StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Sex Roles
StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Sex Roles ANT3302
Popular in Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.
Reviews for StudyGuide - Exam 1 - Sex Roles
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/24/16
Study Guide Sex Roles Terms: Gender Inequality: system characterized by the denial of autonomy, rights, and prestige to one group based solely on their gender Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentrism: the belief that the way of one’s own culture are superior to the ways of other cultures Cultural relativism: idea that one must suspend judgment of other peoples practices in order to understand those people in their own cultural terms Sex: either of the two major forms of individuals that occur in many species and that are distinguished respectively as female or male especially on the basis of their reproductive organs and structures Gender: the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex Gender norms: culturally shared ideas about roles that men and women perform, rights they have in relation to each other, and values associated with their activities Nature (biosocial theory) vs. nurture (social learning theory) Social evolutionism: o Lewis Henry Morgan Social Evolutionism (1877): the idea that culture develops in a uniform, progressive manner. Progression of a society coincides with technological development Progress according to Social Evolutionism Savages: hunting & gathering, pottery, low technology Barbarians: domestication of plants & animals, metalworking Civilizations: states societies, writing, monumental architecture Promiscuity→matrilineality→monogamous patrilineality “Man the Hunter” (1968) Washburn and Lannister Bipedalism soured up man’s bigger hunting exploits Lead to tool development and use Language for coordination of hunting strategy Led to food sharing between sexes; which led to male female pairing and family structure Slocum refuted; she said it said that women were useless and couldn’t do anything, didn’t acknowledge women’s work The foraging half also involved development of language to avoid certain plants Assumes that men are ambitious and aggressive, women are passive If true, why would women develop and evolve simultaneously? A Natural History of Rape o Thornhill and Palmer assert that the phenomenon of rape evolved due to the biological urge by human males to reproduce o Thought that by understanding these foundations that could lead to less rape o Wrong: men rape men which is not reproductive based; people passed reproductive age are victims; little kids can be raped; male scorpion fly uses clamp to reproduce with female o Criticism: if it is evolution can we even fight it Trait exists for a purpose Human Behavioral Ecology Branch of evolutionary psychology Attempts to explain behavioral diversity as a consequence of environmentally contingent responses made by individuals in attempts to survive and successfully reproduce Disinterested in genetics roles play Polygyny Threshold: idea that a culture’s system of mating and marriage is informed by the degree of resource control of each sex Problem is, it assumes greater degree of reproductive choice in a simplistic way Explaining the unfamiliar Alternative configurations of biological sex and sexual orientation Homosexuality is a trait that is biological and cannot be oppressed rSelection vs. kSelection Lovejoy’s Model of Human Evolution R selection (think rats) Many offspring Low investment Most die before maturity Short life Superficial relationships Low individuality Commodities K Selection (humans) Few offspring High investment Most mature Long life Rich relationships High individuality Brands Selfish genes Dawkins Males pass on genes by spreading seed to as many women as possible Women can only have one partner at a time because of investment in offspring This leads to differential behavior Version of theory: sociobiology; because women only have one reproductive cell at a time and men have tons, they are going to only have one partner and men can have many Sociobiology E.O. Wilson The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior Problems: genetic determinism no other influence on who I am; biology is our destiny; no flexibility or variation; by stating this, relies on assumptions of evolution and genetics that cannot be tested (example of extraordinary claim needs extraordinary evidence) Looks like hard science; trying to incorporate hard science principles Feminist anthropology Women’s anthro gets a lot of backlash because no one believes women; The subfield of Feminist Anthropology emerged as a reaction to a perceived androcentric bias within the discipline. Looking at anthropology through a feminist lens means redefining past research because it is inherently androcentric. Anthropology of masculinity The study of men as engendered and engendering subjects We perform and therefore recreate gender as we go Ninja Warrior Example on the display after winning Men were created as the only subjects before It is a fairly recent study since it has always been taken for granted Masculinity is made out of the pressures of femininity When thinking about gendered studies, you think about women not men “Invisible men” How femininity achieved? How is masculinity achieved? Masculinity is often achieved in relation to danger Chuuk Island men spearfishing in dugout canoes If you show fear or hesitation you are emasculated How it’s done? Approach 1: Study of spaces, events, etc. that allow or involve only men Approach 2: Integrate descriptions, analyses of women’s roles to contextualize & focus on men & masculinity Intersex Anthropology of Masculinity: How it’s done Traditional roles for women employed by an NFL teamàCheerleading Non-traditional roleàCoach or actually play Anthropology of Masculinity: Division of Labor Best practices: treat division of labor as fluid, subject to varying constructions of gender, practical concerns, degrees of informality, and situational change. • An Agta