EDF Exam 1 Study Guide
EDF Exam 1 Study Guide EDF3110
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Campbell on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDF3110 at University of Florida taught by Alisha Dickerson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Human Development at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 1. CHAPTER 1 A. “Three Basic Issues” i. theory must: 1. describe behaviors 2. explain the how’s and why’s of behavior 3. predict consequences of behavior ii. theories 1. guide and give meaning 2. understand development 3. help us know how to improve it iii. the 3 basic issues 1. “Is the course of development continuous of discontinuous?” a. continuous - i. difference between immature and mature being is based on amount ii. slowly gain same kinds of skills that were there since birth b. discontinuous i. difference between immature and mature being is based on amount ii. new ways of understanding and responding occur at different times iii. development takes place is stages - 1. qualitative changes in thinking feeling and behaving that are representative of specific periods of development 2. “Does one course of development characterize all people?” a. stage theories indicat e everyone follows same developmental sequence b. however, it is become more apparent that we all live in various distinct contexts = unique personal and environmental factors that can lead to differing paths of development c. differences in circumstances fosters different intellectual abilities, social skills, and perception of self and others d. contemporary theorists see contexts as multi -layered and complex 3. “What are the roles of genetic and e nvironmental factors (nature and nurture) in development? a. Nature vs. Nurture i. Nature= heredity; genetics ii. Nurture= how influences from physical and social world impact biological makeup and physiological experiences iii. Most theories express involvement of both, they emphasize one iv. Theory’s position impacts how it explains differences between individuals 1. Emphasis on stability (traits remaining same throughout life) à usually emphasis heredity a. If they see environment as important à emphasis on early experiences 2. Others view development as having plasticity (open to change in response to influential experiences) 3. Often stability and plasticity are dependent on domain studied (different facets of life) B. Freud i. Psychosexual theory; primitive sexual and aggressive drives m otivates development; how parents manage these drives in first few years is crucial for proper health and development 1. Id- (biggest portion of mind) innate basic needs and desires 2. Ego- conscious; mediator between id and superego; presents desires of id in acceptable ways; developed early during childhood 3. Superego - conscience; develops due to parents ’ demand of child to conform to societal values; develops between age 3 -6 years ii. Childhood: 1. Sexual impulses shift from oral to anal to genital regions 2. Parents must be careful to make sure there isn’t too much or too little gratification in order for proper, mature sexual behavior and family life as they age 3. First theory to stress importance of parent -child relationship C. Erikson i. A Neo-Freudian ii. Expanded ideas of devel opment at each stage of Freud’s 5 stages and added 3 of his own iii. Psychosocial theory 2 1. Ego not only mediates between id and superego demands, but helps acquire attitudes and skills that help individuals serve an important function in society 2. A basic psychosoc ial conflict resolution determines a poor or good outcome of each stage, impacting development 3. Normal development is related to culture, not a same tract of development for all cultural settings 4. Emphasizes individual’s unique life history 5. Clinical or case study method of examining individual D. Behaviorism i. Directly observable events, both stimuli and responses ii. Pavlov’s dog experiment à classical conditioning (creating a conditioned response from a once neutral stimuli by pairing with a unconditioned stimuli that provokes desired unconditioned response) 1. Watson found classical conditioning could be applied to children with Little Albert and the white rat experiment 2. Watson concluded environment was the major influencer of development 3. Views development as continuo us process iii. B.F Skinner’s operant conditioning 1. Frequency of behavior can be controlled by reinforcers (addition of something either negative or positive) or punishment (subtraction of something either negative or positive) E. Social Learning Theory i. Built off of ideas from behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory; looks at conditioning and how children and adults acquire new responses