ARTH 211 Design History: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
ARTH 211 Design History: STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ARTH 211
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Evelyn Li on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 211 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Weissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 362 views. For similar materials see Design History Survey in Art History at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Movements o Arts and Crafts William Morris Wallpaper-maker/writer/designer Wanted to recapture the unity and work of human hands that’s broken by industrialism Red House During the 2 Industrial Revolution Believed in that there was an incompatibility between new shiny produced things and morality Modest living, no decoration Machine-made things are dehumanizing, dull, and lack individuality Birthed from high design but it was used instead for servants It reinforced the class distinctions that Morris was trying to eliminate Gustave Stickley Similar to Morris but in the US Little ornamentation, straight lines • 19th C. Design Reform Movement o Arts and Crafts Movement was part of this reform o Responded to machine-production with the notion of craft • Plakatsil (Poster Style) /Object Poster o Change in advertising/graphic design o Simple forms/functionality o Brands are represented by the typical rather than the unique o Four components of an object poster: product name/brand, product image, flat colors, straightforward lettering o Edward Johnson Designed map for the London Underground and also created a corporate identity for the them • Dada o International, anti-nationalistic, anti-tradition movement o Believed in destruction to create new opportunities o Dada artists mixed letter forms, ornaments, and image with the goal of shocking the viewer o Kurt Schwitters The Scarecrow --- A children’s story about a farmer and his scarecrow Typographical characters Used type to make the pictures/illustrations • Deutscher Werkbund (DWB) o Focused on standardization and modern design o Believed in creating durable, standardized objects o Herman Muthesius Attacked luxury goods that exploited the public’s taste for fashion and fads He sought a new agenda for modern design that was about clarity—clarity of objects, packaging, and of typeface Get rid of the middle man “Standardization…will alone make possible the development of a universally valid, unfailing good taste.” ~ Muthesius o Peter Behrens The first “industrial designer” Employee of the German Electric Company (AEG) as a design consultant Tea kettles The first person come up with the concept of a modern corporate identity/brand Typeface, layout, and logo for all company materials o No ornamentation In the past decoration carried meaning; now logos did—they meant consistent quality o DWB wanted to escape from recycling forms of the past o DWB sought to distinguish between “fashion” (which was bad) and “style” (which was good); between the “entrepreneurial spirit” (good) and the merchant spirit (bad and all about making money) • Bauhaus o State-funded school of design that grew out of the DWB o Believed in the universal language/abstraction o Introduced a new typography o Herbert Bayer Created the universal alphabet (1926) Bold underlining Wanted to strip type of their national signifiers A purging of national identity through geometry o Bauhaus is favored by history unlike the DWB Timing – it corresponds exactly with the Weimar Republic Self-promotional—Bauhaus advertised itself freely Museum of Modern Art in NYC (MOMA) – MOMA promoted/supported Bauhaus publically o Utopian ideals Harmony existing in abstraction could better society The goal of Bauhaus was to transform modern life through design o Three locations: Weimar, Dessau, Berlin o Walter Gropius First director of Bauhaus Wanted to “breathe into products a soul” yet he also was all about art and technology o Lazlo Moholy Nagy Hired as a professor by Gropius Crushes expressive individuality Emphasizes photography Immediate communication Closer to industry Wanted to revolutionize human perception to enable society to better apprehend the modern technical world o Bauhaus is registering a historical contradiction The contradiction of embracing of technology and the mysticism/spirituality of expression/craft/individuality Each reaction is a response to two Germanys—one that had just lost WWI and looked to the past for strength (medieval, spiritual ideals) vs. one of the current fragile republic that had desperate need to industrialize Maholy Nagy vs. Kandinsky o Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is the last director of Bauhaus o Closed permanently in 1933 due the rise of Hitler • Russian Constructivism/Productivism o Occurred during the October Revolution o Principles Taking away art’s privileged position in society and integrating it into modern life Faktura – materials (especially of modern industry rather than of fine art) Construction over composition Dynamism/active space o The