woman hunts o Philippines o Only when supplies are low o Machetes and dogs to hunt wild pigs Anthropology of Masculinity: Fathering • Men are not “supposed” to take on parenting roles o Avoid being affectionate o Nahua fathers break the stereotype Anthropology of Masculinity: Homosociality • Men-only environments Pansexual Pansexual (adj): describes an individual who can experience sexual attraction, romantic love, or emotional attraction towards people of ant sex or gender identity Asexual Asexual (adj): describes an individual who lacks sexual attraction to anyone or has low or no interest in sexual activity Gender Identity Gender identity: one’s innermost concept of self as male or female, or neither, or both. Transexual Transsexual: older term originating in the medical and psychological communities, and still preferred by some people who have permanently changed (or seek to permanently change) their bodies through medical interventions. Transgender Transgender: Term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the one typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Cisgender Cisgender: term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression is consistent with that typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Gender binary Gender binary: classification of sex and gender into two distinct opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine Two-Spirit Native American Two-Spirit: People who partly or completely take on aspects of the culturally defined role of the other sex; these people are classified as their own genders Includes Navajo nádleeh, Mojave alyha and hwame Adopts female dress and physiology They undergo a ceremony Industrious and better husbands than women They mimic menstruation and pregnancy It is not a direct predictor of sexual orientation 3 Big Ideas available historic documentation less than reliable due to ethnocentrism, particularly the kind that imposes gender binaries and involves homophobia/transphobia No universal treatment/role for two-spirit people— cultural variation Specific information regarding two-spirit within any given culture is sparse People: Lewis Henry Morgan o Social Evolutionism (1877): the idea that culture develops in a uniform, progressive manner. Progression of a society coincides with technological development o Progress according to Social Evolutionism Savages: hunting & gathering, pottery, low technology Barbarians: domestication of plants & animals, metalworking Civilizations: states societies, writing, monumental architecture EE Evans-Pritchard Functionalism: theory that societies are analogous to organisms, such that each component has evolved to serve a purpose. When all components perform properly, a society will be sustained in equilibrium. Men as breadwinners, involved in public society, authority. Sigmund Freud Bisexuality and sexual determinism Sexual orientation isn’t innate Everyone is bisexual in orientation and traits that we assign to either sex; everyone has a bit of both Explained that homosexuality results from a distressing experience with heterosexuality; once it is inverted then it cannot be reversed Recently studies have been done to look at brain and homosexuality Hormones, twins Some studies have found that men who are gay tend to have higher levels of testosterone and are actually more “masculine” compared to straight men Elsie Clews Parsons 1875-1941 First female president of the American Anthropological Association Studied under Franz Boas Constraints of American culture on woman With money she could access resources Voice recordings 1939: published Pueblo Indian Religion Ultimately wrote 6 sociological works, 5 anthropological books, and compiled three books of African diaspora folklore and 95 articles Ruth Benedict 1877-1948 Studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University She went to a class of Clew Parsons 1934: published Patterns of Culture She said that culture is associated to personalities Early proponent of cultural relativism 1943: published “The Races of Mankind” Margaret Mead 1901-1978 Studied under Franz Boas at Columbia University Went from psychology to anthropology 1925: fieldwork in Samoa 1928: published Coming of Age in Samoa Her aims were to explore whether Samoan women have the same difficulties through puberty as American Women Participant observation Samoans have more relaxed gender divisions She wasn’t too scientific rigorous She put her focus on comparing cultures instead of getting to know the Samoan 1930: published Growing Up in New Guinea Published 12 books in all as sole author, co-authored several others Ruth Landes 1908-1991 Studied under Ruth Benedict at Columbia University Sociology→Master in Anthropology Native Americans→Much relevant work for the time 1947: published The City of Women People in Brazil that practiced Candumblé Ultimately published 9 books and several journal articles Before 1947 Anthropologists were Omniscient Narrators She looked at how sexuality, gender and race impacted culture when everyone else was cataloging people by traits (ahead of her time) Integrated her own perspective and experiments into it (unusual at the time, supposed to be unbiased, one of the first anthropologists to do this) Zora Neale Hurston 1891-1960 Studied under Franz Boas at Barnard College (affiliated with Columbia University) 1935: published mules and Men Ultimately published 4 novels, two collections of folklore and more than 40 articles/essays Looked at sexual violence in African American Woman, an area not well known by White Male Anthropologists She worked for the WPA: World Progress Administration Federal government found ways to put people to work during the Great Depression Interviewing people who were former slaves Her documents were well written and had extreme detail Hijra Neither man nor women Third gender, after ritual process, where they remove your genitals Mother Goddess→ Dual nature that is symbolic Adopt women’s presentation But don’t want to make an imitation of women→Don’t want to pass You abandon your family Ritual