ii. Several social learning theories: 1. Bandura’s focuses on modelling (imitation or observational learning) a. Influenced by history of puni shment and reinforcement, promise of future punishment and reinforcement, and vicarious reinforcement or punishment b. Most recent revision of theory focuses more on cognition, called social-cognitive c. Children become more and more selective of what they imita te d. Development of personal standards and self -efficacy (sense of self) e. As individuals for attitudes, values, and convictions they begin to control own learning and behavior iii. Many theorists believe both social learning and behaviorism: 1. Do not provide a broa d enough view of important environmental factors effects of development 3 2. Behavior modification has come as a result of the two, which include procedures combining modeling and conditioning to help create a desired behavior 3. F. Piaget i. Cognitive developmental t heory- children build knowledge through interaction and exploration of world ii. Adaptation of both mind and body to environment iii. 4 stages 1. sensorimotor **** (will discuss later in ch. 5) 2. preoperational 3. concrete operational 4. formal operational iv. children’s understanding is different from adult’s v. children eventually realize erroneous thinking due to need for equilibrium between internal and external information vi. clinical interviews used to study children vii. encouraged development of educational methods, emphasizing discov ery and direct contact viii. thought to have underestimated competencies of infants and preschoolers ix. training showed improvement on some of Piaget’s tests, so questions whether adult teaching is more beneficial than just self -discovery x. more contemporary followe rs of Piaget believe in a more gradual shift from stage to stage G. Information Processing i. Human mind is symbol-manipulating system that information is sorted through 1. Input- where information is presented 2. Output - where enco ded, transformed, and organized information produces a behavioral response ii. Flowcharts are common iii. Seek to clarify how both tasks characteristics and cognitive limitations influence performance 1. Ie. Information processing flowchart on steps 5 -year old used to solve a bridge -building problem 2. Some track children’s mastery of task(s) 3. Some describe human cognitive system in its entirety iv. Similar to Piaget, believe people actively make sense of own thinking v. NOT A STAGE THEORY vi. Processes studied: 4 1. Perception 2. Attention 3. Memory 4. Planning 5. Strategies 6. Categoriz ation of information 7. Comprehension of written and spoken prose vii. Findings have important implications for educations viii. Little to say about not linear a logical parts of cognition, like imagination and creativity H. Sensitive Period i. Sensitive period = time that i s optimal for certain capacities to emerge and when individual is particularly responsive to environmental influences 1. Boundaries less defined/ridged as critical period 2. Development can occur later, just more difficult a. ie. Learning a different language I. Vygotsky i. Sociocultural theory focuses on how culture is transmitted to the following generation ii. Social interaction is necessary for adolescents to acquire methods of thinking and behaving that collectively make a community’s culture iii. Socially mediated process - focus on adult’s influencing and assisting children rather than than tackling new challenges on their own iv. As children internalize dialogue heard from adults, they can then use this to guide own thinking and actions, as well as acquiring new skills v. Certain stage changes vi. Also continuous changes in cognition that vary between cultures vii. People in every culture develop unique strengths dependent upon the environment viii. Focused little on hereditary and brain growth’s effect on cognitive change J. Ecological Systems Theory i. Urie Bronfenbrenner ii. Person develops within a complex system of relationships that are influenced by multiple levels of the surrounding environment iii. Bioecogical model because child’s biology creates certain dispositions that are placed with environmental forces to mold development iv. 5 layers: 5 1. Microsystem - activities and interaction patterns in immediate surroundings 2. Mesosystem - connections between microsystems 3. Exosystem - social settings that do not cantain person but affect experiences in immediate sett ings 4. Macrosystem - culturalvalues, customs, laws, resources 5. Chronosystem - temporal dimension of model; shifts in contexts, major events in one’s life K. Research Methods i. Systematic observation 1. Naturalistic observation - going into natural environment and record behavior a. Strength: