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UMB / Biology / BIOL 201 / What is the benefit to water having a high specific heat and high heat

What is the benefit to water having a high specific heat and high heat

What is the benefit to water having a high specific heat and high heat

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9/24/16 17:46


What is the benefit to water having a high specific heat and high heat vaporization?



BSCI 201 STUDY GUIDE FRO EXAM1:

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:

Anatomy: the study of the parts of the body and how they relate to each  other done through:

1. observation

2. manipulation

3. mastery of terminology

The body in anatomical position:

Body erect

Feet slightly apart

Palms face forward

Thumbs point away from the body

3 Body Planes : 

Frontal (Coronal ): vertical cut into anterior and posterior parts. Sagittal: vertical cut into right and left parts

-midsagittal : EQUAL right and left parts

 -Parasagittal Plane: UNEQUAL right and left parts  


What happens when nacl is dissolved in water?



Transverse (cross sectional) : horizontal cut into: superior and inferior parts

PHYSIOLOGY: the study of the function of the body’s parts. Systemic Physiology – study of the function of the systems of the body. 11 organ systems in the Human Body – all eleven organ systems work  in unison to sustain the human body, a state referred to as  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two conditions that determine a probability distribution?

HOMEOSTASIS. maintenance of a relatively stable internal  conditions even though the external environment is changing. Homeostatic imbalances -???? DISEASES  

1-Integumentary System

2-Skeletal System

3-Muscular System

4-Nervous System

5-Endocrine System

6-Cardiovascular System


What are the two types of eicosanoids?



7-Lymphatic System

8-Respiratory SystemIf you want to learn more check out How much charge is enclosed by the gaussian surface?

9-Digestive System

10-Urinary System

11-Reproductive System

PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – “STRUCTURE DEFINES FUNCTION”

2 body cavities :  

- Dorsal body cavity : cranial(brain) and vertebral(spinal cord) - Ventral body cavity : thoracic (heart and lungs) and abdomino(digestive  visera)-pelvic (blader, reproductive organs and rectum)

6 levels of organization:

1st level:  

2nd level: Cellular level: cells are made up of molecules

3rd level: Tissue level: tissues consist of similar types of cells 4th level: Organ level: organs are made up of different types of tissues 5th level: Organ system level: organ systems consist of different organs that  work together closely We also discuss several other topics like What is the spanish term for who am i talking to?

6th level: Organismal level: the human organism is made up of 11 organ  systems. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of census?

Chemical level:  

-protons: positively charged subatomic particles located in the center of the atom known as  the nucleus.

-neutrons: uncharged subatomic particles located in the center of the atomic nucleus. Therefore the nucleus is overall positively charged.

-electrons: negatively-charged subatomic particles located in the orbitals  surrounding the nucleus.

The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons and therefore the net charge of an atom is zero. The atom is electrically  neutral.  

-atomic number: number of protons in an atom.

3 types of chemical bonds:

-covalent bond: electrons are shared between atoms for stability.2 types: -Nonpolar: equal sharing of electrons.CO2 We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of social policies?

-Polar: unequal sharing of electrons: 1 atom pulls the shared e- closer  to itself (electronegative) and the other atom (electropositive) H2O:  O electronegative, H electropositive.

- Ionic bonds: complete transfer of electrons NaCl,resulting in a charged particle: ion;  positively charged (donating e-): cation, negatively charged(accepting e-):anion. The bond  forms between the cation and anion(opposites attract)

-Hydrogen bond: a weaker bond btw H(e+)and an e- ion. It forms btw atoms already  involved in a polar covalent bond.  

Comparing bonds:  

Weakest:                                                                                                                                   strongest

                  H-bond , ionic bond, polar covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond. Important compounds in the human body: 2 types:

- Inorganic compounds: do not contain a carbon chain except CO2, CO, H2O, acids, bases  and salts.