performative roles (bless child or couple)→They’re way of living Prostitution Social structure: Members of a house, not a building, but subgroup Lineages with common ancestors specific to each house 3 Big Ideas No national standards regarding medical treatment options for transgender people or hijras Electing medical gender reassignment surgery may produce consequences within hijra community Limited access to medical needs leads to use of traditional surgical methods that might otherwise not be selected, or unregulated use of hormone therapy. Public hospitals cannot provide much support; private hospitals are prohibitively expensive. Concepts: • anthropology as a social science; impact of theory on research Theories influence how you interpret your research; Example: Marxist vs. Foucault interpretations of the same situations lead to different conclusions. • problems with early, evolution-based theories about cultures, sexes, and gender roles Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence-Carl Sagan] Man the hunter theory: If true why would women develop and evolve simultaneously EE Evans Pritchard: cultures are dynamic and changing; not strict constructs; fluid Women the hunter theory: Issues: ignores hunting, should focus more on dealings of both activities; children can contribute earlier than she assumes; woman could also hunt; goes at underlying assumptions that men are aggressive and women are passive; more suited for early hominids Sociobiology (E.O. Wilson): no other influence on who I am; biology is our destiny; no flexibility or variation; by stating this, relies on assumptions of evolution and genetics that cannot be tested (example of extraordinary claim needs extraordinary evidence) Biology used to prove superiority. Lewis Henry Morgan : Theory of Social Evolution; the idea that culture develops in a uniform, progressive manner. Progression of society coincides with technological development. Evolutionary Psychology: Theoretical approach to the study of mind and behavior that attempts to explain cognitive mechanisms as the functional products of natural selection; • Lovejoy’s k-trap theory of human development: Said that we needed an increased birth rate; we’re producing too slowly Women were less mobile because of childrearing so depended on men for food and resources Increased competition among males for women Estrous→ when animals are ready for fertilization; are in heat; ovulation Women lost this ability; could produce offspring year round which led to relationships Issues: page 116 • Dynamics at play in mid-20th century models of domesticity and gender roles Domesticity: man in the work place, women at home; distinct occupational roles; women as secretaries; men as ceo’s and leadership positions; Idealized American status quo, middle 20 century o Women should be at home o Russian women were celebrated as members of workforce; cold war casted women to seem more masculine which was later seen as unattractive § Women risked becoming unwomanly o We see men as leaders of outside world (out of home) o Where we see a stark contrast of roles reinforced o 55 hours a week as stay at home mother o no rights to husband's property; no right to his bread; secretary nurses teachers o into the 70s, women couldn’t get credit cards, no jury duty in all 50 states, o higher education: a catch-22 § going for Mrs. Degree; looking for a spouse § thought that “brain would get to big and femininity would shrink” discouraged education for women • Second-wave feminism—rough historical context and impacts on anthropology The Second Wave · The feminine mystique by Betty Friedan (1963) o White middle-class women unsatisfied with being housewives · Civil Rights Movement 1955 o Helped the second wave movement Impacts of Second Wave Feminism · Civil Rights Acts 1964 o Equal opportunity business o Equal Pay Act o Title 10: § Birth Control § Women healthcare § Family Planning o Title 9: § Equal Educational Opportunity o Gender equality newly visible o Workplace discrimination became visible • Differences between the ways that femininity and masculinity are achieved Femininity achieved through attire, looks, presentation. Masculinity achieved through test and trial, physical challenges, danger. • Chuuk Islanders expressions/means of achieving masculinity Chuuk Island men achieve masculinity by spearfishing which is dangerous (sharks, drowning) and must be executed with nonchalance. Daring behavior or else risk being feminine. If you show fear or hesitation you are emasculated • Two approaches to study of masculinity o Approach 1: study of spaces, events, etc. that allow or involve only men o Approach 2: integrate descriptions, analyses of women’s roles to contextualize and focus on men and masculinity • Four ways that anthropologists characterize or define masculine behavior Reading: Trafficking in Men by Gutmann 1. “The first concept of masculinity holds that it is, by definition, anything that men think and do.” 2. “Masculinity is anything men think and do to be men.” 3. “Some men are inherently or by ascription considered ‘more manly’ than other men.” 4. “The final manner of approaching masculinity emphasizes the general and central importance of male-female relations, so that masculinity is considered anything that women are not.” • What do we mean when we say that culture is fluid? the full range of learned behavior patterns that are acquired by people as members of a society. A culture is a complex, largely interconnected whole that consists of the knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, skills, and habits learned from parents and others in a society. Culture is the primary adaptive mechanism for humans. • Agta division of labor with regards to foraging Agta woman hunts. Defies typical job divisions. Contrasts with Chuuk Island men. • Importance of the Stonewall Riots (From RuPaul Drag Race reading) Stonewall Riots in 1969 ignited Gay Revolution movement on a national level. Gays unwelcome in certain establishments 1969 Stonewall riots: Police raided Stonewall Inn, and attacked