i. Shown direct examples of everyday behavior they want to explain b. Drawbacks i. Not all individuals have same opportunity to display a certain behavior in everyday life 2. Structured observation - laboratory setting and evokes behavior of interest so each participant has equal opportunity to express response a. Strength: i. Shows how adults and children actually behave b. Drawbacks: i. Tells little about reasoning behind responses ii. Self-reports 1. Clinical interview - flexible conversation to try and evoke part icipant’s point of view 2. Structures interviews - may include tests and questionnaires so each patient is asked same questions word for word iii. Clinical (case study) Method 1. Focused on gathering large range of information on one individual 2. An outgrowth of the psychoanalytic theory 3. Goal: to get as clear a picture a possible of individual’s psychological functioning and experiences that have developed it 4. Has been used to study prodigies a. Strengths: i. Yields richly details case narratives that provide insights on numer ous factors impacting development b. Drawbacks: 6 i. Information is typically not collected systematically and is subjective, giving way to possible bias ii. Cannot generalize conclusions due to the small sample size iv. For Studying Culture 1. Sometimes a combination and mo dification of both natural and structured observational studies 2. Ethnograph - descriptive, qualitivative technique through participant observation a. Researchers spend lengths of time living a=in and participating in the culture i. Strengths: 1. Minimize own influenc es by becoming part of culture ii. Drawbacks: 1. Still pose threat of bias 2. Cannot be generalized beyond setting conducted in L. General Research Designs i. Correlational Desgin 1. Gather information on individuals, typicaly in natualr life situations 2. Do not alter experien ces 3. Study relationships between participants’ characteristics and their development or behavior 4. Oftern use correlation coefficient: a. Number describing how two measures or variables are related to one another b. Correlation does not equal causation c. Spans from + 1.00 to -1.00 i. The larger the number the greater strengthen in reation ii. Sign is indicative of a positive or negative correlation 1. Positive- as one increases so does the other 2. Negative- as one decreases the other increases 5. Cannot infer cause and effect!! ii. Experimental Design 1. CAN make inferences about cause -and-effect 2. Use procedure that provides equal and randomized chance of assignment to one of the treatment groups a. Independent variable - variable expected to cause change in another variable; this is the variabl e that is manipulated b. Dependent variable - influenced by the independent variable 7 c. Random assignment - using an unbiased procedure to increase chances of participants’ characteristics of being equally distributed throughout the treatment groups iii. Modified Experimental Designs: Field and Natural Experiments 1. Field experiments: a. Assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings 2. Natural (quasi) Experiments a. Comparing treatments that already exists b. Similar to correlational studies except that particip ants groups are carefully chosen to make sure their characteristics are as similar as possible c. Do best to rule out alternative explanations for treatment effects d. Cannot produce as accurate or rigorous results like true experimental research 3. Look at pg. 36 in te xtbook for a chart comparing and contrasting experimental designs M. Designs for Studying Development i. Longitudinal design 1. Participants studied repeatedly, taking note of differences as they age a. Strengths: i. Shows common patterns and individual differences in development ii. Shows relationship between early and later behaviors b. Drawbacks: i. Cohort effects - same time period of birth means same historical and cultural context that could influence particular generation but not others ii. Participant dropout iii. Practice effects - better at taking test due to familiarity or practice ii. Cross-sectional 1. Groups of people of different ages are studied at the same point in time 2. Participants measured only once a. Strengths i. No participant dropout ii. No practice effects b. Drawbacks: i. No study of indivi dual trends ii. Age diffrences may be distorted due to cohort effects 8 iii. Sequential Design 1. Conduct numerous sequences (cross -sectional or longitudinal studies) a. May study participants over same ages but in different years b. May study participants over different ages but during the same years 2. Strengths: a. When longitudinal sequences, allows for both longitudinal and cross - sectional comparisons b. Reveals cohort effects c. Allows for