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Chapter 3-4 Study Guide

by: KhloNotes

Chapter 3-4 Study Guide Psych 2110


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About this Document

Study guide for Exam 2. Happy Studying!
Elem Statistics Business
Andre Souza
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Elem Statistics Business

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by KhloNotes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Elem Statistics Business in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
  From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza   Chapter 3 & 4 Test Review     Ideas Stressed in Chapter Three:   ­ Chapter Three homework is very important for Exam 2  ­ Practice reading graphs (examples are lower)  ­ Familiarize yourself with the terms and formats used for questions     Probability Distributions = ​A variable can take at least two different values (each possible  value has a probability that it occurs; lists all possible outcomes and probabilities)     Discrete Variables ​= specific values and that cannot have values between these specific values      Z­scores   ­ Transformation of a number into a correlating number from ­3 to 3 in order to find  probability     Z =  X−M ​r Z =  X−M   SD σ   ­ X symbolizing the score, M symbolizing the mean, and SD (or σ) symbolizing the  standard deviation   167−170 ­ For example, a girl has a height of 167. Z =  10 ​ thus z = ­.3 for probability.   ­ ­.3 relates to a number on the ­3 to 3 scale                                    From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza   Ideas Stressed/Re­stressed in Chapter Four:  ­ Statistics =​ random variables   ­ Inferential Statistics =​ procedures for drawing conclusion based on the scores collected  in a research study but going beyond them; creates an educated guess for studies where it  is impossible to question the entire population    ­ Memorize the Standard Distribution Variance Formula (Depicted below)      Hypothesis Test = ​A sample statistic is the best option for making an educated guess      Summary of the five steps of the​ hypothesis­testing procedure:  1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the  populations.  2. Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution.  3. Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the  null hypothesis should be rejected.  4. Determine the​ sample's score on the comparison distribution.  5. Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis.    Showing the null hypothesis to be true would mean showing that there is absolutely no difference  between the populations. It is always possible that there is a difference between the populations  but that the differenc​ e is much smaller than the particular study was able to detect. Therefore,  ​ when a result is not extreme enough to reject the null hypothesis, the results are said to be  inconclusive.    Central Limit Theorem     σ    Formula:     √n Standard Error =​ How much the sample mean would vary if we took several samples at the  same size from the same sample    Application   1. Usually just grab one sample  2. Take the z­score for this sample (distance from the mean)   Formula: z =  x̄   σ    √n x − M    or z =   SD         From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza   Hypothesis Testing Cont.   ­ Objective = ​check whether a set of data agrees with a certain prediction   ­ Prediction = hypothesis → statement about a population, a guess that a parameter  takes a particular numerical value or falls within a particular interval, systematic  way to test claims or ideas about a population   ­ A significance test uses data to summarize the evidence about a hypothesis (comparing  sample statistics or point estimates of parameters) to the values predicted by the  hypothesis    Four Basic Steps   ­ State the hypothesis  ­ Set a criteria for decision (basically choose a α­level) ​*Has to be done before  observations   ­ Compute the test statistic (collect data)  ­ Compare and make a decision       Happy Studying!   


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