H2O: polar covalent molecule, 70% of cell volume, universal solvent, high heat capacity,  high heat of evaporation, uses heat to evaporate and cools down the body and serves for  cushioning around body organs(brain) We also discuss several other topics like Why did sociology become so popular in the united states?

Acids: release H+ (proton donors), HCL, H2CO3

-negative log of H+ conc=pH, H+ conc inversely proportional to pH.         H+,        pH - blood pH between 7.35-7.

Bases: accept H+ (proton acceptors) HCO3-, NAOH

Acid-base balance is regulated by buffers: chemiclas that resist changes in pH by binding H  when pH drops and releasing H when pH rises.

Salts: ionic compounds that dissociate in H2O and give: cations and anions. NaCl, KCl - Organic compounds:  contain a carbons that are covalently bound: Carbohydrates,  Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids 

Carbohydrates:

- Monosaccharides: monomers or building blocks of carbohydrates. 2 types based on the # of carbons in a  chain: simple sugars.  

*(CH2O)6= hexose: C6H12O6; glucose, fructose and galactose: isomers of glucose. They are converted to  glucose, the most preferable fuel in human body: glucose catabolism: source of energy to support cellular  functions (glycolysis)

*(CH2O)5= pentose, deoxyribose, ribose

- Disaccharides: combination of glucose and other hexose. They are ingested to provide monosaccharides  after chemical digestion. 3 types:

*Maltose: glucose + glucose

*Lactose: glucose + galactose

*Sucrose: glucose + fructose

Monosaccharides and disaccharides are soluble in H2O because they are involved in chemical digestion. - polysaccharides: long branched forms of glucose:  

glycogen in animals, starch in animals

insoluble in H2O because they re a storage form of glucose in cells.

Lipids:  hydrophobic substances ingested in diet. All insoluble in H2O.4 types:  i. neutral fats: composed of a glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains attached (E-like shape)  triglycerides=triacylglycerol. Most abundant type in human diet. Are transported in the blood as lipoproteins:  lipids covered by proteins. Lipoproteins are the ratio of lipids (less dense than proteins) to protein coat.  LDL: low density lipoprotein. Lipid > protein. Major component : cholesterol. Bad cholesterol HDL: high density lipoprotein. Lipid < protein. Good cholesterol

2 major types of neutral fats:

saturated fats

unsaturated fats

-solid at room temp

-of animal source

-no double bond

Trans fat: saturated + H: Ingestion of trans fat diet is  the cause of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular  disease (atherosclerosis => MI, IS)

- liquid at room temp

- of plant source  

- at least one double bond.

= monounsaturated, = = = polyunsaturated

ii. Phospholipids: composed of a glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphorous containing group. -polar hydrophilic heads

-nonpolar hydrophobic tails. They form the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and micelles: nonpolar fatty  elements surrounded by a layer of phospholipids.

iii. Eicosanoids: regulatory substances derived from phospholipids (arachidonic acid). 2 types:

iv. Steroids: derived from cholesterol

Leukotrienes

5-lipoxygenase

prostaylandins

Cyclooxygenase

Thromboxane mediates hemostasis: cessation of bleeding through 3 sequential steps: 1- vascular spasm.

2- Platelet aggregation and plug formation to seal off the injured site of a severed blood vessel 3- Blood coagulation: blod clot formation

People prone to thromboembolic diseases (blood clot formation in intact blood vessel) are maintained on a

Leukotrienes and prostaylandins mediate physiological reactions in the body.

Proteins: several amino acids held together by H bonds. Each amino acid has a carboxyl  terminal (acid) and an amino group (base). AA are  amphoteric molecules which means  that they can act as acids and as bases. 4 structure levels of proteins:

-Primary structure: linear polypeptide chain indicating the type and position of AA. -Secondary structure: 2 types:

-alpha helix: coiled polypeptide chain held together by H bonds.

-beta pleated sheet: polypeptide chains linked side by side by H-bonds. -Tertiary structure: 2* structure fold upon themselves to give a compact, globular molecule.  3-dimensional structure held by H-bonds.

