GEO 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
GEO 101 Exam 1 Study Guide GEO 101LEC
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anisha Karim on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Bennett, S J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
GEO 101 Exam 1 Chapters 1 - 4 CHAPTER 1 What is the Anthropocene? ● We’ve been in the Holocene epoch for the past ● Were now entering a new epoch(period of time) called the Anthropocene due to human activity causing significant changes to the Earth’s atmosphere ○ Evidence of this are from ice cores measuring CO2 levels World of Physical Geography ● Earth’s four major systems are the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, and Biosphere ● Human Geography: Study of spatial interactions and patterns related to human activity (social, cultural, economic) ● Physical Geography: Study of living and nonliving systems on Earth. Natural processes related to weather, climate, and geology ( usually ends in -ogy) Methods and Tools in Geography ● Geographic Grid: Networks of meridians and parallels used to fix Earth locations ○ Meridians: North-south lines connecting the poles ○ Parallels: east-west lines parallel to the equator ● Map scale: Relationship between distances on a map and distances on the ground ○ Verbal scale: Expresses scale in words (i.e 1 cm=1km) ○ Representative scale: Expresses scale as a unit (i.e 1: 50k mens 1 unit= 50 kilometer units in real life) ○ Graphic scale: Shows scale on a bar ● Map projection ○ Four types: Cylindrical, Conic, Place, Elliptical ○ Distortion: All maps are distorted. There is a trade of between size and shape. ( the bigger the area mapped, the more distorted it becomes)= Conformity CHAPTER 2 Electromagnetic Radiation (Ranges between SW and LW) ● More heat= more energy ● More energy= shorter wavelengths Insolation over the Globe ● Greatest insolation is at the equator where there are direct rays, decreasing towards the poles. (Greatest to least insolation: equatorial, tropical, subtropical) ● Daily insolation varies ● Equinox: Time when day and night are equal length around the globe and it happens twice a year ○ Vernal equinox: March 21 ○ Autumnal equinox: September 23 ● Solstice: Solar Energy and the Earth’s atmosphere ● Composition of the atmosphere(97% is within first 30 km of Earth) ○ Permanent Gases: 78% Nitrogen, 21% oxygen, Argon ○ Variable gases: Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor(varies up to 2%, absorbs heat), ozone(layer in the stratosphere) ● Layers of the atmosphere ○ Troposphere: lowest layer, human activity and weather occurs here, temperature DECREASES with HEIGHT ○ Stratosphere: temperature INCREASES with HEIGHT (because of ozone) ○ Mesosphere: temperature DECREASES with HEIGHT ○ Thermosphere: temperature INCREASES with HEIGHT (no sun cover) Homosphere: lower part of the earth’s atmosphere 80 km up Heterosphere upper part of the earth’s atmosphere ● Reflection: Particles reflect radiation back up into space ○ Albedo: The proportion of radiation reflected. The higher the albedo, the more radiation is reflected (snow/ice). The lower, the more radiation is absorbed (black asphalt) Lighter colored objects have a higher albedo. ● Greenhouse efect: CO2 and other gases are trapped in the atmosphere instead of being radiated back into space because of particles blocking the way and reradiating it back towards earth. ○ CO2 has low potential to cause global warming but there’s an extremely high amount of it ○ CH4 and nitric acid are also contributors ● Net radiation ○ This is the diference between incoming and outgoing solar radiation ○ Because of the greenhouse efect, it’s been increasing and global temperature has increased by about 1 degree Celsius in the past century. Human Impact ● Rising Concentration of Greenhouse Gases ○ Noticeable change in Carbon dioxide levels have been occurring since 1958 ○ Thinning of ozone layer→ harmful UV rays afect life on Earth CHAPTER 3 What did the Government know about Global Warming and When? ● Landmark Case in a Federal Court in Oregon ○ Argument was that minors and the future generation have a right to life liberty and property (storms, droughts, rising seas) and the Public trust doctrine ○ The Feds retaliate saying there is no Public Trust Doctrine for this case and that there is no standing. (Specific pollution to specific harms so they say there’s no proven direct link to Global Warming and human activity) Temperature and Heat flow Process ● Remember this formula!!: °F= (°C * 9/5) +32 ● Temperature scales: Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin ● Surface Temperature ○ Always measured at 4 feet above the ground because surface temperature is variable ● Wind Chill and Heat Index ○ Wind Chill Index: The higher the wind speed, the faster the rate heat leaves our bodies, and the colder we are ○ Heat Index: The more humid it is, the hotter we feel because evaporative cooling of our sweat is slowed down. ● Hottest temperature ever recorded was in Death Valley in California Energy Transfer ● Heat: the internal energy transferred between substances because of their temperature diference ● Heat flows by Radiation, convection, conduction, and advection (when an air mass moves bringing its temperature and moisture) ○ Ex: (important) Sunlight hits the Earth by SW(shortwave) energy→ Ground absorbs SW, raising its temperature→ surface layer radiates LW(longwave) energy back out to space (what goes in must come out) ● Latent Heat ○ Sensible heat: heat flow resulting in a temperature change of an object or its surroundings ○ Latent: Release or absorption of heat that occurs when an object changes state (i.e. gas, liquid, solid) ○ Energy transfer in the ocean/atmosphere ■ Water evaporating into water vapor is a cooling process as heat is absorbed into the water vapor ■ Latent heat from water vapor is released in the condensation process ● Controls and factors of air temperature: ○ Primary factors: time of day, seasons, surface type(maritime or continental) ○ Other factors: elevation, land use and urbanization, and ocean currents ● Daily Cycle of Air Temperature ○ Net Radiation is positive after sunrise, peaks at noon, and decreases to negative by sunset ○ The hottest point of the day is around 1 pm ○ Maritime/ coastal regions have smaller daily and annual temperature ranges ○ Continental/ inland regions have greater ranges ● Urban and Rural Environments ○ Urban heat Island: City center with a higher temperature than its surroundings ○ Heat related fatalities often occur ○ Green roofs are used to combat this ● Air temperature maps and temperature patterns around the globe ○ Air temperature maps use isotherms to show centers of high and low temperatures ○ Isotherm: line on maps running through points of the same temperature ○ Temperature gradient: rate of temperature change along a selected line ○ Indirect temperature records are called proxy ■ Tree rings, ancient sediment, ice cores, oxygen isotope ratio CHAPTER 4 States of Water ● Solid( ice), liquid (water), and gas(water vapor) ● Evaporation: Change from liquid to gas; latent heat is absorbed ● Condensation: Change from gas to liquid ● Freezing: Change from liquid to solid ● Sublimation: Change from solid to gas ● Deposition: CHange from gas to solid Hydrosphere ● 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater ● 97.5% is salt water Hydrologic Cycle ● Water moves along the ocean, atmosphere, and land by ○ Evaporation, precipitation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, runof, and sinking into the soil, recharging the groundwater. Humidity ● The amount of water vapor in the air ● Maximum humidity increases sharply with rising temperature ● Relative humidity(RH) : compares present water vapor to maximum amount that the air can hold ○ Air holding half of its capacity of water vapor is at 50% RH ○ Can change if temperature is changed or moisture is gained or lost ● Dew point: The temperature at which air with a given humidity will reach saturation when cooled without changing its pressure ● Specific Humidity: Actual amount of water vapor the air is holding (g/kg) Adiabatic Process ● As a parcel of air is lifted, atmospheric pressure is lowered, and the parcel expands and cools ● Clouds form as air cools to dew point ● The process where the temperature of air changes in response to change in atmospheric pressure ● Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate ○ The rate that rising air cools or descending air warms when there’s no condensation ○ 10 degrees Celsius per 1000 feet ● Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate ○ Rate rising air cools by expansion when there is condensation ○ 4 to 9 degrees Celsius per 1000 feet ● Atmospheric Lifting: Air can move up in four ways ○ Orographic: up a mountain ○ Convective: precipitation when warm moist air is heated on the ground, rises, cools, and condenses ○ Frontal: When a warm and cool front meet and warm air moves up ○ Convergent: two air masses converge and form an uplift
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