BSCI 201 STUDY GUIDE FRO EXAM1:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:
Anatomy: the study of the parts of the body and how they relate to each other done through:
3. mastery of terminology
The body in anatomical position:
Feet slightly apart
Palms face forward
Thumbs point away from the body
3 Body Planes :
Frontal (Coronal ): vertical cut into anterior and posterior parts. Sagittal: vertical cut into right and left parts
-midsagittal : EQUAL right and left parts
-Parasagittal Plane: UNEQUAL right and left parts
Transverse (cross sectional) : horizontal cut into: superior and inferior parts
PHYSIOLOGY: the study of the function of the body’s parts. Systemic Physiology – study of the function of the systems of the body. 11 organ systems in the Human Body – all eleven organ systems work in unison to sustain the human body, a state referred to as
HOMEOSTASIS. maintenance of a relatively stable internal conditions even though the external environment is changing. Homeostatic imbalances -???? DISEASES
8-Respiratory SystemIf you want to learn more check out Which of the following is an example of discrete variable?
PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – “STRUCTURE DEFINES FUNCTION”
2 body cavities :
- Dorsal body cavity : cranial(brain) and vertebral(spinal cord) - Ventral body cavity : thoracic (heart and lungs) and abdomino(digestive visera)-pelvic (blader, reproductive organs and rectum)
6 levels of organization:
2nd level: Cellular level: cells are made up of molecules If you want to learn more check out What is q enclosed equal to?
3rd level: Tissue level: tissues consist of similar types of cells 4th level: Organ level: organs are made up of different types of tissues 5th level: Organ system level: organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
6th level: Organismal level: the human organism is made up of 11 organ systems.
-protons: positively charged subatomic particles located in the center of the atom known as the nucleus.
-neutrons: uncharged subatomic particles located in the center of the atomic nucleus. Therefore the nucleus is overall positively charged.We also discuss several other topics like What is the spanish term for to put?
-electrons: negatively-charged subatomic particles located in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus.
The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons and therefore the net charge of an atom is zero. The atom is electrically neutral.
-atomic number: number of protons in an atom.
3 types of chemical bonds:
-covalent bond: electrons are shared between atoms for stability.2 types: -Nonpolar: equal sharing of electrons.CO2
-Polar: unequal sharing of electrons: 1 atom pulls the shared e- closer to itself (electronegative) and the other atom (electropositive) H2O: O electronegative, H electropositive.
- Ionic bonds: complete transfer of electrons NaCl,resulting in a charged particle: ion; positively charged (donating e-): cation, negatively charged(accepting e-):anion. The bond forms between the cation and anion(opposites attract)
-Hydrogen bond: a weaker bond btw H(e+)and an e- ion. It forms btw atoms already involved in a polar covalent bond.
Weakest: strongest If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of reliability in the census?
H-bond , ionic bond, polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond. Important compounds in the human body: 2 types:
- Inorganic compounds: do not contain a carbon chain except CO2, CO, H2O, acids, bases and salts.
H2O: polar covalent molecule, 70% of cell volume, universal solvent, high heat capacity, high heat of evaporation, uses heat to evaporate and cools down the body and serves for cushioning around body organs(brain)
Acids: release H+ (proton donors), HCL, H2CO3
-negative log of H+ conc=pH, H+ conc inversely proportional to pH. H+, pH - blood pH between 7.35-7. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of social welfare policy?
Bases: accept H+ (proton acceptors) HCO3-, NAOH
Acid-base balance is regulated by buffers: chemiclas that resist changes in pH by binding H when pH drops and releasing H when pH rises.
Salts: ionic compounds that dissociate in H2O and give: cations and anions. NaCl, KCl - Organic compounds: contain a carbons that are covalently bound: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
- Monosaccharides: monomers or building blocks of carbohydrates. 2 types based on the # of carbons in a chain: simple sugars.
