Exam #1 Study Guide-Thursday
Exam #1 Study Guide-Thursday PSYCH 3010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Smith on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3010 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Lisa Bauer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology 1 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Lindsay Smith Psychological Methods Study Guide Exam 1 Study Guide Ch. 1-4 Ch. 1 Lecture Vocab: Evidence: based treatments (supported by research) Empiricism: using evidence from the senses or from the instruments assisting. Theory: Set of statements that describe general principles about how variables relate. Hypothesis: prediction; what the researcher expects to happen Data: set of observations. Falsifiability: theory must lead to a hypothesis that if tested, could actually fail. Parsimony: all other things equal, simplest is best. Weight of evidence: for or against, theories not proven Applied research: practical problem in mind, findings can be applied to the solution in real-world context. Basic Research: doesn’t address issue, goal is to enhance body of knowledge. Transitional research: use of lessons from basic res. To develop and test applications to healthcare, psychotherapy, etc. Journal: monthly with articles written by various people Journalism: news and commentary we read or hear about in multiple forms. Need to know: Consumers v. Producers of research (therapists, educators, students, parents) v. (scientists, researchers, me) Scientists approaches to their work (empiricists, publish, test theories, dig deeper, tackle applied) Theory Data Cycle (Theory Hypothesis Data) Theorists: Harry Harlow (Monkey-cupboard v. contact theory) Watson & Rayner (phobias are innate – learned) Gallup – 1970 (monkey-self-concept with mirrors) Rauscher, shaw, ky (Mozart & IQ comparison – zero correlation) Hewe -1993 (15 picture cards w/ 3 conditions, for facilitators helping the handicapped Textbook Objectives: Explain what it means to reason empirically. Appreciate how an understanding of psychological research methods is crucial not only for producers of info, but also for consumers of info. Describe 5 processes that shape psychological science. *Psychologists are empiricists – base one’s conclusions on systematic observations. Ch. 2 Lecture Vocab: Comparison group: enables us to compare what would happen with and without the thing being tested. Confounds: several possible explanations for an outcome. Confederate: an actor playing a specific role for the experimenter. Availability Heuristic: states that things that pop-up easily in our mind tend to guide our thinking. Present/Present bias: Need for comparison groups CHT: selected questions that lead subjects to answers. Bias Blind Spot: belief that we are unlikely to fall prey to the cognitive biases. Empirical journals: report, 1 time, the results of a study. Review journals: provide a summary of all the published studies that have been done in 1 area. Meta-analysis: combines the results of many studies and give a number that summarizes the effect size of a relationship. Effect Size: weighs each study proportionately. Need to know: Research Types (empirical vs. non-empirical) Non-empirical: experience, intuition (bias), and authority Empirical: problem testable hypothesis define variables design study ethical issues/IRB approval collect data stat analysis draw conclusion Journal Types (Peer-reviewed-empirical, review, books) Aspects of research article IntroMethodProcedureResultsDiscussionReferences Intuition (faulty thinking, motivation, bias blind spot, good story, availability, present/present, cherry picking, leading questions) Biases (availability, good story, present/present) Therapies Choosing: personal experience, intuition, authority, and empirical support Sources (psyc-info, Eric, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc.) Citing (APA) in articles, books, Theories: Paivio – dual-code hypothesis (concrete v. abstract word memorization) Gallup – 1970 (monkey mirror – self concept) John Lee – punching a punching bag will relieve stress (false) Dr. Benjamin Rush – blood-letting experiment (no falsifiability) Strayer/Drews – texting and reaction time in lab setting Textbook Objectives: Explain why psychologists’ value research-based conclusions over beliefs based on experience, intuition, or authority. Locate research-based info. and read with purpose. Ch. 3 Lecture Vocab: Variable: characteristic that can have different values for different individuals or situations. Constant: characteristic that is the same across individuals and situations. Data: measurements or observed values of variables or constants. IV: variable “manipulated” by experimenter DV: variable being measured to assess the effects of the IV. Manipulated: can control levels by assigning participants to different levels of the variable. Measured: subject variables, some unethical to manipulate, some can be both. Frequency Claim: claims describe a particular role degree or level of a variable (1 measured) Association Claim: claims indicate that 1 level is related to a level of another variable (2 measured) Causal Claim: claims that 1 variable is responsible for changing the other (2 – 1 measured, 1 manipulated) Zero Association: no association between x & y Anecdotal Claims: not based on research (no poll, survey, or study) Ex) “some psych patients wait days in ERs.” Type 1 Error: (false positive) – say there is an association when there really isn’t. Type 2 Error: (false negative) – say there is no association when there really is. Need to know: Research variables Claims (3)* Validity vs. Reliability (4 Valid – construct, internal, external, statistical) Construct: how well was it measured? Internal: was there random assignment? External: can it be generalized to other pop? Statistical: is it a strong/significant association? Claim & Validity Pairings: Frequency: construct, external, and statistical Association: construct, external, and statistical Causal: construct, external, statistical, and internal Theorists: Drews, Strayer, Pasupathi – texting/calling with passenger and missing red lights experiment in lab setting Textbook Objectives: Differentiate the three types of claims: frequency, association, and causal. Ask appropriate questions to help you interrogate each of the four big validities: construct, statistical, external, and internal. Explain which validities are most relevant for each of the three types of claims. Ch. 4 Lecture Vocab: Debriefed: carefully informed about the study’s hypotheses. Principle of Respect for Persons: should be treated as autonomous agents, free to make up their own minds about whether they wish to participate in a research study. Informed Consent: each person learns about the research project, knows the risks and benefits, and decides whether to participate. Principles of Beneficence: researchers must take precautions to protect research participants from harm and to ensure their well-being. Principle of Justice: calls for a fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it. Institutionalized Review Board (IRB): committee responsible for interpreting ethical principles and ensuring that research using human participants is conducted ethically. Deception: researchers withheld some details of the study from participants. Data Fabrication: instead of recording what really happened in a study, researchers invent data that fit their hypotheses. Data Falsification: Researchers influence the study’s results, perhaps by selecting to delete observations from a data set or by influencing their research subjects to act in the hypothesized way. Plagiarism: representing the ideas or words of others as one’s own. Need to know: Ethics – addresses questions related to morality such as how to determine moral values and how to act morally in given situations Bad Ex): Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) Milgram’s Obedience Studies (1960’s) History: Nuremburg Code – a set of standards developed in 1947 as a result of the atrocities against humans during WWII by German Researchers States: consent must be voluntary, benefit-cost analysis, participants can quit at any time. Belmont Report – Identifies 3 basic ethical principles that underlie the conduct of research involving human participants. Includes: Respect for persons (no coercion, privacy, informed consent) Beneficence (cost-benefit) Justice Types of Harms: Physical Injury, Psych. Injury, legal, social, loss of privacy. APA 10 Ethical Standards: Describes ethical standards relevant to various roles psychologists have such as – competence, refraining from multiple relationships, assessment, and privacy/confidentiality. (8.01- 8.15) Ethical Decision-Making: thoughtful balance of priorities by weighing the potential harm to humans or animals against what the knowledge gained form the research will contribute to society. Theorists: Andrew Wakefield: autism vaccines (X) Frank Flynn: Columbia University Business Professor Rookie (letters of complaints to 240 restaurants) Textbook Objectives: Define the three ethical principles of the Belmont Report and describe how each one is applied. Recognize the similarities between the Belmont Reports’ principles and the five APA Ethical Principles. Describe the procedures that are in place to protect human participants and animal subjects in research. Articulate some of the ways that ethical decision making requires balancing priorities, such as research risks v. benefits, individual participants v. society, participation v. coercion.
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