Constructivist’s Dream Vladimir Tatlin Model for Monument to Third International Wanted it to be a slanting tower of steel and glass that was 1300 ft. tall – not even enough material in Russia to create such a structure It was an impossible building to construct Propaganda Board “The Factory Workbenches Await You” Mean to inspire people to want to go to work Failed—people were angry o The Productivist Reality Varvara Ljubov Stepanova Attempted to transform the passive capitalist commodity to an active socialist thing Understood that fashion was an emblem of modernity and an object of socially meaningful consumer desire Designed a set of sports clothes o Stiff and boxy o The clothes don’t address historically experienced bodies but rather they dress an imagined body in an imagined public sphere o The drawings of the clothes evoke bodies that conform to a geometric order Alexandre Rodchenko and Vladimir Mayakovsky, advertising poster for Red October cookies Not so typical, good Communist girl A literal forced ingestion of socialism Text indicates cookies made from a factory that was once pre-revolutionary but they are now post-revolutionary Vladimir Tatlin Takes a picture of himself wearing his suit with the patterns laid out around him o Reminiscent of constructivist faktura and the belief that it could transform society and create a new person • Futurism o Believed in violence, chaos, struggle, war, speed o Believed that noise and speed were the defining qualities of the 20th century o Dada and Futurism shared in their ideas of redefining type, but they didn’t share in the idea of the universal language o Words were useful as expressive images, not phonetic sound or meaning (often expressed in poems) o Filippo Marinetti o Poet and founder of Futurism o Wrote the Futurist Manifesto • De Stijl (universal laws of harmony) o Principles/Emphasis Primary colors: red, yellow, blue Verticality and horizontality Equality between figure and ground/negative and positive space o Theo van Doesburg Fan of Dadaism Thought that Dadaism wreck the old design order, and De Stijl will rebuild and be the new order Wrote “The Will to Style” o De Stijl designers were concerned with the spiritual climate of their age; they wanted to expunge the old age of individuality and create a new one of collectivism o Gerrit Rietveld The Schröder House Everything in the house was elevated to art Like walking into a painting The distinction between life and art disappear The Rietveld chair Goal was the comfort of the spirit not the body o Wanted to make things inexpensive to be mass produced • Streamlining o Originated with Norman Geddes Advocated heavily for streamlining Tear-dropped shape o Favored by consumer engineers o Intellectually defensible and commercially buyable Reduces wind resistance Looks sleek and modern o Embodies technological modernity of American life o Interpretations of Streamlining Efficient Faster, less wind resistance Commercial metaphor Streamlining for consumers Spirit of the age reference The need to streamline society Efficient, smooth flow/gliding through the chaos of the Great Depression o Streamlining domesticated technology, made it manageable for the everyday person It naturalized the machine, made it one with nature o Some criticized it – too stylized and only exterior design • American Modern Design o Influenced by European artists fleeing the rise of fascism o Jan Tschichold Emphasis on… Random organization Intuitive placement Chance Promotes Bauhaus Impacts Lester Beall Wrote Elemenatre Typographie to explain to Americans how asymmetry can be used effectively o Lester Beall Attracted to arrows and signs Very clear messages Abstraction can reduce messages to elemental signs (Tschichold) Designed posters for the Rural Electrification Program o Alexey Brodovitch Utilized white space and sharp type Dynamic typographic page Different sizes and weights Changed magazine to be dependent on illustration Creating a rhythmic environment through image and type Used photography o Consumer engineering Creating desire for a product, a culture of consumption Earnest Calkins a huge proponent of consumer engineering “Consumer engineering must see to it that we use up the kinds of goods we now merely use.” Allows space for the emergence of the industrial designer Artists, Critics, Thinkers • Brooks Stevens o Coined the term “planned obsolescence” Refers to annual or seasonal production of new colors, patterns, and forms that make existing industrial products appear outmoded and encourage the consumer to purchase the latest and most fashionable • Karl Marx o Coined the term “commodity festishism” The failure to recognize that objects for sale (commodities) are made by actual people embedded in a series of social relationships (between workers, with bosses etc.) and that objects do not simply or magically appear fully formed. • Shepard Fairey o Obama “Hope” poster Fairey did not have the rights to use the photo of Obama in his design (plagiarism) Mannie Garcia, the original photographer, sued Fairey Fairey even denied using Garcia’s photo (later admitted he lied) Fairey lost • Henry van de Velde o Wrote the Werkbund Antithesis Protests the establishment of standardization An artist is a “free spirit” that should not be bent to discipline Standardization should only be implemented once we have found the “physiognomy of style” but this will take generations and until then we must endeavor with “creative impetus” Thus the Werkbund should encourage individual taste • John Ruskin o Associated with Arts and Crafts • William Holman Hunt o The Awakening Conscience Ornate and decorative living • William Morris (SEE ARTS AND CRAFTS) • Gustav Stickley (SEE ARTS AND CRAFTS) • Michael Bierut (Hillary logo) o Designed Hilary Clinton’s campaign logo o No name – dissociate from her dynasty (like Jeb’s) o Arrow is putting to the right even though she’s a Democrat (the left) o Cold and calculating – implies these characteristics on her own personality o Clean, effective, and smart o No stars, stripes, or torches but still captures “Americanness” • Tristan Tzara o Dada artist o Poster for Salon Dada Exposition Internationale • Raoul Hausmann o Dada artist o Poster for Oirée du Coeur à Barbe • Kurt Schwitters (SEE DADA) • Käte Steinitz o Dada artist who worked with Kurt Schwitters on The Scarecrow • Guillaume Apollinaire o French poet o Calligrammes Similar to Dadaist art • John Heartfield o Designed cover for Deutshland Deutschland über Alles o Gothic type • Adolf Loos o Wrote “Ornament and Crime” “The evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of ornamentation from objects of everyday use.” Ornamentation is only justified when it fulfills and brings joy to the producer who makes the object (the “ideal of the aristocrat”) o Similar ideals to the DWB • Hermann Muthesius (SEE DWB) • Peter Behrens (SEE DWB) • Frederick Taylor o Conducted experiments with end goal of increasing productivity o Reinforced a connection between a division of labor and efficiency o Taylorism: principles of scientific management • Henry Ford o Developed the moving assembly line (sell your time, not your skill) o Enormous increase in output and reduced price (more people who own cars) o Ford Model-T Standardized production and consumer options –only sold it in black Alfred P. Sloan Jr. o Designer for General Motors (Ford’s biggest competitor) o Implemented style in cars • Lucian Bernhard o Graphic designer o Proponent of object posters o Designed posters for Adler Typewriters • Edward Johnston (SEE OBJECT POSTERS) • Ben Shahn o Designs propaganda posters o Lacks patriotism/national pride and isn’t successful as a propaganda poster • Ludwig Hohlwein o German poster designer • El Lissitzky o Constructivist artist o Propaganda Board “The Factory Workbenches Await You” (SEE CONSTRUCTIVISM) • Alexandre Rodchenko (SEE CONSTUCTIVISM) • Varvara Stepanova (SEE CONSTUCTIVISM) • Vladimir Tatlin (SEE CONSTRUCTIVISM) • Filippo Marinetti (SEE FUTURISM) • Fortunato Depero o Futurist artist o Depero Futurism • Giacomo Balla o Futurist artist o Designed suits that exemplified the fracturing of the individual • Piet Mondrian o De Stijl artist o Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow • Theo van Doesburg (SEE DE STIJL) • Gerrit Rietveld (SEE DE STIJL) • Walter Gropius (SEE BAUHAUS) • Hannes Meyer o Director of Bauhaus at Dessau • Ludwig Meis van der Rohe (SEE BAUHAUS) • Herbert Bayer (SEE BAUHAUS) • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (SEE BAUHAUS) • Jan Tschichold (SEE AMERICAN MODERN DESIGN) • Lester Beall (SEE AMERICAN MODERN DESIGN) • Alexey Brodovitch (SEE AMERICAN MODERN DESIGN) • Norman Bel Geddes (SEE STREAMLINING) • Earnest Calkins (SEE AMERICAN MODERN DESIGN) • Raymond Loewy o American industrial designer of the 1930s o Designed the Studebaker • Henry Dreyfuss o American industrial designer of the 1930s • Walter Teague o American industrial designer of the 1930s • Buckminster Fuller o American industrial designer of the 1930s o Dymaxion car o Streamlining o Teardrop-shaped Terms and Concepts • Commodity Fetishism (SEE KARL MARX) • Creative destructive (SEE HAIVEN) Planned obsolescence (SEE BROOK STEVENS) • (Second) Industrial Revolution o Technology/Industry was abundant o Arts and Craft reacted against the machine • Socialist utopia o European Avant-Garde/Utopian Movements Germany: Bauhaus Netherlands: De Stijl Soviet Union: Constructivism Italy: Futurism All these movements wanted to create a new person/new social order • The spirituality of craft o Arts and Craft Movement o Morality was incompatible with machine-made things • Morris & Co. (SEE ARTS AND CRAFTS) • The Craftsman o Arts and Crafts Movement • Blaming machines for bad design o Designers of the Arts and Crafts movement blamed machines for bad design • “Moral” furnishings of the1880s (SEE ARTS AND CRAFTS) • Unintended effects of design practices o Arts and Crafts was birthed from thoughts of high design but it was used instead for servants (plain, simple, humble designs) It reinforced the class distinctions that Morris was trying to eliminate Since it was used for the servant class, the wealthy had to distinguish