tracking of age -related changes better than longitudinal designs 3. Drawbacks: a. A lot of work b. Difficult to carry out 2. CHAPTER 2 A. Genotype i. Complex blend of genetic information that determines what species we are and majorly impacts all of our specific characteristics or traits B. Phenotype i. Directly observable characteristics, resulting from out genotype C. Chromosomes i. Rod-like structures that store and transmit genetic information ii. Humans have 23 pairs (so 46 total) iii. One of each pair if inherited from the mother (50%), the others inherited from the father (50%) iv. Made up of DNA D. DNA i. Make up chromosomes (duh, I just s aid that) ii. “deoxyribonucleic acid” iii. long, doube-stranded molecule iv. looks like a twisted latter v. the rungs of the latter are composed of a pair of bases which are joined together between the 2 sides E. Genes i. Segements of DNA along the length of the chromosome ii. Can differ in lengths 9 iii. 20,000 to 25,000 estimated genes in human chromosomes F. Mitosis i. Process of DNA duplication ii. Allows the single-celled fertilized ovum to developed into human being iii. Chromosomes copy themselves à each new body cell has the same # of chromosomes and genetic info (46 total, 23 pairs) G. Meiosis i. Cuts in half the number of chromosomes normally present in cells in order to form gametes (sex cells) ii. Chromosomes pair up and swap segments so genes from one are replaced by another iii. Then randomly determined wh ich member of each chromosome pair will gather with others and end up in the same gamete 1. 1 in 700 trillion chance that non -twin siblings will have same genetic makeup iv. for males, meiosis results in four sperm and these cells are produced all throughout life v. meiosis for women only produces one ovum and women are born with certain number of ova in ovaries, which only last for about 3 to 4 decades 1. 1 to 2 million present at birth 2. 40,000 still present at adolescence 3. 350 to 450 will mature during childbearing year s H. Alleles i. An allele is is form of a gene ii. If both alleles are alike, then homozygous iii. If alleles are different, then heterozygous I. Dominant-recessive Inheritance i. Only one allele affects child’s characteristics: 1. The dominant affects 2. The recessive does not a. Recessive only shows up in homozygous recessive genes b. Heterozygous recessive genes is given label of “carrier” because recessive trait is not shown but can be passed onto offspring J. Incomplete Dominance i. Both alleles are expressed in phenotype, producing a comb ined taint; and intermediate between the two traits 1. Ie sickle cells trait (combination of sickle cell anemia and regular red blood cells) 10 K. X-linked inheritance i. When harmful allele is found on the X -chromosome 1. Males have a higher chance of being affected bec ause they only have one X chromosome, so if given recessive x -linked trait, no other X chromosome to possibly have dominant allele suppress the recessive L. Reproductive Choices i. Genetic Counseling 1. Assesses couple’s chances of having a ch ild with a certain he reditary disorder 2. Helps couples decide best course of action, comparing risks and family goals ii. Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine 1. Prenatal diagnosis methods (shown on table 2.4) detect developmental issues before birth 2. Includes : a. Amniocentesis b. Chorioni c villus sampling c. maternal blood analysis d. fetoscopy e. ultrasound f. MRI g. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 3. Doctors can now administer medicine to fetuses before birth 4. Surgery can be performed on fetuses too 5. Blood transfusions 6. Bone marrow transplants 7. Genetic eng ineering advances have led to: a. Gene therapy b. Proteomics iii. Adoption 1. Adopted children tend to have more emotional and learning challenges than other children 2. Children adopted after infancy have history of major conflict involved in relationship with adopted fam ily 3. Differences in adopted children and parent s genes may threaten family harmony 4. Some adopted have trouble accepting possibility of never knowing their roots or meeting their birth parents 11 5. Most adopted kids do well and those who had preexisting issues usu ally make progress quickly after adoption 6. Others worry about meeting birth parents 7. Most appear well -adjusted as adults though M. Reproductive technologies i. **raise ethical questions ii. Donor insemination 1. injection of sperm from an anonymous male into a woman 2. 70-80% successful iii. In vitro fertilization 1. “test-tube baby” 2. 1% of all children in developed countries are conceived this way 3. woman is given hormones to stimulate ova into ovum 4. once ovum is fertilized in Petri dish is injected back into mother’s uterus 5. can ensur es couples who carry x -linked diseases have a girl 6. 