visibly identifiable non-heterosexuals People and activists started to organize to ask for safe spaces for the LGBTQ community • General idea of the social costs of being gay/transgender in modern American society High rates of suicide and murder/violence against transgender Americans, especially people of color. Discrimination in the workforce • common features of gender variance in Native American (or indigenous) cultures Native American Two-Spirit: o People who partly or completely take on aspects of the culturally defined role of the other sex; these people are classified as their own genders o Includes Navajo nádleeh, Mojave alyha and hwame § Nadleeh: almost all female behavior and attire § Alyha: female physiology in addition to dress, far extents in trying to mimic woman’s experiences; when take a husband mimic menstruation; being two spirit is not a direct predictor of sexual identity or orientation § Adopts female dress and physiology § They undergo a ceremony § Industrious and better husbands than women § They mimic menstruation and pregnancy § It is not a direct predictor of sexual orientation · 3 Big Ideas o available historic documentation less than reliable due to ethnocentrism, particularly the kind that imposes gender binaries and involves homophobia/transphobia o No universal treatment/role for two-spirit people—cultural variation o Specific information regarding two-spirit within any given culture is sparse • Alyha lifestyle, including initiation, sexual/marital relationships, imitations of women’s reproductive experiences, work Alyha: female physiology in addition to dress, far extents in trying to mimic woman’s experiences; when take a husband mimic menstruation; being two spirit is not a direct predictor of sexual identity or orientation • Hwame lifestyle: behavior in youth, marital relationships Third and fourth gender roles traditionally embodied by two-spirit people include performing work and wearing clothing associated with both men and women. Not all tribes/nations have rigid gender roles, but, among those that do, some consider there to be at least four genders: feminine women, masculine women, feminine men, masculine man. • Hijra lifestyle: initiation, income, social structure, social & medical challenges Doctors feel threatened by lawsuits because SRS is not regulated. They write prescriptions on regular paper bc they're afraid of getting traced back 1. No national standards regarding medical options for trans people or hijra 2. Electing medical gender reassignment surgery may produces consequences within hijra community 3. Public hospitals have an underwhelming understanding of SRS. Cannot provide much support. 4. Private hospitals have better resources but are $$$$. 5. Limited access to medical needs leads to use of traditional surgical methods that might otherwise not be selected, or unregulated use of hormone therapy. • trajectory by which Western civilizations arrived at our concept of a gender binary (general in terms of timeline/dates, but need to understand changes/progression). Includes Greek society, importance of Christianity & changes in the way Christianity addressed same sex relationships, Victorian society, & Freud’s explanation of homosexuality. Foundations of the Binary: o Gender binary: classification of sex and gender into two distinct, opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine o Ancient Greece and Rome Sex and power in the ancient world (western European edition) Sexuality wasn’t that binary; their binary was about a power balance; adult males were focus of power Defined by the male being the inserter; the receptor role could be played by women or younger less powerful men Had a feminizing affect on the receptor male; only costly to him not penetrator Women engaging in similar sexual activity were a little invisible o The middle ages § Christianity imposes strict laws § Same sex marriages § 1000 ad: equated same sex acts with adulterous acts; 1179: sodomites would be excommunicated by catholic church § 1300: punishable by death § continues for next three centuries o 16 and 17 century: § queen Christina of Sweden (1626-1689)à given male education because wanted to remain celibate; got rid of throne and moved to Italy and converted to Catholicism § intersexuality; if had two many partners punishable as sodomy § male as penetrator survived in some areas § mali: male, receiver, feminine behaviors § safis: female, male behaviors th o 19 centrury developments § and then there was two § homosexuality was illegal in the U.S. § starting to use biology to explain things o Early to mid 20 century: § Freud’s idea of sexual inversion takes hold § Took hold even though homosexuals individuals disputed it § 1917 à homosexual considered mental defect by the federal government § 1990à congress passes immigration bill to allow gay people to enter the country § lgbt struggled for rights and recognition § Mid to late 20 century: · Stonewall riots (1969): police raided stonewall inn, violent demonstrations; drag queens, transgender, gay youth, homeless gay youth o Lead to continuous riots o People started to organize o Sparked broader political organization and activism o National site and monument o Where are we now? § Gay men earn up to 32 percent less than their straight counterpart § 5.9 of the population as a whole makes less than 10,000/year. For lgbt people in particular, that rate is around 14 percent. Lgbt youth are more likely to become homeless. 20-40 percent homeless youth identify as lgbt § in 2014: · hate motivated violence against lgbtq and hiv communities dropped 32 compared with 2013, but hate motivated violence against transgender up 13 · 20 incidents of homicide: 16 of 20 were color, 11 of 20 were transgender women of color · 54 percent of victims of such hate crimes reported to poluce. Of those, 27 percent hostile treatment by police upon reporting; only 6 percent of crimes classified as bias crimes by the national coalition of anti violence programs · 19 murdered in us in 2015
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'