themselves from the servants by having an elaborate and decorated lifestyle • Rhetoric (persuasive language) • Visual rhetoric o Persuasive language; communication aspiring to achieve a certain goal through the implementation and combinations of various visual elements, including composition, typefaces, styles, colors, images, etc. o There is no neutral communication o Meaning is not innate o Campaign logos • Typographical characters o Dadaism o Type used to make images/figures (SEE DADAISM) • Absolute abstraction o Dadaism o Use abstraction to create a universal language • Universal language (SEE ABSOLUTE ABSTRACTION) • Modernism • Asserting dominance through type o Dadaism and Futurism • Scientific Management / Taylorism, Fordism (SEE HENRY FORD AND FREDERICK TAYLOR) • Standardization and modern design o Focus of the DWB • Weimar Republic o What: The brief period of democracy between the German Empire and National Socialism o When: 1919-1933 o A lot of wildness (drugs, alcohol, party culture) o A lot of creativity o Corresponded with Bauhaus • Art into life (Constructivism) (SEE CONSTUCTIVISM) • Faktura (SEE CONSTUCTIVISM) • Artistically trained designer (Bauhaus) o Bauhaus at Weimar embraced expressionism and medieval craft o Taught their students these artistic values • Universalism (Bauhaus) o Bauhaus wanted to developed a universal language of design Herbert Bayer’s universal type • PROUN o Series of abstract, geometric paintings by El Lissitsky o “Projects in affirmation of the new” • First State Cotton-Printing Factory o Varvara Stepanova worked at this textile factory (?) o El Lissitzky, Propaganda Board “The Factory Workbenches Await You” (?) • Consumer-engineering (SEE AMERICAN MODERN DESIGN) • 1939 World’s Fair World exhibition in Paris that saw the convergence of art and industry Catalyzed Art Deco movement • “Machine Art,” exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (1934) o Exhibition of the industrial arts and the work of industrial/product designers • 1939 World’s Fair (Futurama) General Motors/Normal Bel Geddes exhibit Gave people a button that said “I Have Seen the Future” Legitimized the automobile as an equalizer Readings/Videos Max Haiven, “Privatizing Creativity: The Ruse of Creative Capitalism” o The New Hype about Creativity Creativity is becoming “big business” (the past 20-30 years) as competition grows Creativity is a “social, socialized, and socializing phenomenon.” We do it together; it is a collaborative process. o Creation of Creativity “Creative genius” came about in the 1700s-1800s with the rise of “culture” which was expressed by the individual through the purchase of fine/distinct commodities o Rise of Creative Capitalism Rebellion arose to this cultural system in the 50s, 60s, and 70s resulted in the ideology that “everyone is creative” Creativity is key to big corporations who use it as motivation for their workers--in concept but not actually in practice (i.e. Subway’s so-called “Sandwich Artists”) o Passion of the Creative Class “Creative destruction” = “the way competition forces companies to constantly reinvent themselves or go under, the way the incessant drive towards profit forces innovation and dynamism” This creative capitalism system focuses on profit over compassion and is destroying our lives, our planet, and hopes for a decent future o Creating a Different World “Real creativity is the ability to change the world together.” Creative genius is real, but it occurs in community and collaboration as manifestations of their time and place (things creative now may not have been considered creative 50 years ago) and never in isolation o In the end, “we need to focus on making it clear that real, deep creativity can never be achieved as an individual possession but is always a collective process, bound up with values of equality, social justice and community.” • Karl Marx, “The Fetishism of the Commodity and Its Secret, from Capital” (SEE KARL MARX) • “Which 2016 Presidential Candidate Has the Worst Logo?” (SEE COMPASS) • Adolf Loos, “Ornament and Crime” (1908) o Modern man condemns ornament as criminal or degenerate o “The evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of ornamentation from objects of everyday use.” o The lack of ornamentation is the “greatness of our age” o Ornamentation harms producers They are paid too little for what they have labored over The price of the ornamentation is far too low “Ornament means wasted labor and therefore wasted health…and it also means wasted material and…wasted capital.” o “The form of an object should last, that is, we should find it tolerable as long as the object itself lasts.” o Ornamentation is only justified when it fulfills and brings joy to the producer who makes the object (the “ideal of the aristocrat”) • Herman Muthesius and Henry van de Velde, “Werkbund Thesis and Antithesis” (1914) o Muthesius Standardization is the only way to a “universally valid, unfailing good taste.” o Van de Velde Protest the establishment of standardization An artist is a “free spirit” that should not be bent to discipline