35% average success rate 7. 40% in woman less than 35 and 8% in women 43 or older 8. may or may not be genetically related to both parents 9. do not typically tell child of origins iv. Surrogate motherhood 1. Another wome n is used and paid to carry baby, whether it’s through in vitro fertilization or whether father’s sperm is used for insemination with surrogate mother v. Postmenopausal-assisted childbirth 1. Dr. have used ovum of younger women to then use in vitro fertilizatio n for women who are postmenopausal vi. **new practices can be used to genetically alter and practically design children N. SES i. “social economic status” ii. Combines: 1. Years of education 2. Prestige of one’s job and skills it demands 3. Income (economic status) iii. Affects family functioning iv. Related to time of marriage and size of family 1. Younger families and larger families typically fall on the lower end of scale 12 v. Higher SES is linked to greater intelligence and a better interaction and development in child due to the relationship, high goals, independence, and stimulation those of a higher SES class tend to provide, vs. the less enriching environment provided by lower SES families O. Individualistic Societies i. People are thought of as separate entities ii. Mainly concerned with own need s iii. Self-first P. Collectivist Societies i. People are thought of a part of a group ii. More focused on goals of the group than of individual Q. Heritability Estimates i. Measures the extent genetic factors are responsible for individual variations in complex traits for a specific population ii. Obtained from kinship studies 1. Most kinship findings indicate a moderate role for heredity iii. Estimate ranges from 0 to 1.00 iv. Genetic factors are important in intelligence and personality R. Gene-environment Interaction i. Means that because of ge netic makeup, people vary in their responsiveness to particular experiences ii. Reactions to environment are genetically influenced S. Gene-environment Correlation i. Individual’s genes influence the environment he or she is exposed to ii. Passive- child has no influence over it 1. Athletic parents promote sport oriented environment; likely child has athletic genes too iii. Active- actively seeking environments that align with their genetic tendencies 1. Musically talented child joins the band 2. niche-picking - tendency to actively s elect environments that are well suited for our heredity T. Canalization i. Tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to a few or one outcome 1. All babies roll over,, sit up, crawl, and walk (except extreme circumstances) à infant pe rceptual and motor development is strongly canalized 13 2. Intelligence and personality less strongly canalized because they vary much more dependent upon environment U. Epigenisis i. Development coming from continuous, bidirectional exchanges between all the levels of the environment and heredity 3. CHAPTER 3 A. Zygote i. Initial 2 weeks of the first trimester ii. One-celled zygote multiplies, becoming a a fluid filled ball termed blastocyst around the 4 day 1. inside cells are embryonic disk that will become baby 2. outside cells are called trophoblast that will become protective and nourishing structures iii. Implantation occurs between 7 and 9 day, burrowing deep into the uterine lining iv. Structures for to help protect and provide nourishment for baby 1. Amnion - amniotic fluid regulates t emperature and provides protection 2. Chorion - protective membrane surrounding amnion; villi emerge - placenta starts to develop 3. Yolk sac - produces blood cells 4. Umbilical cord - connects placenta to baby; contains one large vein to delivers blood and two arterie s to remove waste v. Close to 30% do not survive this period B. Embryo i. From implantation to the 8 week (total of 6 weeks) ii. Most rapid period of prenatal changes iii. Groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs iv. 1 week of embryo; 1. embryonic disks f orms three layers (which give rise to all parts of body) a. ectoderm - will become nervous system and skin b. mesoderm - which will become muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs c. endoderm - will become digestive system, lungs, urinary tract , and glands v. Second month 1. Eyes, ears, nose, neck, and jaw 14 2. Arms, fingers, legs, toes 3. Intestines grow, heart develops separate chambers, 4. liver and spleen are able to take over blood cell production, eliminating need for yolk sac 5. 7 weeks - neuron production a t more than 250,000 per minute 6. 