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Exam #1 Study Guide-Thursday

by: Lindsay Smith

Exam #1 Study Guide-Thursday PSYCH 3010

Lindsay Smith
GPA 3.88

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About this Document

This is the first study guide for our first exam in Psychological Methods 1 on Thursday of the upcoming week. If you have any questions or want to study, feel free to email me.
Research Methods in Psychology 1
Lisa Bauer
Study Guide
Psychological, methods, Studyguide, exam, Case Study, Research Methodologies
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Smith on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3010 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Lisa Bauer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology 1 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Lindsay Smith Psychological Methods Study Guide Exam 1 Study Guide Ch. 1-4 Ch. 1 Lecture Vocab: Evidence: based treatments (supported by research) Empiricism: using evidence from the senses or from the instruments assisting. Theory: Set of statements that describe general principles about how variables relate. Hypothesis: prediction; what the researcher expects to happen Data: set of observations. Falsifiability: theory must lead to a hypothesis that if tested, could actually fail. Parsimony: all other things equal, simplest is best. Weight of evidence: for or against, theories not proven Applied research: practical problem in mind, findings can be applied to the solution in real-world context. Basic Research: doesn’t address issue, goal is to enhance body of knowledge. Transitional research: use of lessons from basic res. To develop and test applications to healthcare, psychotherapy, etc. Journal: monthly with articles written by various people Journalism: news and commentary we read or hear about in multiple forms. Need to know: Consumers v. Producers of research (therapists, educators, students, parents) v. (scientists, researchers, me) Scientists approaches to their work (empiricists, publish, test theories, dig deeper, tackle applied) Theory Data Cycle (Theory  Hypothesis Data) Theorists: Harry Harlow (Monkey-cupboard v. contact theory) Watson & Rayner (phobias are innate – learned) Gallup – 1970 (monkey-self-concept with mirrors) Rauscher, shaw, ky (Mozart & IQ comparison – zero correlation) Hewe -1993 (15 picture cards w/ 3 conditions, for facilitators helping the handicapped Textbook Objectives: Explain what it means to reason empirically. Appreciate how an understanding of psychological research methods is crucial not only for producers of info, but also for consumers of info. Describe 5 processes that shape psychological science. *Psychologists are empiricists – base one’s conclusions on systematic observations. Ch. 2 Lecture Vocab: Comparison group: enables us to compare what would happen with and without the thing being tested. Confounds: several possible explanations for an outcome. Confederate: an actor playing a specific role for the experimenter. Availability Heuristic: states that things that pop-up easily in our mind tend to guide our thinking. Present/Present bias: Need for comparison groups CHT: selected questions that lead subjects to answers. Bias Blind Spot: belief that we are unlikely to fall prey to the cognitive biases. Empirical journals: report, 1 time, the results of a study. Review journals: provide a summary of all the published studies that have been done in 1 area. Meta-analysis: combines the results of many studies and give a number that summarizes the effect size of a relationship. Effect Size: weighs each study proportionately. Need to know: Research Types (empirical vs. non-empirical) Non-empirical: experience, intuition (bias), and authority Empirical: problem  testable hypothesis  define variables  design study  ethical issues/IRB approval  collect data  stat analysis  draw conclusion Journal Types (Peer-reviewed-empirical, review, books) Aspects of research article IntroMethodProcedureResultsDiscussionReferences Intuition (faulty thinking, motivation, bias blind spot, good story, availability, present/present, cherry picking, leading questions) Biases (availability, good story, present/present) Therapies Choosing: personal experience, intuition, authority, and empirical support Sources (psyc-info, Eric, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc.) Citing (APA) in articles, books, Theories: Paivio – dual-code hypothesis (concrete v. abstract word memorization) Gallup – 1970 (monkey mirror – self concept) John Lee – punching a punching bag will relieve stress (false) Dr. Benjamin Rush – blood-letting experiment (no falsifiability) Strayer/Drews – texting and reaction time in lab setting Textbook Objectives:  Explain why psychologists’ value research-based conclusions over beliefs based on experience, intuition, or authority.  