Chapter 4 & 5
Chapter 4 & 5 Psych 3510
Popular in Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gina Goodson on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3510 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Megan Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Psych 3510: Chapter 4 (with Lecture Highlights) 1. Tuskegee Syphilis Study (pgs. 90-92) a. The men were not treated respectfully i. Researchers did not provide informed consent b. The men in the study were harmed i. Researchers did not inform the men about treatment ii. Men were subjected to painful and dangerous tests c. Researchers targeted a disadvantaged social group i. Syphilis affects a variety of people, yet there were only poor, African American participants 2. Milgram Obedience (pgs. 92-94) a. Study i. Two participants: the teacher and the learner ii. Teacher punishes learner with electric shocks when learner makes mistakes on learning tasks iii. The learner is in a cubicle where you cannot see him iv. Learner is a confederate v. Teacher is instructed to continue shocking learner as the voltage increases b. Ethical questions/concerns i. The study was stressful to the teacher participants ii. The lasting effects (of the teachers) of the study c. Researchers informed the participants of the study’s hypothesis, or debriefed them d. We try to balance the potential risks to participants and the value of the knowledge we can gain 3. Core Ethical Principles (pgs. 95-98) a. Belmont Report i. Principle of respect for persons 1. Individuals participating in research should be free to decide whether they wish to participate (autonomous agents) a. Informed consent: Each person: i. Learns about the research project ii. Knows the risks and benefits iii. Decides whether to participate 2. Researchers cannot mislead, coerce, or unduly influence participants into participating 3. Some people have less autonomy and are entitled to special protection, such as children, the elderly, and prisoners ii. Principle of beneficence 1. Researchers must take precautions to protect research participants for being harmed and to ensure their well- being 2. Researchers must assess risks and benefits a. Must consider others who might benefit or be harmed iii. Principle of justice (Think of external validity) 1. A fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it 2. Researchers ensure the participants represent the kinds of people who would also benefit from its results 4. APA Ethical Principles a. Five General Principles (pgs. 98-111) i. Beneficence 1. Similar to principle of beneficence ii. Fidelity and responsibility 1. A clinical psychologist who teaches at a university cannot serve as a therapist to his/her classroom students 2. Psychologists must avoid sexual relationships with their students iii. Integrity 1. Professors are obligated to teach you accurately 2. Therapists are required to stay up-to-date on the empirical evidence for therapeutic techniques iv. Justice 1. Similar to principle of justice v. Respect for people’s rights and dignity 1. Similar to principle of respect for persons b. 10 Specific Ethical Standards—Standard 8 i. Institutional Review Boards (IRB) (pg. 100) 1. Interpret ethical principles and ensuring that research using human participants is conducted ethically 2. Includes: a. A scientist b. Member with academic interests outside the sciences c. Community member with no ties to the institution 3. Provides a neutral, multi-perspective judgment to any study’s ethically risk/benefit ratio ii. Informed Consent (pg. 101) 1. Researcher’s obligation to explain the study to potential participants and give them a chance to decide whether to participate 2. Informing people whether the data they provide will be private and confidential 3. Not using informed consent? a. Waivers i. Previously collected data ii. Minimal risk iii. Educational purposes without sharing data iv. Anonymous surveys/observations (public places) v. Confidential study of workplace environment with no risk iii. Deception (pg. 103) 1. Deception through omission: Researchers withhold some details of the study from participants 2. Deception through commission: Researchers lie to participants 3. Deception is ethical sometimes iv. Debriefing (pg. 104) 1. Researchers describe the nature of the deception and explain why it was necessary a. An attempt to restore an honest relationship with the participant 2. Occurs in non-deceptive studies, too v. Research Misconduct (pg. 105) 1. Data fabrication: Researchers invent data that fit their hypotheses 2. Data falsification: Researchers influence the study’s results, such as deleting data or influencing participants to behave in a hypothesized way 3. Plagiarism: Representing the ideas or words of others as one’s own vi. Animal Research (pg. 108) 1. Legal Protection for Lab Animals a. Psychologists must: i. Use humane care ii. Use as few animals as possible iii. Research is valuable enough to justify the use of animals b. Animal Welfare Act (AWA) i. Each institution must have the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) 1. Contains: a. Vet b. Practicing scientist who is familiar with the goals and procedures of animal research c. An unconnected community member 2. Animal Care Guidelines (pg. 109) a. Replacement: Researchers should find alternatives to animals in research when necessary b. Refinement: Researchers must modify experimental procedures and other aspects of animal care to minimize or eliminate animal distress c. Reduction: Researchers should adopt experimental