Standardization should only be implemented once we have found the “physiognomy of style” but this will take generations and until then we must endeavor with “creative impetus” Thus the Werkbund should encourage individual taste Quality is introduced to small circles and grows; profit is made in this way—not through standardized products introduced to everyone • Theo van Doesburg, “The Will to Style,” (1922) o It’s important to consider the “application of the machine to the new style” (the point where the two development lines of the technical and the artistic meet) o The machine is an expression of art and hand craftsmanship in an age of progress; however, to create art the machine must be governed by an artistic consciousness o The machine provides the “constructive certainty” we need It will produce a style of “liberation and vital repose” o Characteristics of the new style Certainty instead of uncertainty Openness instead of enclosure Clarity instead of vagueness Truth instead of beauty Simplicity instead of complexity Collectivism instead of individuality ...etc. o “The beauty of machinery is the very core of inspiration for the newest generation of artists.” o The merging of art and life signifies the “spiritual reconstruction of Europe” • F. T. Marinetti, “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism,” (1909) http://www.italianfuturism.org/manifestos/foundingmanifesto/ o Uses very descript, energetic, poetic language throughout the passage o The Story Marinetti and his friends stay up all night trying to write a manifesto until they hear “the roar of automobiles” at which point they leave their “frenzied scribbling” to race their cars They race them, chasing after a metaphorical “Death” as they drive Marinetti crashes his car and turns over into a ditch, but his car recovers and he starts to race again o The Manifesto Beginning Statements Love of danger, energy, and fearlessness Key elements of courage, audacity, and revolt The declaration of the beauty of speed materialized in the automobile There is only beauty in struggle Great work can only be achieved aggressively and violently Glorification of war, militarism, patriotism, and destruction Declaration of the destruction of museums, libraries, academies, moralism, and feminism This revolution will begin in Italy and will be called Futurism Museums are “cemeteries” and “graveyards” Should only be visited once on annual pilgrimage but that is all They poison and rot artists “What is there to see in an old picture except the laborious contortions of an artist throwing himself against the barriers that thwart his desire to express his dream completely?” As they (the founders) grow old and lose their youth and strength, those of a younger generation will rise up and destroy them (which is what they want) “Art…can be nothing but violence, cruelty, and injustice.” • Earnest Elmo Calkins, “What Consumer Engineering Really Is,” (1932) o The Great Depression shocked consumers—they stopped buying o Designers have traditionally not conformed their products to what their consumers want o Obsoletism stimulates consumption Style is critical when buying products o “Prosperity lies in spending, not in saving.” o “Consumer engineering is a new business science.” Products have generally fallen into two categories: those we simply use (cars, razors, etc.) and those we use up (toothpaste, biscuits) Consumer engineering is about turning the products we merely use into products we use up • Norman Bel Geddes, “Streamlining,” (1934) o Streamlining was a term of hydrodynamics Smooth flow of air over a body (minimum resistance) Now it is used as a synonym for “new” and used to describe everything o Streamlining is not very well understood though widely used o Very well developed with airplanes but not so well implemented in cars or trains except by Chrysler and De Soto o Unsure of whether streamlining will work with cars, which are in contact with the ground unlike planes o Necessary to eliminate protuberances, have clean continuous lines, and good form • Jeffrey L. Meikle, “Art Deco and the New American Temp” o After WII, design was considered only decorative o A few designers opposed this trend but it wasn’t until the World’s Fair in Paris in 1925 that art and industry converged and formed Art Deco o Art Deco took ahold in America as well—it became the “new American tempo” Skyscrapers, radio, movies, jazz, motorcars, etc. Emerged primarily from enthusiastic European immigrant artists o Designers and architects worked together Metropolitan Museum’s “The Architect and the Industrial Arts” exhibition emphasized “modern materials, machined textures, and sweeping horizontals” o Designer’s tried to reform and modernize popular taste by shaping mass-produced goods but the middle class, though appreciative of style, still trusted in tradition o Situation began to change in response to the Great Depression—manufacturers had to redesign their products according to new aesthetic principles to make it through the economic sinkhole
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