1-inch-long and 1/7 an ounce 7. responds to touch 8. can move (not felt by mother yet) C. Fetus i. 9 week to end of pregnancy ii. longest prenatal phase iii. “growth and finishing phase” iv. third month 1. organized and connected organs, muscles, and nervous system 2. body position changes up to 25 times an hour 3. lungs begin simulating breathing 4. 12 week- sex can be detected 5. fingernails, toenails, tooth buds, eyelids 6. heartbeat bow audible with stethoscope rd 7. end of 3 month- completion of first trimester v. second trimester 1. between 17 -20 weeks mother can feel movements 2. vernix (white cheese -like substance) helps protect baby from chaffing will soaking in amniotic fluid 3. lanugo appear (white downy hair) to help vernix stick to skin 4. at end of 2 nd trimester, most neurons are in place and organs well developed 5. glial cells (feed neurons) continue production rapidly throughout rest of pregnancy and after birth a. why brain weight increases 10x during 20 week until birth) 6. neurons also start formation of synapses (connect ions) quickly 7. 20 weeks - can be stimulated and irritated by sounds but heart rate reveals no periods of alertness 8. sight has begun vi. third trimester vii. age of viability: between 22 and 26 weeks viii. born between 7and 8 months typically need assistance breathing ix. cerebral cortex enlarges 15 x. 28 weeks, awake about 11% of time, rising to 16% right before birth xi. 30-34 weeks, rhythmic alternations between being awake and asleep xii. synchrony between fetal heart and motor activity increases 1. clear sign of neural networks being coordin ated xiii. right before birth baby begins showing signs of personality and temperament xiv. active babies typically indicate better handling of frustration and less fearful infants xv. fetal activity may possibly be indicator of healthy neurological development, which encourages adaptability during childhood xvi. 23-30 weeks connection form between cerebral cortex and brain regions involving pain xvii. 28 weeks blink to nearby sounds xviii. habituation around 30 weeks to sound xix. 30 -36 weeks begin distinguishing different voices and sounds xx. in total of final 3 months, (third trimester) fetus gains over 5 lbs and grows close to 7 inches xxi. 8 month, layer of fat added for temperature control xxii. antibodies received from mother’s blood to fight infection xxiii. last few weeks before birth fetuses should turn head down D. teratogens i. any environmental agent that may inflict damage to baby during prenatal period ii. influenced by: 1. dose 2. heredity 3. other negative influences (poor nutrition, additional teratogens, lack of medical care, etc.) 4. age iii. cause most damage during em bryonic period iv. some teratogens: 1. prescription and nonprescription drugs 2. illegal drugs 3. tobacco 4. alcohol 5. radiation 6. environmental pollution 7. infection disease v. ** I provide a very detail outline of the specific teratogens for each subcatergory and their possible effects in my chapter 3 notes 16 E. Stages of Childbirth i. Dilation and effacement of cervix ii. Delivery of the baby iii. Delivery of placenta iv. (provide more details on Chapter 3 notes) F. Apgar Scale i. Learn chart on pg. 98 ii. Quickly assesses newborns physical condition iii. Score of 7 or more is healthy iv. Score of 4 to 6, baby need helps with establishing some vitals v. 3 or less, emergency G. Pre-term i. Born several weeks or more before due date 1. Small, but weight may still be appropriate based on time born ii. At 34 weeks: 1. Relatively low risk fo r disabilities 2. Below average in physical and cognitive development iii. H. Small-for-Date i. Under expected weight for time of birth ii. Some are full term babies that are underweight iii. Others are preterm that are especially tiny iv. Have more problems than normal weight full term or preterm babies 1. during first year - More likely to: a. to die b. catch infections c. display signs of brain damage 2. mid-childhood a. smaller in size b. lower IQ c. inattentive d. socially immature I. Kangaroo care i. For preterm babies, skin to skin contact fosters improved: 1. Oxygenation 2. Temperature regulation 3. Sleep 17 4. Breastfeeding 5. Alertness 6. Infant survival ii. Provides gentle stimulation of all sensory modalities iii. Parents who do this feel more confident about caring for preterm babies iv. Elevate scores on mental and motor development within first year compared to preterm babies who did not receive kangaroo care J. Reflexes i. Inborn, automatic response to a certain for of stimulation ii. Most obvious form of baby’s organized patterns of behavior iii. Look at page 107 in textbook, provides chart of al l major reflexes and at what age the disappear iv. Reflexes include: 1. Eye blink 2. Rooting 3. Sucking 4. Moro 5. Palmar grasp 6. Tonic neck 7. Stepping 8. Babinski K. Newborn senses i. Touch 1. Highly sensitive to