-Quardenary structure:2 or more polypeptide chains held together by disulfide bonds 2 classes of proteins:  

-fibrous: insoluble in H2O extended strand-like. Structural proteins: they provide mechanical support and  tensile strengthas the main building material in the body.

-Globular: soluble in H2O ,compact-like, sensitive to pH and temp changes and chemically active.  Functional proteins: they mediate all chemical reactions occurringin the body.

Cellular level: the cell: the fundamental structural and functional unit of life.

3 major parts:

Plasma membrane: boundary of the cell, made of a lipid bilayer of phospholipids: cholesterol molecules,  which help to keep the membrane fluid consistent and maintain the integrity of the  plasma membrane. The lipid bilayer exhibit fluidity and membrane proteins are in  constant flux and their shapes constantly change as in a mosaic (mosaic model  theory). Membrane proteins are important for transporting substances across the cell  membrane.

i-integral proteins: span the plasma membrane, exposed on the surface (s).  transmembrane proteins: integral proteins exposed on both surfaces of PM.

ii- peripheral proteins: attached to integral proteins or the phospholipids’ heads on the extracellular face of the PM. Membrane proteins functions:  

-transport

-enzymatic activity

-receptors

-intercellular joining

-cell to cell recognition

-attachement to the cytoskeleton

Membrane junctions:  

-tight junction: (impermeable) fusion of integral proteins in PM of adjacent cells, preventing the transfer of  substances between adjacent cells.

-gap junction: (communicating ) formed by connexon. Allows transfer of ions between cells -desmosome: (anchoring ) linker proteins extending from plaques. Hold the cells together  Membrane transport: PM a selective barrier. 2 types of transport processes:

Passive process (no ATP)

Active process (ATP)

Diffusion:  

movement of  

substances from  area of high  

concentration to  area of low conc  down a conc  

gradient

Filtration:  

movement of  substances  

from area of  

high pressure  to area of low  pressure down  a pressure  

gradient

Active  

transport:  

movement of  solute from  

area of low  

concentration to  area of high  

conc against a  conc gradient  (solute  

pumping)

Vesicular transport

-simple diffusion:  nonpolar,  

hydrophobic  

lipid-soluble  

through PM.

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

-facilitated  

diffusion:

Movement  of

Movement of substances into the cell

larger/polar  

molecules are  

transported  

through carrier  

proteins: exhibits  specifity and  

saturation

substances

in vesicles

Osmos:  

movement of  

H2O molecules  through  

aquaporins from  are of low solute  conc to area of  

high solute conc

Phagocytosis:  movement of  solid particles  enclosed in  

phagosomes.  Lysozomes  

digest the  

phagosome

(phagocytes)

Pinocytosis: Movement  of solutions  enclosed in  pinocytic  

vesicles.

(bulk  

phase)

Receptor

mediated:  substances  moved in  

by binding  to a  

receptor.

out of the  

cell

The movement of H2O causes a change in the shape of the cell: tonicity - Hypertonic solution: higher solution concentration than inside the cell so H2O moves out of cell and the  cell crenates (shrinks).

- Isotonic solution: same concentration of solution and H2O molecules inside and outside the cell. Shape  unchanged.

- Hypotonic solution: lower solution concentration than inside the cell so H2O moves inside the cell and the  cell swells and lyses ( bursts).

2- The cytoplasm: made of cytosol and  organelles with specific structures and functions: 2  types of organelles:

Membranous cytoplasmin organelles

Nonmembranous cytoplasmin organelles

-mitochondria: power house (ATP)

-golgi apparatus: traffic director

-endoplasmic reticulum: composed of  channels enclosed by cisternae: 2 types:         -RER: membrane factory

        -SER:lipid synthesis/ drug detoxification

-ribosomes: site for protein synthesis. -cytoskeleton: skeleton of the cell. Provides  support and maintains the cell shape.