*(CH2O)6= hexose: C6H12O6; glucose, fructose and galactose: isomers of glucose. They are converted to glucose, the most preferable fuel in human body: glucose catabolism: source of energy to support cellular functions (glycolysis)
*(CH2O)5= pentose, deoxyribose, ribose
- Disaccharides: combination of glucose and other hexose. They are ingested to provide monosaccharides after chemical digestion. 3 types:
*Maltose: glucose + glucose
*Lactose: glucose + galactose If you want to learn more check out How does functionalist's view of social change occur over time?
*Sucrose: glucose + fructose
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in H2O because they are involved in chemical digestion. - polysaccharides: long branched forms of glucose:
glycogen in animals, starch in animals
insoluble in H2O because they re a storage form of glucose in cells.
Lipids: hydrophobic substances ingested in diet. All insoluble in H2O.4 types: i. neutral fats: composed of a glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains attached (E-like shape) triglycerides=triacylglycerol. Most abundant type in human diet. Are transported in the blood as lipoproteins: lipids covered by proteins. Lipoproteins are the ratio of lipids (less dense than proteins) to protein coat. LDL: low density lipoprotein. Lipid > protein. Major component : cholesterol. Bad cholesterol HDL: high density lipoprotein. Lipid < protein. Good cholesterol
2 major types of neutral fats:
-solid at room temp
-of animal source
-no double bond
Trans fat: saturated + H: Ingestion of trans fat diet is the cause of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular disease (atherosclerosis => MI, IS)
- liquid at room temp
- of plant source
- at least one double bond.
= monounsaturated, = = = polyunsaturated
ii. Phospholipids: composed of a glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphorous containing group. -polar hydrophilic heads
-nonpolar hydrophobic tails. They form the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and micelles: nonpolar fatty elements surrounded by a layer of phospholipids.
iii. Eicosanoids: regulatory substances derived from phospholipids (arachidonic acid). 2 types:
iv. Steroids: derived from cholesterol
Thromboxane mediates hemostasis: cessation of bleeding through 3 sequential steps: 1- vascular spasm.
2- Platelet aggregation and plug formation to seal off the injured site of a severed blood vessel 3- Blood coagulation: blod clot formation
People prone to thromboembolic diseases (blood clot formation in intact blood vessel) are maintained on a
Leukotrienes and prostaylandins mediate physiological reactions in the body.
Proteins: several amino acids held together by H bonds. Each amino acid has a carboxyl terminal (acid) and an amino group (base). AA are amphoteric molecules which means that they can act as acids and as bases. 4 structure levels of proteins:
-Primary structure: linear polypeptide chain indicating the type and position of AA. -Secondary structure: 2 types:
-alpha helix: coiled polypeptide chain held together by H bonds.
-beta pleated sheet: polypeptide chains linked side by side by H-bonds. -Tertiary structure: 2* structure fold upon themselves to give a compact, globular molecule. 3-dimensional structure held by H-bonds.
-Quardenary structure:2 or more polypeptide chains held together by disulfide bonds 2 classes of proteins:
-fibrous: insoluble in H2O extended strand-like. Structural proteins: they provide mechanical support and tensile strengthas the main building material in the body.
-Globular: soluble in H2O ,compact-like, sensitive to pH and temp changes and chemically active. Functional proteins: they mediate all chemical reactions occurringin the body.
Cellular level: the cell: the fundamental structural and functional unit of life.
3 major parts:
Plasma membrane: boundary of the cell, made of a lipid bilayer of phospholipids: cholesterol molecules, which help to keep the membrane fluid consistent and maintain the integrity of the plasma membrane. The lipid bilayer exhibit fluidity and membrane proteins are in constant flux and their shapes constantly change as in a mosaic (mosaic model theory). Membrane proteins are important for transporting substances across the cell membrane.
i-integral proteins: span the plasma membrane, exposed on the surface (s). transmembrane proteins: integral proteins exposed on both surfaces of PM.
ii- peripheral proteins: attached to integral proteins or the phospholipids’ heads on the extracellular face of the PM. Membrane proteins functions:
-cell to cell recognition
-attachement to the cytoskeleton
-tight junction: (impermeable) fusion of integral proteins in PM of adjacent cells, preventing the transfer of substances between adjacent cells.