pain at birth 2. Use tough to investigate world 3. Can distinguish shape of small obj ect placed in their hands ii. Taste and smell 1. Facial expressions reveal newborn babies can differentiate between numerous basic tastes 2. Taste previously disliked can become preferred if paired with alleviation of hunger 3. Smell plays major role in feeding 4. know smel l of mothers breasts 5. oriente to smell of unfamiliar human milk over formula milk iii. Hearing 1. Newborns hear variety of sounds 2. Sensitivity increases over the first couple of months 3. Prefer complex sounds following birth 18 4. Few days old can differentiate variety of s ound patterns 5. Young infants listen longer to human talk than similar nonspeech noises 6. Can detect sound of ANY language 7. Will suck more on a nipple when listening to mothers voice iv. Vision 1. Least developed of baby’s newborn senses 2. Visual structures in brain an d eye are not fully developed yet 3. Visual acuity is limited depth perception is not developed) 4. Images appear quite blurry even up close 5. Baby sees as well at 20 ft away as adult sees at about 600 ft away 6. Takes around 4 months for color vision to become like an adults 4. CHAPTER 4 A. Skeletal Age i. Measure of bone development ii. Best indicator of child’s physical maturity iii. X-ray long bones to see how much of cartilage has hardened into bone iv. African Americans tend to be more physically mature than Caucasian v. Girls largely more than boys B. Cephalocaudal trend i. Head develops more quickly during the prenatal period ii. At birth head is ¼ of body total body length iii. Lower portion of body eventually catches up C. Proximodistal trend i. Growth happens from the center of the body outward ii. During prenatal period the head chest and trunk grow first à the arms and legs, à hands and feet iii. In infancy arms and legs seems to continue to grow more rapidly than hands and feet D. Neurons i. Nerve cells that store and tranmist information ii. 100 to 200 billion in brain iii. lots have thoughsonds of direct connection with others iv. loosely packed v. between are synapses vi. neurotransmitters are send across synapse to communicate 19 E. Mylenation i. ½ of brain composed of glial cells that carry out mylenation ii. coating of neural fibers t=with myin (an insulating fatty sheath) that helps the efficiency of communication F. Programmed Cell Death i. Makes space for connective structures ii. As Synapses form, 20 to 80 % of neurons around it die iii. Far more neurons were produced during prenatal period than needed so this is okay G. Synaptic Pruning i. Neurons that are not often stimulated are returned back to uncommitted state in order to be used for future development ii. Around 40% of synapses are pruned before adulthood H. Prefrontal Cortex i. Responsible for thought, specifically 1. consciousness, 2. inhibition of impulses, 3. integration of information, 4. use of m emory, 5. reasoning, 6. problem solving, 7. planning ii. undergoes intensive myelination and pruning during preschool and school years iii. also another period of accelerated growth in adolescence, reaching adult level I. Plasticity i. Highly plastic cerebral cortex allows for a high capacity for learning because numerous areas of the br ain are not yet committed to particular functions ii. Plus, if parts of cortex are damaged, other parts cam=n compensate iii. Overabundance of brain synapses during first few years allows for greatest plasticity J. Experience-expectant brain growth i. Young brains rapidly develop organization ii. Organization is dependent on every day experiences like opportunities to interact with people and explore environment and hear language iii. Young brains expect to encounter these regular experiences iv. Occurs early and naturally 20 v. Rushing early learning overwhelms neural circuits, reducing necessary sensitivity to normal experiences for everyday life K. Experience-dependent growth i. Additional growth and refinement of an established brain ii. Results from particular and unique brain experiences iii. Greatly varied among cultures and individuals L. Food insecurity i. Not being sure you will have a ccess to enough food for a regular healthy active life ii. 35% among single parent families iii. high among low-income ethnic minority families (25% Hispanics and 27% African Americans) M. Habituation i. Response to a stimulus becomes less strong as to the stimulus is repeated over and over again ii. A new stimulus lead to recovery N. Imitation i. Copying another individual’s behavior ii. Mirror neurons O. Dynamic Systems Theory of Motor Development i. The mastery of motor skills demands gathering increasingly complex systems of actions, having separate abilities joining together to produce more