BIOL 1333-001 Exam 1 Study Guide
BIOL 1333-001 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 1333 - 001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samer Hijjazi on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1333 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Melissa Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Exam 1 Study guide: Chapter 1: Know the process of drawing conclusions in science - 1. Make an observation - 2. Create a question - 3. Looking over previous scientific researches - 4. The study is reviewed by experts before publication - 5. Creating a hypothesis - 6. Test the hypothesis by using experiments - 7. Analyze the results (whether the data proves the hypothesis or not) - 8. Draw conclusion and report results In order for a hypothesis to be considered a hypothesis it must be testable. It also must be falsifiable (proven wrong by data). If it is false, the hypothesis is rejected and not considered. To prove or disprove a hypothesis, it is tested by conducting experiments. In an experiment, there are two groups: - 1. Experimental group: influenced by experimental intervention - 2. Control group: no experimental intervention (used as a way of comparing results). This group receives a placebo (a fake treatment) Two types of variables: - 1. Independent variable: The factor that we change during an experiment - 2. Dependent variable: The factor that is measured (we can’t control it) The larger a sample size is in an experiment, the higher the confidence level is (as a result, it is considered more accurate) When a hypothesis supports many experiments, it becomes known as a scientific theory Two types of studies: 1. Experimental studies: The conducting of experiments and obtaining of results 2. Observational studies: Observing certain patterns to come to a conclusion Chapter 2: The six traits living things have in common: - 1. Growth - 2. Reproduction - 3. Homeostasis (Maintaining a constant internal environment) - 4. Sense and respond to stimuli - 5. Ability to obtain and use energy (plants obtain and use energy through the process of photosynthesis) - Metabolism: breaking down of molecules into smaller bits to be able to obtain and use its energy - 6. Made of cells All matter is made up of elements. All elements are made up of atoms. Properties of atoms are determined by the amount of protons, neutrons, and electrons Subatomic particles consist of a nucleus (with protons and neutrons) and an outer shell(s) of electrons. Molecules are formed when covalent bonds between atoms are formed (covalent bonds share electrons) Organic molecules have covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms. While Inorganic molecules don’t have covalent bonds shared between carbon and hydrogen atoms. All living things are made up of 4 things: - 1. Carbohydrates (act as energy-storing molecules. Provide structural support for cells) - 2. Lipids (they don’t mix with water. Examples include fatty acids, triglycerides) - 3. Proteins (made up of amino acids. Proteins speed up the rate of chemical reactions) - If a protein is misshaped, it can cause diseases - 4. Nucleic acids (made up of nucleotides. There are two types: DNA and RNA. Used for the storage and transmission of genetic information) Cells: The basic structural unit of life. Consists of water to help with chemical reaction needed for the cell to function Cell membrane: It’s main function is to separate the inside contents of a cell from its environment. It has a double layer called lipid bilayer Water is needed for reactions in organisms Water has hydrogen bonds (electrostatic attraction between water and other molecules) Properties of water: - 1. It’s a solvent - 2. Adhesion: water molecules cling to a surface - 3. Cohesion: water molecules cling together Ion: a charged atom. This is because the atom either gained or lost electrons Ionic bonds: strong bonds formed between oppositely charged atoms pH: the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. It has a scale ranging from 0 to 14 0-6: Acidic, 7: Neutral, 8-14: Basic More hydrogen, more acidic. More hydroxide, more basic Chapter 3: Antibiotic: a chemical that helps slow or stop the growth of bacteria in organisms. It is usually present in organisms (Example: Penicillin). Antibiotics are used to destroy bacteria through osmosis Cell Theory: all living organisms are made up of cells. Different cells have different structures Two types of cells: - 1. Prokaryotic cells: no membrane-bound organelles and nucleus. Has a cell wall - 2. Eukaryotic cells: membrane-bound organelles and nucleus. No cell wall Both cells have cytoplasm, cell membrane, DNA, and ribosomes Eukaryotic cells have many organelles, while prokaryotic cells don’t have any. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus (which stores DNA), while prokaryotic cells have no nucleus (the DNA floats in the cytoplasm) A prokaryotic cell wall in bacteria is rigid, which allows bacteria to survive in water Osmosis: The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Water moves from a region of low-solute concentration to a region of high-solute concentration Hypotonic solution: water moves into the cell Isotonic solution: equal amounts of water flowing in and out of the cell Hypertonic solution: water moves out of the cell Two types of bacterial cell wall - 1. Gram-positive: retains the gram stain - 2. Gram-negative: does not retain the gram stain. Prevents penicillin from reaching the peptidoglycan underneath Cell membranes are semi-permeable. Large molecules, such as glucose, cannot move across it Diffusion: tendency of dissolved substances to move form an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. No energy is required Transport proteins are in the membrane to help move objects in and out of the cell Facilitated diffusion: large molecules move from high concentration to low concentration with the help of transport proteins. No energy required Active transport: Large molecules move form low concentration to high concentration with help from transport proteins. Energy is required Mitochondria: Provides energy for the cell Ribosomes: Help create proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum: they synthesize proteins and lipids (Smooth ER and Rough ER) Golgi Apparatus: Stacked membranous discs that help package and transport proteins Lysosomes: consist of digestive enzymes which break down larger molecules Cytoskeleton: network of protein fibers which provide the cell with support Endosymbiont Theory Chloroplast: an organelle found in plant cells. This is where photosynthesis takes place Chapter 4: Malnutrition: a medical condition caused by the lack of intake of necessary nutrients Many children die from malnutrition (especially in specific regions in Africa) Malnutrition is not necessarily starvation Nutrients provide humans with energy, which is vital for the proper functioning of our cells When nutrients are absorbed by our bodies, they are broken down by the process of digestion Macronutrients are nutrients that must be absorbed in large amounts in our diets to keep us healthy (these include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) - Proteins are broken down into amino acids. They help assemble new proteins - Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars. They are used to build cell-surface and energy-storage molecules - Lipids are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. They are used to build molecules that form cell membranes and hormones This is why scientists recommend a balanced diet (fruits, vegetables, and whole grain) to help maintain our health Nucleic acids are NOT macronutrients. Broken down into smaller nucleotides. Used to build DNA and RNA Two types of metabolic reactions: - 1. Catabolic reactions: bond breaking - 2. Anabolic reactions: bond building Enzyme: protein used to speed up a chemical reaction (the process of speeding up a chemical reaction is known as catalysis) Substrate: the molecule that binds to an enzyme Active site: the part of an enzyme that binds with the substrate Activation energy: required for a chemical reaction to proceed Micronutrients must be absorbed in small amounts to maintain health. These include minerals and vitamins. The purpose of micronutrients is to serve structural and metabolic functions - Minerals: are cofactors (inorganic molecules used to activate an enzyme). Examples include: Iron and hemoglobin - Vitamins: act as coenzymes (small organic molecules which are also used to activate enzymes) Ready to Use Foods (RTUF) are trying to battle malnutrition by providing children with peanut butter, full-fat milk, sugar and vegetable oil. These foods provide all the needed nutrients for the children who are suffering from malnutrition.
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