                 

-lysozomes: demolition crew

-peroxisomes: neutralize free radicals  (oxidase/catalase)

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: two types

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)          

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

-Prominent in a cell that secretes  proteins or cell active in exocytosi or a  cell involved in phagocytosis: requires  lysosomes.

-Prominent in a cell involved in drug  detoxification or in stereologenic. - Lipids synthesis starts at the surface of  the SER.

-Golgi Apparatus: a cytoplasmic organelle that modifies, packages and tags proteins  synthesized by bound-ribosomes.on the surface of the RER. These proteins are moved from  RER to Golgi via vesicular trafficking.

Summary:

Secretory cells: cells that secrete proteins=>ribosome bound=>prominent  RER=>prominent Golgi.

-Phagocytes: parfake in phagocytosis=>ribosome bound=>prominent RER=> prominent  golgi=>abundant lysozomes.

-Lysozomes are vesicles that bud off Golgi. They are the “demolition crew”. -Lysozymes contained in lysozomes digest non useful or unwanted tissue substances or  cells.

-Peroxisomes: abundant in metabolically active cells where free radicals are produced as a  by product of catabolism. They are then converted by oxidase into hydrogen peroxides  (H2O2), then these are converted by catalase into water(H2O).

Vitamin E and C give electrons so free radicals won’t harm you.

Cytoskeleton: 3 types:

microtubules

Intermediate  

filaments

microfilam ents

Function:

-act as trucks for vesicles trafikking and as a basis for  centrioles which are required for mitosis (mitose:  separation/division of DNA).

- act as basis for 2 types of cellular extensions:

Function:

Resist tension  placed on  

tissues such as  the  

desmosomes.

Function:

-are  

everywher e.

-Unique to  each cell

cilia

flagella

Structural differences

-occur in large numbers on  the apical surface of the cell. -are shorter.

-the only flagellated cell is  sperm.

- are longer.

Functional differences

Beat to create  unidirectional current that propel  

substances across the surface  of the cell.

Beat to propel the cell itself.

-The nucleus:

control center of the cell. Has 3 parts:

Boundary nuclear membrane

nucleolus

Chromartin in nucleoplasm

plasma membrane vs nuclear  membrane.

Assembles the rRNA  with proteins to form  the:

1-small ribosomal  subunit.

2-large ribosomal  subunit.

Composed of structural  

units(repeated structures) called  nucleosomes. Anucleosome consists  of 8 histone proteins with thread like DNA wrapped around them.  There are 2 forms of chromatin:

Plasma  

membrane

Nuclear  

membrane

-glycocalyx  present.

-membrane

-glycocalyx  

absent.

-nuclear pores

heterochromatin

euchromatin

proteins act  as carrier  

molecules  

that show  

specificity  and  

saturation. - if the  

number of  

proteins for  a specific  

substance  

increases,  

the rate  

doesn’t  

increase.

allow  

substances to  be imported or  exported based  on size.

Both subunits will be  exported through  the nuclear pores  into the cytoplasm.  At the time of  

translation, a small  ribosomal subunit  fuses with the large  one to form a  

functional ribosome.  So cells producing  proteins will have  several nuclei in  

their nucleus  

(secretory proteins).

-DNA is  

wrapped around  clusters of  

histone proteins  so it is inactive.

-DNA is  

unraveled by  

histone proteins  so it is active and  is involved in:

1-DNA  

replication.

2-protein  

synthesis.

Function of histone proteinsin chromatin:

1- regulate DNA activity.

2- Packaging of delicate thread-like DNA from twisting or breaking.

DNA vs RNA

DNA

RNA

-pentose sugar: deoxyribose.

-contains nitrogenous bases: A:adenine,  G:guanine, C:cytosine, T:thymine. - double stranded and helical.

-confined to nucleus inside cell.

-1 type of DNA.

-pentose sugar: ribose.

-contains nitrogenous bases: A:adenine,  G:guanine, C:cytosine, U:uracil.

- single stranded.

-in nucleus and in cytoplasm.

