glucose meet and enter the cells. Glucagon (another pancreatic hormone) converts glycogen to glucose. 37. Unused glucose can be converted into glycogen for shortterm storage in the liver and muscles. 38. Energy is stored as fat (lipids) in adipose (fatty) tissue. Fat is converted into glucose for energy use. 39. Diabetes mellitus (literally "passing honey"), named because doctors tasted urine and people with diabetes had very sweet urine. 40. In Type I Diabetes, the pancreas stops producing insulin, and takes in sugars that can't get into the cells because there is no insulin to pair up with—unable to use sugar, which can lead to chronic high blood sugar. 41. In Type II Diabetes, the body becomes so used to producing insulin after eating a lot of sugary foods that eventually insulin production stops, and can lead to chronic blood sugar. The pancreas wants to regulate blood sugar and keeps trying to produce —eventually exhausts itself. 42. "We are what we eat," because the food we eat ends up getting absorbed by the cells and the food we eat becomes a part of our living body! LECTURE FOUR 1. Abiogenesis is the early scientific belief that life spontaneously springs from nothing. 2. Jan Baptista van Helmont was a Flemish scientist of the early 17 century who believed in abiogenesis. He "proved" this be "creating mice." In his attic was a pile of dirty clothes and a bag of surplus wheat. After three weeks, mice appeared, so abiogenesis was real! (Very anecdotal evidence) 3. Francesco Redi was the first to challenge abiogenesis, who performed an experiment, filling three glasses with raw meat. One of them was open, one was corked, and the third was covered with gauze. The open container had flies and maggots on it, the corked had nothing on it, and the gauzed had flies and maggots on top of the gauze. He theorized that flies came from the outside and laid their eggs there. 4. Louis Pasteur was a scientist who theorized that all life must come from other life. In 1859, he put broth in two swanneck vases, and boiled them. He broke one of the necks and left the other intact. In the unbroken flask, there was no growth, and in the broken flask, there was small, microbial growth. He said that when liquid is exposed to air, mold and bacteria grows. The closed swanneck flasks are still not growing mold! 5. Cell Timeline: 1660s — Hooke — first described cells (cork, like the cork tree) 1660s — Redi experiment 1670s — von Leeuwenhoek visualized living cells 1830s — Cell Theory begins to form 1850s — Pasteur's experiment 1850s — golden age of microbiology, and germ theory of disease 6. Mattias Shleiden — plant theorist, said that all plants are made of cells. 7. Theodore Schwann — animal theorist, said that all animals are made of cells. 8. Rudolf Virchow — said that all cells came from preexisting cells. 9. 1830s1850s — post microscope, pregerm theory. 10. Three Tenets of Cell Theory: The cell is the basic unit of life. All living things are made of cells. Cells arise from preexisting cells. 11. Prokaryotic cells are singlecelled organisms. They don't have nuclei (like bacteria and archaea). 12. Eukaryotic cells are usually multicellular organisms. They do have nuclei (like plants, animals, fungi, protists (protists are complicatedly singlecelled). 13. Components in Prokaryotic Cells: There is no nucleus — the D/RNA is just floating around The cell wall is a structural wall and protection for the cell (an exoskeleton) (the red) The plasma membrane controls what gets in and out of the cell (the orange) The cytoplasm is the liquid in the cell, containing waters, salts, and proteins (the yellow) The ribosomes make proteins, and control all of the structure's functions (the green) The nucleoid contains the D/RNA of the cell, there is no nucleus (the blues) The flagellum is how to cell gets around, kind of like a tail (the pink) 14. Components in Eukaryotic Cells (plant) The cell wall provides support and structure to the cell (brown) —on plants these are very rigid The cell membrane controls what comes in and out of the cell (grey) The cytoplasm is the liquid in the cell, containing waters, salts, and proteins (dark green) The nucleus is the part of the cell containing DNA (blues) The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis (the light green) The mitochondria makes energy for the cell (the "powerhouse of the cell") (pink) The vacuole is the storage bin in the cell for water (the purple) 15. Components in Eukaryotic cells (animal): The cytoskeleton is the skeleton, or covering, of the cell (the dark blue) The cytoplasm is the is the liquid in the cell, containing waters, salts, and proteins (light blue) The endoplasmic reticulum is where the ribosomes live and make proteins (the orange/yellow) The mitochondria is the part of the cell where glucose is changed into ATP, or energy (the green) The Golgi body/apparatus is the place in the cell where proteins are packaged in the the vesicles for transport around the cell (purples) The nucleus is the place in the cell that contains the cell's DNA (red) The lysosomes are the parts of the cell that contain enzymes to degrade food, waste, invaders, etc (pink) The ribosomes are the part of the cell that make proteins, which do all of the structure's functions (the black polka dots) 16. The plasma membrane is the "gatekeeper" of the cells, controlling what can and can't get inside. It contains a phospholipid bilayer made of phosphate and lipid (fat) arranged in mirror style layers. 17. The phosphates are polar (hydrophilic), so they allow water in, but the lipids are hydrophobic keep water out. The two aren't glued together, however, so some molecules could sneak into the cell. 18. Molecules get into and/or out of cells in five ways: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. 19. In simple diffusion, small molecules (like oxygen and water) can pass through the cell membrane, from areas of high concentration to low concentration (following the concentration gradient.) 20. In facilitated diffusion, the larger molecules that can't pass through the cracks in the membrane are allowed through. Because this is a passive process, it does not require energy. 21. Active transport is used for moving molecules through channels from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Because this is an active process, it does require energy. The cell pulls in molecules through the channel. In this process, the molecules move against the concentration gradient. 22. In endocytosis, the cell absorbs materials by engulfing them. The cell forms a pit (like a little mouth) and pulls in molecules. This is how the cell takes in molecules too big to fit through the protein channel, like proteins, bacteria, fluids, cholesterol, etc. 23. Exocytosis is the process where the vesicle is pushed up to the cell membrane, joins it, pushes the molecules on the inside of the vesicles out of it (proteins on the inside of the vesicles out of it (proteins and chemical messengers that head to communicate with other cells. This is seen a lot in the brain (with neurotransmitters) that are exocytosed from brain cells—one neuron (brain cell) to another. The chemical messenger is exocytosed, makes contact with another neuron on the receiver—this is how messages are passed on. 24. Dopamine is the "pleasure" signal/reward center of the brain, a neurotransmitter. It is exocytosed by the brain when organisms experience pleasure, like when eating something really good, when having sex, when getting a surprise reward, or when taking drugs!
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