designs and procedures that require the fewest animal subjects possible Psych 3510: Chapter 5 1. Ways to Measure Variables a. Operationalizing Other Conceptual Variables i. State the definition of construct (the conceptual variable) b. Three Common Measure Types i. Self-report measures 1. Records people’s answers to questions about themselves in a questionnaire or interview ii. Observational measures 1. Behavioral measure 2. Records observable behaviors or physical traces of behaviors iii. Physiological measures 1. Records biological data a. Examples: brain activity, hormone levels, heart rate, etc. c. Scales of Measurement i. Categorical vs. Quantitative Variables 1. Categorical/nominal a. Categories have no numerical meaning 2. Quantitative a. Meaningful numbers ii. 3 Types of Quantitative Variables 1. Ordinal scale a. Numerals of a quantitative variable represent a ranked order 2. Interval scale a. Numerals represent equal intervals (distances) between levels b. There is no “true zero” i. A person can score 0, but 0 does not mean “nothing” 3. Ratio scale a. Numerals have equal intervals and a meaningful 0 (truly means “nothing”) 2. Reliability of Measurements a. 3 Types of Reliability (or Consistency) i. Test-retest reliability: Consistency between times 1. Researcher gets consistent scores every time he/she uses the measure 2. Applies whether the operationalization is self-report, observational, or physiological 3. Primary in constructs that researchers expect to be relatively stable in most people a. Examples: Intelligence, personality, religiosity ii. Interrater reliability: Consistency between raters 1. Consistent scores are obtained no matter who measures or observes 2. Most relevant in observational measures iii. Internal reliability: Consistency regardless of phrasing 1. A study participant gives a consistent pattern of answers, no matter how the researcher has phrased the question 2. Not the same as internal validity b. Scatterplots to Evaluate Reliability i. Relevant when studying constructs c. Correlation Coefficient r i. Indicates how close the dots on a scatterplot are to draw a line through them 1. Slope direction can be positive, negative, or zero a. Indicates direction of the relationship (up, down, or no slope) 2. Strength of the relationship a. Strong relationship > Dots are close to the line b. Weak relationship > Dots are spread out ii. R indicates the strongest possible correlation 1. Falls between -1.0 and 1.0, with -1.0 being negative and 1.0 being positive iii. Reliabilities 1. Test-retest a. Measure the same set of participants on that measure at least twice—at Time 1 and Time 2 b. If r is positive and strong, there would be good test-retest reliability i. Ideal r is .50 or higher c. If r is positive but weak, then the participants’ scores on the test changed from Time 1 to Time 2 i. This would be a sign of poor measurement reliability if something being measured should stay the same over time (i.e. an IQ test) 2. Interrater a. Two observers may rate the same participants at the same time b. If r is positive and strong, then there is good interrater reliability i. Ideal r is .70 or higher c. If r is positive but weak, the researcher would retrain the coders or refine the operational definition so it can be more reliably coded d. Negative r is rare and undesirable e. Kappa is used when observers are rating a sample on a categorical variable 3. Internal a. Relevant for measures that use more than one item to get at the same construct i. Example: Self-report scales b. A set has internal reliability if its items correlate strongly with one another i. Researcher can reasonably take an average to create a single overall score for each person c. Cronbach’s alpha (or coefficient alpha) i. Collect data on the scale from a large sample of participants and then compute all possible correlations among the items 3. Validity of Measurement a. Construct validity: Are we measuring what we say we’re measuring well? i. How we measure constructs 1. Examples: Happiness, stress, self-esteem, ii. Some abstract concepts have no single, directed measure iii. How we know if indirect operational measures (i.e. daily smile rate for happiness) is actually measuring happiness or another construct b. Face and Content validity: Does it look like a good measure? i. Face 1. Subjective 2. Measure is plausible 3. Checked by consulting experts ii. Content 1. Subjective 2. Captures all parts of a defined construct (or detailed enough) a. Example: What is the definition of intelligence? c. Criterion validity: Does it correlate with key behaviors? i. Less subjective ii. Measure under consideration is related to a concrete outcome (behavior) that it should be related to iii. Proposed measure predicts actual behavior or outcomes that, in theory, it should predict d. Convergent vs. Discriminant (Divergent) validity: Does the pattern make sense? i. Convergent (desired) 1. Same constructs’ measures should have strong correlation a. Example: 2 different surveys measuring panic attacks ii. Discriminant (divergent) 1. Different constructs’ measures should have weaker correlation a. Example: Survey measuring anxiety vs. survey measuring calmness 4. Reliability ≠ Validity a. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity i. A measure can be reliable, but not valid ii. A measure cannot be valid without being reliable b. Example: Head circumference and IQ are correlated with each other, but not valid (or, associated with each other)
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