effective methods of exploration and control of environment ii. Each new skill is a joint product of four factors: 1. Central nervous system development 2. Body’s movement capacities 3. Goal 4. Environmental supports for skill P. Statistical Learning Capacity i. Infants acquire rapid progress in perceiving structure of language through acquisition of stock of speech structures they will later learn meaning for, all before 12 months of age Q. Intermodal Perception i. Perceive running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor, and taste information as integrated wholes ii. Ability to know shape whether we see or tough it iii. Lip movements are coordinated with sound of voice 21 iv. Dropping something on solid surface will produce loud noise v. Newborns expect touch, sight, and sound to go together vi. Within first 1 and ½ years infants master large range of intermodal relationships 1. 3-4 months can match faces with voices by lip -voice synchrony 2. 4-6 months can remember unique voice and face pairin gs 5. CHAPTER 5 A. Sensorimotor stage i. Piaget’s first stage ii. Spans first two years of life iii. Substages displayed nicely on chart on page 153 B. Assimilation i. Use of current schemes to interpret outside world C. Accommodation i. Creation of new scheme or adjustment of old scheme when realizing current ways of thinking are not at complete equilibrium with external worl d D. Object permanence i. Understanding objects still exists when not in sight 1. Demonstrated once infants begin retrieving hidden objects 2. A-not-B search error a. Retrieval of object from place first saw hidden, not last place E. Mental representation i. Internal depictions of information that mind can alter and manipulate 1. Images 2. Concepts ii. 18-25 month old Piaget saw come to solutions suddenly rather than trial and error iii. deferred imitation- recalling and copying of behavior from absent models iv. make-believe play- children act out activities F. Follow-up research on Piaget i. Broad agreement on two issues: 1. Numerous cognitive c hanges of infancy are slow and continuous rather and abrupt or stage-like (like Piaget thought) 22 2. Numerous aspects develop unevenly rather that together because of challenges from various tasks and the vary ing experiences with these tasks ii. Inspires lots of research on infant cognition iii. Teachers and caregivers use sensorimotor stage to help provide proper environments for infants and toddlers G. Information Processing i. First information enters the sensory register ii. Then working part of mind is Short -term memory iii. Central executive directs flow of information iv. Automatic processes are well learned that they are not taking up space in working memory v. Long term memory created by other processing of information in working memory- permanent knowledge vi. Page 161-162 H. Vygotsky i. Sociocultural theory ii. Zone of proximal development - range of tasks that are too challenging to be done by child on their own but possible with help of skilled partner 1. Scaffolding - promotes learning at all ages I. Theories of Language and Development i. Nativist Perspective 1. Language acquisition device (LAD) ii. Interactionist Perspective 1. Interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences 6. CHAPTER 6 A. Erikson i. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust ii. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt B. Social Referencing i. Actively searching for emotional information f rom a trusted individual in an uncertain situation C. Effortful Control i. “Capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response ” 1. evident in how effectively a child can : 23 a. focus and shift attention b. inhibit inmpulses c. deal with negative emotions D. Temperament i. Easy child (40%) ii. Difficult child (10%) iii. Slow-to-warm-up child (15 %) iv. Reactivity- quickness ad\n intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity v. Self-regulation- strategies modifying reactivity E. Goodness-of-fit i. Indicates how environment and temperament can result in favorable outsome ii. Encourages adaptive functioning based on temperament F. Attachement i. Strang affectionate connection we have with people that create a feeling of delight or pleasue during interaction and comfort in prescene ii. By senconf half of first year, attached to family memebrs iii. single out parents for attention G. Categorical Self i. 18-30 months children begin to categorize themelf and others on basis of age, sex, goodness vs. badness, and physical traits H. Compliance i. 12-18 months are capable of showing complete awerness of caregiver’s desires and expectations and CAN OBEY request and commands simple in nature 24
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