Locate research-based info. and read with purpose. Ch. 3 Lecture Vocab: Variable: characteristic that can have different values for different individuals or situations. Constant: characteristic that is the same across individuals and situations. Data: measurements or observed values of variables or constants. IV: variable “manipulated” by experimenter DV: variable being measured to assess the effects of the IV. Manipulated: can control levels by assigning participants to different levels of the variable. Measured: subject variables, some unethical to manipulate, some can be both. Frequency Claim: claims describe a particular role degree or level of a variable (1 measured) Association Claim: claims indicate that 1 level is related to a level of another variable (2 measured) Causal Claim: claims that 1 variable is responsible for changing the other (2 – 1 measured, 1 manipulated) Zero Association: no association between x & y Anecdotal Claims: not based on research (no poll, survey, or study) Ex) “some psych patients wait days in ERs.” Type 1 Error: (false positive) – say there is an association when there really isn’t. Type 2 Error: (false negative) – say there is no association when there really is. Need to know: Research variables Claims (3)* Validity vs. Reliability (4 Valid – construct, internal, external, statistical) Construct: how well was it measured? Internal: was there random assignment? External: can it be generalized to other pop? Statistical: is it a strong/significant association? Claim & Validity Pairings: Frequency: construct, external, and statistical Association: construct, external, and statistical Causal: construct, external, statistical, and internal Theorists: Drews, Strayer, Pasupathi – texting/calling with passenger and missing red lights experiment in lab setting Textbook Objectives: Differentiate the three types of claims: frequency, association, and causal. Ask appropriate questions to help you interrogate each of the four big validities: construct, statistical, external, and internal. Explain which validities are most relevant for each of the three types of claims. Ch. 4 Lecture Vocab: Debriefed: carefully informed about the study’s hypotheses. Principle of Respect for Persons: should be treated as autonomous agents, free to make up their own minds about whether they wish to participate in a research study. Informed Consent: each person learns about the research project, knows the risks and benefits, and decides whether to participate. Principles of Beneficence: researchers must take precautions to protect research participants from harm and to ensure their well-being. Principle of Justice: calls for a fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it. Institutionalized Review Board (IRB): committee responsible for interpreting ethical principles and ensuring that research using human participants is conducted ethically. Deception: researchers withheld some details of the study from participants. Data Fabrication: instead of recording what really happened in a study, researchers invent data that fit their hypotheses. Data Falsification: Researchers influence the study’s results, perhaps by selecting to delete observations from a data set or by influencing their research subjects to act in the hypothesized way. Plagiarism: representing the ideas or words of others as one’s own. Need to know: Ethics – addresses questions related to morality such as how to determine moral values and how to act morally in given situations Bad Ex): Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) Milgram’s Obedience Studies (1960’s) History: Nuremburg Code – a set of standards developed in 1947 as a result of the atrocities against humans during WWII by German Researchers States: consent must be voluntary, benefit-cost analysis, participants can quit at any time. Belmont Report – Identifies 3 basic ethical principles that underlie the conduct of research involving human participants. Includes:  Respect for persons (no coercion, privacy, informed consent)  Beneficence (cost-benefit)  Justice Types of Harms: Physical Injury, Psych. Injury, legal, social, loss of privacy. APA 10 Ethical Standards: Describes ethical standards relevant to various roles psychologists have such as – competence, refraining from multiple relationships, assessment, and privacy/confidentiality. (8.01- 8.15) Ethical Decision-Making: thoughtful balance of priorities by weighing the potential harm to humans or animals against what the knowledge gained form the research will contribute to society. Theorists: Andrew Wakefield: autism  vaccines (X) Frank Flynn: Columbia University Business Professor Rookie (letters of complaints to 240 restaurants) Textbook Objectives:  Define the three ethical principles of the Belmont Report and describe how each one is applied. Recognize the similarities between the Belmont Reports’ principles and the five APA Ethical Principles.  Describe the procedures that are in place to protect human participants and animal subjects in research.  Articulate some of the ways that ethical decision making requires balancing priorities, such as research risks v. benefits, individual participants v. society, participation v. coercion.


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