Chapter 3-4 Study Guide
Chapter 3-4 Study Guide Psych 2110
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by KhloNotes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Elem Statistics Business in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza Chapter 3 & 4 Test Review Ideas Stressed in Chapter Three: Chapter Three homework is very important for Exam 2 Practice reading graphs (examples are lower) Familiarize yourself with the terms and formats used for questions Probability Distributions = A variable can take at least two different values (each possible value has a probability that it occurs; lists all possible outcomes and probabilities) Discrete Variables = specific values and that cannot have values between these specific values Zscores Transformation of a number into a correlating number from 3 to 3 in order to find probability Z = X−M r Z = X−M SD σ X symbolizing the score, M symbolizing the mean, and SD (or σ) symbolizing the standard deviation 167−170 For example, a girl has a height of 167. Z = 10 thus z = .3 for probability. .3 relates to a number on the 3 to 3 scale From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza Ideas Stressed/Restressed in Chapter Four: Statistics = random variables Inferential Statistics = procedures for drawing conclusion based on the scores collected in a research study but going beyond them; creates an educated guess for studies where it is impossible to question the entire population Memorize the Standard Distribution Variance Formula (Depicted below) Hypothesis Test = A sample statistic is the best option for making an educated guess Summary of the five steps of the hypothesistesting procedure: 1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations. 2. Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution. 3. Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected. 4. Determine the sample's score on the comparison distribution. 5. Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Showing the null hypothesis to be true would mean showing that there is absolutely no difference between the populations. It is always possible that there is a difference between the populations but that the differenc e is much smaller than the particular study was able to detect. Therefore, when a result is not extreme enough to reject the null hypothesis, the results are said to be inconclusive. Central Limit Theorem σ Formula: √n Standard Error = How much the sample mean would vary if we took several samples at the same size from the same sample Application 1. Usually just grab one sample 2. Take the zscore for this sample (distance from the mean) Formula: z = x̄ σ √n x − M or z = SD From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza Hypothesis Testing Cont. Objective = check whether a set of data agrees with a certain prediction Prediction = hypothesis → statement about a population, a guess that a parameter takes a particular numerical value or falls within a particular interval, systematic way to test claims or ideas about a population A significance test uses data to summarize the evidence about a hypothesis (comparing sample statistics or point estimates of parameters) to the values predicted by the hypothesis Four Basic Steps State the hypothesis Set a criteria for decision (basically choose a αlevel) *Has to be done before observations Compute the test statistic (collect data) Compare and make a decision Happy Studying!
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