-gap junction: (communicating ) formed by connexon. Allows transfer of ions between cells -desmosome: (anchoring ) linker proteins extending from plaques. Hold the cells together Membrane transport: PM a selective barrier. 2 types of transport processes:
Passive process (no ATP)
Active process (ATP)
substances from area of high
concentration to area of low conc down a conc
movement of substances
from area of
high pressure to area of low pressure down a pressure
movement of solute from
area of low
concentration to area of high
conc against a conc gradient (solute
-simple diffusion: nonpolar,
Movement of substances into the cell
proteins: exhibits specifity and
H2O molecules through
aquaporins from are of low solute conc to area of
high solute conc
Phagocytosis: movement of solid particles enclosed in
Pinocytosis: Movement of solutions enclosed in pinocytic
mediated: substances moved in
by binding to a
out of the
The movement of H2O causes a change in the shape of the cell: tonicity - Hypertonic solution: higher solution concentration than inside the cell so H2O moves out of cell and the cell crenates (shrinks).
- Isotonic solution: same concentration of solution and H2O molecules inside and outside the cell. Shape unchanged.
- Hypotonic solution: lower solution concentration than inside the cell so H2O moves inside the cell and the cell swells and lyses ( bursts).
2- The cytoplasm: made of cytosol and organelles with specific structures and functions: 2 types of organelles:
Membranous cytoplasmin organelles
Nonmembranous cytoplasmin organelles
-mitochondria: power house (ATP)
-golgi apparatus: traffic director
-endoplasmic reticulum: composed of channels enclosed by cisternae: 2 types: -RER: membrane factory
-SER:lipid synthesis/ drug detoxification
-ribosomes: site for protein synthesis. -cytoskeleton: skeleton of the cell. Provides support and maintains the cell shape.
-lysozomes: demolition crew
-peroxisomes: neutralize free radicals (oxidase/catalase)
The Endoplasmic Reticulum: two types
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
-Prominent in a cell that secretes proteins or cell active in exocytosi or a cell involved in phagocytosis: requires lysosomes.
-Prominent in a cell involved in drug detoxification or in stereologenic. - Lipids synthesis starts at the surface of the SER.
-Golgi Apparatus: a cytoplasmic organelle that modifies, packages and tags proteins synthesized by bound-ribosomes.on the surface of the RER. These proteins are moved from RER to Golgi via vesicular trafficking.
Secretory cells: cells that secrete proteins=>ribosome bound=>prominent RER=>prominent Golgi.
-Phagocytes: parfake in phagocytosis=>ribosome bound=>prominent RER=> prominent golgi=>abundant lysozomes.
-Lysozomes are vesicles that bud off Golgi. They are the “demolition crew”. -Lysozymes contained in lysozomes digest non useful or unwanted tissue substances or cells.
-Peroxisomes: abundant in metabolically active cells where free radicals are produced as a by product of catabolism. They are then converted by oxidase into hydrogen peroxides (H2O2), then these are converted by catalase into water(H2O).
Vitamin E and C give electrons so free radicals won’t harm you.
Cytoskeleton: 3 types:
-act as trucks for vesicles trafikking and as a basis for centrioles which are required for mitosis (mitose: separation/division of DNA).
- act as basis for 2 types of cellular extensions:
Resist tension placed on
tissues such as the
-Unique to each cell
-occur in large numbers on the apical surface of the cell. -are shorter.
-the only flagellated cell is sperm.
- are longer.
Beat to create unidirectional current that propel
substances across the surface of the cell.
Beat to propel the cell itself.
control center of the cell. Has 3 parts:
Boundary nuclear membrane
Chromartin in nucleoplasm
plasma membrane vs nuclear membrane.
Assembles the rRNA with proteins to form the:
1-small ribosomal subunit.
2-large ribosomal subunit.
Composed of structural
units(repeated structures) called nucleosomes. Anucleosome consists of 8 histone proteins with thread like DNA wrapped around them. There are 2 forms of chromatin:
proteins act as carrier
saturation. - if the
proteins for a specific
substances to be imported or exported based on size.
