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BIOL 1333-001 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Samer Hijjazi

BIOL 1333-001 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 1333 - 001

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > BIOL 1333 - 001 > BIOL 1333 001 Exam 1 Study Guide
Samer Hijjazi
GPA 3.6

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Hello! Here is the study guide for exam 1. It covers the first 4 chapters. These notes are mainly based on the lecture notes.
Melissa Walsh
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samer Hijjazi on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1333 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Melissa Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Exam 1 Study guide: Chapter 1:  Know the process of drawing conclusions in science - 1. Make an observation - 2. Create a question - 3. Looking over previous scientific researches - 4. The study is reviewed by experts before publication - 5. Creating a hypothesis - 6. Test the hypothesis by using experiments - 7. Analyze the results (whether the data proves the hypothesis or not) - 8. Draw conclusion and report results  In order for a hypothesis to be considered a hypothesis it must be testable. It also must be falsifiable (proven wrong by data). If it is false, the hypothesis is rejected and not considered.  To prove or disprove a hypothesis, it is tested by conducting experiments.  In an experiment, there are two groups: - 1. Experimental group: influenced by experimental intervention - 2. Control group: no experimental intervention (used as a way of comparing results). This group receives a placebo (a fake treatment)  Two types of variables: - 1. Independent variable: The factor that we change during an experiment - 2. Dependent variable: The factor that is measured (we can’t control it)  The larger a sample size is in an experiment, the higher the confidence level is (as a result, it is considered more accurate)  When a hypothesis supports many experiments, it becomes known as a scientific theory  Two types of studies: 1. Experimental studies: The conducting of experiments and obtaining of results 2. Observational studies: Observing certain patterns to come to a conclusion Chapter 2:  The six traits living things have in common: - 1. Growth - 2. Reproduction - 3. Homeostasis (Maintaining a constant internal environment) - 4. Sense and respond to stimuli - 5. Ability to obtain and use energy (plants obtain and use energy through the process of photosynthesis) - Metabolism: breaking down of molecules into smaller bits to be able to obtain and use its energy - 6. Made of cells  All matter is made up of elements. All elements are made up of atoms. Properties of atoms are determined by the amount of protons, neutrons, and electrons  Subatomic particles consist of a nucleus (with protons and neutrons) and an outer shell(s) of electrons.  Molecules are formed when covalent bonds between atoms are formed (covalent bonds share electrons)  Organic molecules have covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms. While Inorganic molecules don’t have covalent bonds shared between carbon and hydrogen atoms.  All living things are made up of 4 things: - 1. Carbohydrates (act as energy-storing molecules. Provide structural support for cells) - 2. Lipids (they don’t mix with water. Examples include fatty acids, triglycerides) - 3. Proteins (made up of amino acids. Proteins speed up the rate of chemical reactions) - If a protein is misshaped, it can cause diseases - 4. Nucleic acids (made up of nucleotides. There are two types: DNA and RNA. Used for the storage and transmission of genetic information)  Cells: The basic structural unit of life. Consists of water to help with chemical reaction needed for the cell to function  Cell membrane: It’s main function is to separate the inside contents of a cell from its environment. It has a double layer called lipid bilayer  Water is needed for reactions in organisms  Water has hydrogen bonds (electrostatic attraction between water and other molecules)  Properties of water: - 1. It’s a solvent - 2. Adhesion: water molecules cling to a surface - 3. Cohesion: water molecules cling together  Ion: a charged atom. This is because the atom either gained or lost electrons  Ionic bonds: strong bonds formed between oppositely charged atoms  pH: the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. It has a scale ranging from 0 to 14  0-6: Acidic, 7: Neutral, 8-14: Basic  More hydrogen, more acidic. More hydroxide, more basic Chapter 3: Antibiotic: a chemical that helps slow or stop the growth of bacteria in organisms. It is usually present in organisms (Example: Penicillin). Antibiotics are used to destroy bacteria through osmosis Cell Theory: all living organisms are made up of cells. Different cells have different structures Two types of cells: - 1. Prokaryotic cells: no membrane-bound organelles and nucleus. Has a cell wall - 2. Eukaryotic cells: membrane-bound organelles and nucleus. No cell wall Both cells have cytoplasm, cell membrane, DNA, and ribosomes Eukaryotic cells have many organelles, while prokaryotic cells don’t have any. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus (which stores DNA), while prokaryotic cells have no nucleus (the DNA floats in the cytoplasm) A prokaryotic cell wall in bacteria is rigid, which allows bacteria to survive in water Osmosis: The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Water moves from a region of low-solute concentration to a region of high-solute concentration Hypotonic solution: water moves into the cell Isotonic solution: equal amounts of water flowing in and out of the cell Hypertonic solution: water moves out of the cell Two types of bacterial cell wall - 1. Gram-positive: retains the gram stain - 2. Gram-negative: does not retain the gram stain. Prevents penicillin from reaching the peptidoglycan underneath Cell membranes are semi-permeable. Large molecules, such as glucose, cannot move across it Diffusion: tendency of dissolved substances to move form an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. No energy is required Transport proteins are in the membrane to help move objects in and out of the cell Facilitated diffusion: large molecules move from high concentration to low concentration with the help of transport proteins. No energy required Active transport: Large molecules move form low concentration to high concentration with help from transport proteins. Energy is required Mitochondria: Provides energy for the cell Ribosomes: Help create proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum: they synthesize proteins and lipids (Smooth ER and Rough ER) Golgi Apparatus: Stacked membranous discs that help package and transport proteins Lysosomes: consist of digestive enzymes which break down larger molecules Cytoskeleton: network of protein fibers which provide the cell with support Endosymbiont Theory Chloroplast: an organelle found in plant cells. This is where photosynthesis takes place Chapter 4: Malnutrition: a medical condition caused by the lack of intake of necessary nutrients Many children die from malnutrition (especially in specific regions in Africa) Malnutrition is not necessarily starvation Nutrients provide humans with energy, which is vital for the proper functioning of our cells When nutrients are absorbed by our bodies, they are broken down by the process of digestion Macronutrients are nutrients that must be absorbed in large amounts in our diets to keep us healthy (these include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) - Proteins are broken down into amino acids. They help assemble new proteins - Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars. They are used to build cell-surface and energy-storage molecules - Lipids are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. They are used to build molecules that form cell membranes and hormones This is why scientists recommend a balanced diet (fruits, vegetables, and whole grain) to help maintain our health Nucleic acids are NOT macronutrients. Broken down into smaller nucleotides. Used to build DNA and RNA Two types of metabolic reactions: - 1. Catabolic reactions: bond breaking - 2. Anabolic reactions: bond building Enzyme: protein used to speed up a chemical reaction (the process of speeding up a chemical reaction is known as catalysis) Substrate: the molecule that binds to an enzyme Active site: the part of an enzyme that binds with the substrate Activation energy: required for a chemical reaction to proceed Micronutrients must be absorbed in small amounts to maintain health. These include minerals and vitamins. The purpose of micronutrients is to serve structural and metabolic functions - Minerals: are cofactors (inorganic molecules used to activate an enzyme). Examples include: Iron and hemoglobin - Vitamins: act as coenzymes (small organic molecules which are also used to activate enzymes) Ready to Use Foods (RTUF) are trying to battle malnutrition by providing children with peanut butter, full-fat milk, sugar and vegetable oil. These foods provide all the needed nutrients for the children who are suffering from malnutrition.


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