Organic Chemistry I Exam I Notes
Organic Chemistry I Exam I Notes 3331
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Simrat Kaur on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3331 at University of Houston taught by Mary Bean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry I in Organic Chemistry at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Organic I Chemistry Exam 1 Review Acids and Bases : Curved Arrow Formalism : The Mechanism 1. Curved Arrow are used to indicate bonds breaking and forming in a reaction or electron “flow”. 2. Direction of electron “flow” is always from the electron rick to the electron poor or from nucleophile to electrophile, never the reverse. 3. Arrow begins with a covalent bond or a lone pair of electron or a lone electron. 4. Arrow show where the electron flow not where the atoms go. Base are the one with most of the time the negative charge and with the spectator ion. Spectator ion as the reaction proceeds ends up with the conj base Isomers Question : monochlorination of compound Find all the diff environment 5 diff environment (a,b,c,d,e) Add the Cl to each different environment For this question 4th and the 5th environment there 2 geometric isomers each - Wedge-dash diagrams. Usually drawn with two bonds in the plane of the page, 1 in front, and one behind to give the molecule perspective - 1 dash and 1 wedges are considered two different geometric isomers Newman Projections Eclipsed - least stable because the H are all in the same area Staggered - most stable because the H are divided to be far away from each other Ranking Boiling point : Rules 1. Bond strength - stronger the strength higher the BP (IMF) a. H-bonding > Dipole-dipole(Polar) > LD (non-polar) 2. Size - bigger the size the larger the BP 3. Branching - Larger the surface area hence the higher the BP. 4. More the H-bonding and higher the BP. Ranking Acidity: Rules 1. - gives off H+ 2. More stable conj base 3. Stronger the acid 4. How to determine the conj base strength a. Resonance - delocalize the charge b. Size- polarizability c. EN - holds regulating charge or electron better Nomenclature (IUPAC) 1. Find the longest parent chain with the highest priority functional group 2. Parent hain needs to include as many substituents as possible 3. Substituent should have the lowest possible numbering 4. Put together the substituents in alphabetical order 5. Functional group : Alcohol, Alkene, Alkene Need to Know how to place them and read them on the line angle diagram Resonance Structure 1. Resonance structure differ only in the placement of electrons not atoms. Only the pi bonds and the lone pair “move”. 2. If overall charge of compound is + only 1 arrow is used 3. If overall charge of compound is - then 2 arrow are used. 4. Do not repeat structures Rule to determine major contributors 1. all octet rule 2. EN : least EN atom holds + more stable, most EN atom holds - more stable 3. Less charge separation Hybrid Line Angle - Condensed chemical formulas show the hydrogen atoms (or other atoms or groups) right next to the carbon atoms to which they are attached. - Line-angle formulas imply a carbon atom at the corners and ends of lines. Each carbon atom is understood to be attached to enough hydrogen atoms to give each carbon atom four bonds. Formal Charge =[# of valence electrons] – [electrons in lone pairs + 1/2 the # of bonding electrons] Or = [# of valence electrons on atom] – [non-bonded electrons + number of bonds]. Orbitals Electron Configuration 17. Hybridization Lewis Diagram 3. Consider the remaining electrons and place them so as to fill the octets of as many atoms as possible (start with the most electronegative atoms first. 4. If the octet rule is not yet satisfied for the central atom, draw the double or triple bonds between it and the surrounding atoms using lone pairs. 5. Check that you have the lowest formal charge possible for all the atoms, without violating the octet rule; Bonding - Hydrogen bonds only form between hydrogen and oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) or fluorine (F). - An ionic bond is formed when one atom accepts or donates one or more of its valence electrons to another atom. - A covalent bond is formed when atoms share valence electrons.
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