Both subunits will be exported through the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm. At the time of
translation, a small ribosomal subunit fuses with the large one to form a
functional ribosome. So cells producing proteins will have several nuclei in
wrapped around clusters of
histone proteins so it is inactive.
histone proteins so it is active and is involved in:
Function of histone proteinsin chromatin:
1- regulate DNA activity.
2- Packaging of delicate thread-like DNA from twisting or breaking.
DNA vs RNA
-pentose sugar: deoxyribose.
-contains nitrogenous bases: A:adenine, G:guanine, C:cytosine, T:thymine. - double stranded and helical.
-confined to nucleus inside cell.
-1 type of DNA.
-pentose sugar: ribose.
-contains nitrogenous bases: A:adenine, G:guanine, C:cytosine, U:uracil.
- single stranded.
-in nucleus and in cytoplasm.
-3 type of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, tRNA.
Transcription takes place in the nucleus whereas translation takes place in the cytoplasm, cells grow or divide.
DNA contains genes.
Gene: a DNA sequence that can be transcribed and translated to form a particular protein. Somatic cells not sex cells undergo cell growth and cell division=> 9 series of events from the time a cell is produced until it divides.
Cell’s life cycle: 2 major phases:
-the longest of all phases -synthesis of structural proteins (fibrous proteins) for cell growth.
-some structural proteins -synthesis and growth occur. -DNA replication.
1-unwinding of helical DNA: 2 polynucleotide chains. 2-separation of 2
polynucleotide chains: new polynucleotide chain against each DNA template.
-2 copies of DNA with each DNA consisting of an old strand (template) and a new strand.
-globular functional proteins required for
initiation/maintenance of cell division ex:maturation
promoting factors(MPF): cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)
II Cell division
Division of the cytoplasm of the parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs
concurrently with mitosis.
condensed to form chromosomes
-nucleoli disappear -disintegration of new nuclear membrane. -sprouting of spindle fiber(mitotic spindle)
the chromosomes move away from one another to
opposite poles of the spindle.
euchromatin form to enter into G1 phase of the new cycle.
-nucleoli reappear. -synthesis of a
-disintegration of the spindle fiber.
With DNA replicated in the S phase of interphase and with the production of proteins required for cell division (G0 proteins), the cell enter the first phase of cell division=>mitosis.
2 types of growth:
Growth in the number of cells
Growth in the size of cells
-neoplasia: excessive proliferation of cells considered abnormal.
Effective chempotherapeutic drugs based on cell life cycle:
1-inhibit S phase of interphase=>DNA replication does not occur and therefore cell division (mitosis) does not occur.
2-Drugs that inhibit the G0 proteins such as maturation promoting factors (MPF) which initiate/maintain cell division.
3- Drugs that disrupt spindle fiber hence anaphase of mitosis is aborted. (sister chromatid are not divided)
Protein synthesis: transcription in euchromatin form.
Occurs in interphase=>chromatin=>euchromatin=>extended form of DNA not coiled around histone proteins.
1- Transcription: in euchromatid form. 2-Translation:
-Separates into 2 polynucteotide chains
-used in transcription
Triplet same as anticon except that T becomes U
3 base sequence in DNA polynucleotide chain: triplet
3 base sequence in mRNA polynucleotide chain: codon
3 base sequence in tRNA polynucleotide chain: anticodon
attached to the tail of tRNA is a specific amino acid: proline
*Coding strand: DNA sequence that is not transcribed
Immediately after transcription=>pre mRNA (exons and introns) cannot fit through the nuclar pores so RNA processing/editing/splicing to remove introns
mRNA contains only exons. Amino acids specifying codons. mRNA can exit the nucleosome through the nuclear pores into cytoplasm where mRNA attach to functional ribosomes (free or bound).
Non essential amino acids are made from essential amino acids from diet. Genetic Code: refers to the codons in mRNA and how they specify for amino acids 64 codons to 20 naturally occurring amino acids hence each amino acid can be coded for by at least 2 types of codons=>exhibits redundancy in the genetic code=>it takes care of minor mistakes(mutations) typically involving the third base of codon.