-3 type of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, tRNA.

Transcription takes place in the nucleus whereas translation takes place in the cytoplasm,  cells grow or divide.

DNA contains genes.

Gene: a DNA sequence that can be transcribed and translated to form a particular protein. Somatic cells not sex cells undergo cell growth and cell division=> 9 series of events from  the time a cell is produced until it divides.

Cell’s life cycle: 2 major phases:

I) interphase

G1

S

G2

-the longest of all phases -synthesis of structural  proteins (fibrous proteins)  for cell growth.

-some structural proteins -synthesis and growth occur. -DNA replication.

Semiconservative

replication.

1-unwinding of helical DNA:  2 polynucleotide chains. 2-separation of 2  

polynucleotide chains: new  polynucleotide chain against  each DNA template.

-2 copies of DNA with each  DNA consisting of an old  strand (template) and a new  strand.

-globular functional proteins  required for  

initiation/maintenance of cell  division ex:maturation  

promoting factors(MPF):  cyclin and cyclin-dependent  kinase (CDK)

II Cell division

mitosis

cytokinesis

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

telophase

Division of the  cytoplasm of  the parental  cell into two  daughter cells.  It occurs  

concurrently  with mitosis.

-heterochromatin:

condensed to form  chromosomes

-nucleoli disappear -disintegration of new  nuclear membrane. -sprouting of spindle  fiber(mitotic spindle)

Chromoso mes  

attached  

to the  

spindle  

fiber.

the chromosomes  move away from  one another to  

opposite poles of  the spindle.

-chromatin is  

assuming the  

euchromatin form  to enter into G1  phase of the new  cycle.

-nucleoli reappear. -synthesis of a  

new nuclear  

membrane.

-disintegration of  the spindle fiber.

Telophase undoes 

prophase.

With DNA replicated in the S phase of interphase and with the production of proteins  required for cell division (G0 proteins), the cell enter the first phase of cell  division=>mitosis.

2 types of growth:

hyperplasia

hypertrophy

Growth in the number of cells

Growth in the size of cells

-neoplasia: excessive proliferation of cells considered abnormal.

Effective chempotherapeutic drugs based on cell life cycle:

1-inhibit S phase of interphase=>DNA replication does not occur and therefore cell division  (mitosis) does not occur.

2-Drugs that inhibit the G0 proteins such as maturation promoting factors (MPF) which  initiate/maintain cell division.

3- Drugs that disrupt spindle fiber hence anaphase of mitosis is aborted. (sister chromatid  are not divided)

Protein synthesis: transcription in euchromatin form.

Occurs in interphase=>chromatin=>euchromatin=>extended form of DNA not coiled  around histone proteins.

1- Transcription: in euchromatid form.                          2-Translation:

-DNA unwinds

-Separates into 2 polynucteotide chains

*Template:  

-used in transcription

Triplet  

codon

anticodon

C

C

C

T

A

C

G

G

G

A

U

G

C

C

C

U

A

C

                Triplet same as anticon except that T becomes U

3 base sequence in DNA polynucleotide chain: triplet

3 base sequence in mRNA polynucleotide chain: codon

3 base sequence in tRNA polynucleotide chain: anticodon

attached to the tail of tRNA is a specific amino acid: proline

*Coding strand: DNA sequence that is not transcribed

Immediately after transcription=>pre mRNA (exons and introns) cannot fit through the  nuclar pores so RNA processing/editing/splicing to remove introns

           

mRNA contains only exons. Amino acids specifying codons. mRNA can exit the nucleosome  through the nuclear pores into cytoplasm where mRNA attach to functional ribosomes  (free or bound).

Non essential amino acids are made from essential amino acids from diet. Genetic Code: refers to the codons in mRNA and how they specify for amino acids 64 codons to 20 naturally occurring amino acids hence each amino acid can be coded for by  at least 2 types of codons=>exhibits redundancy in the genetic code=>it takes care of minor  mistakes(mutations) typically involving the third base of codon.

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