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UF / Communications / ADV 4004 / 4 factors that change journalism.

4 factors that change journalism.

4 factors that change journalism.


School: University of Florida
Department: Communications
Course: History of Journalism
Professor: Bernell tripp
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history, colonial, printing, press, Paper, revolution, and pennypress
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Review Guide
Description: Covers chapters 1 (pages 9-15), 2, 7 and all in class lectures.
Uploaded: 09/25/2016
32 Pages 7 Views 9 Unlocks

JOU 4004 Test I

4 factors that change journalism.

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

Exam is Tuesday Sept 27.

Bring Pencil

50 multiple choice questions:

Covers chapters 1 (pages 9-15), 2, 7

4 factors that change journalism

1. Technology

2. societal influence

3. economic pressures

4. commercialization

2 types of history: we study history to understand how and why the media developed 1. high level​ of literary, intellectual, and religious

2. low level ​of improvement/elevation of uneducated masses.

3 categories of interpretations of history based on interrelationships: ● Ideological: how political and social issues shape media

● Professional: how standards and practices change with media development ● Cultural: what goes on in US society, (the environmental impact)

Role of first mass medium (books) on perception of knowledge

● University vs. Church​: Promoted individual and non-conformist thinking and stimulated discussion and debate.

Many relied on continental congress, governors and state legislatures for financial support and for information.

○ Impact of the printed word on communication: when written word came around only very educated aka clergymen ​could control the media.

○ Books changed the basic functions of knowledge infrastructure

■ Writing became critical to administration of power, property, and


■ By the 12th century universities moved learning outside the walls of monasteries which created a power struggle between the church and University faculty

● The written word is key here because text become an

externalized and physical form of memory

● Gutenberg’s ​press mid 1400s (he perfected it, did not invent it): altered societal influence (which happens with each new technological invention.

○ Decentralized the sources of info: The information is decentralized aka information is no longer just in the hands of the Church

Secret importation of paper from Europe for military use.

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○ Increased dissemination of info: accelerated the Protestant revolt against the Catholic Church.

○ Was the basis of U.S. press development. We also discuss several other topics like What are the Patterns of Income Inequalities?

○ Gutenberg's printing press again created a shift in power because printed word became a new source of evidence and factual knowledge Don't forget about the age old question of Spain begins to build forts in what year?

○ It answered the demand for a middle ground between information and the elite.

Printer William Caxton: First printer in England

● Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales influenced:

○ Culture​: it had a cross section of British society in one book. For the commoners, these were the first stories about who they were.

■ Criticized for providing a basis for civil unrest and disobedience of the poor because it gave them a reflection of society. Don't forget about the age old question of What is Neocortex?

○ Literacy ​rates soared across Europe.

○ Language​: it is credited with helping to unify England with a Common Language; at the same time, the use of Latin declined.

○ Printing industry: ​it was the first the first printed book in England and open the journalism door.

■ increased the importance of authors.

■ created a standardized system of indexes, page numbers, and tables of content

■ Commercialized the written word

■ Revolutionized book production

● Early control of press in England under Henry VIII (Early 1500s)

○ prior restraint: censorship before it can print.

○ seditious libel: harsh punishments for broken rules.

○ Must acquire a printer licensing

● British improvements on European newspaper format:

○ They were first developed in Britain by James I and Charles I and what started as “Weekly News sheets” in the 1560s. The first english-language paper was an Untitled new sheet in Amsterdam in the 1620s which translated European news from elsewhere. Don't forget about the age old question of who led the first modern presidential campaign?

○ Improvements:

■ England's first modern paper didn't happen until 1665 the Oxford

Gazette by Henry Muddiman who was a government mouthpiece. We also discuss several other topics like Customer Value refers to what?

● Became the London Gazette after city wide plague ended

● Was not yet technically a newspaper

■ Early 1700s there was an expansion of provincial newspapers

■ editorial notices​ addressed to readers created interactive relationships between writers and audience members

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■ The Invention of the headline​ drew reader's attention by laying out in large type simple wood cut designs on the front page to promote later installments

● U.S. press developed based on provincial newspaper development ○ They promoted and encouraged exploration of the new lands by publishing excerpts of diaries to encourage travel If you want to learn more check out what is Stepped Pyramid and Mortuary Precinct of Djoser?

■ showed half-naked Savages in cartoons to represent and advertise for the new world

○ media expansion in the new world became tied to postal system and transportation routes

Early printing in colonies:

● Printed books’ impact on control of knowledge:

○ Settlers valued the printed word and promotional materials were used to ■ lure audiences in and fundraise

■ Entertain (pamphlets)

■ Directions: Maps

■ Educate

■ Religious: Bibles and religious tracts

● America’s first book (Algonquin Indian Bible, John Eliot, 1661)

○ Fostered convert missions to puritanism

○ Gave the idea that America was God’s chosen country

● First printing press in colonies (Harvard College): It was used for Spiritual and religious writings and was a tool to reach people and Aid in the search for truth ● Increased Mather’s ​mock newspaper (need for print validation & newspaper as solution to false rumors)

○ He was the first to consider the power of the printed word.

○ False reports increased the need for printed validation so that rumors could be corrected and verbal declarations could be augmented it also fostered support for a trustworthy medium

○ It influenced public expectations of Truth in print and provided a foundation for the role of press in American society

Understanding of power of printed word:

● Successful early newspaper operation requirements

○ distribution (methods): paper had to be on a trade route line.

○ population (readership demographics) large cities with wealthy educated (typically white) readers.

○ information (sources): eyewitnesses and travelers become the most important sources of local and Euro news.

JOU 4004 Test I

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● First newspapers and their success/failure (what caused them to fail or succeed) ○ Publick Occurrences and Benjamin Harris (why only one issue)

■ No subscribers.

■ Newspaper was to be produced "once a month, or, if any Glut of Occurrences happen, oftener." But was banned after the first issue. ■ No headlines, you couldn't tell easily where one story ended and where another began.

■ Content angered royal governor and his council.

● He had written about how the colonial army's alliance with

Mohawks and "sanctioned" Indian raids, construed as criticism

of authorities. Additionally, the french king had "taken immoral

liberties" with his son's wife. **Broadside warned against public

w/o "licence first obtained from those appointed by the gov't.

○ Boston News-Letter in 1704 and John Campbell (postmaster):

■ People needed sequential news so later circulated "public

news-letters" to postal officials, merchants, and other affluent

colonists. This increased the demand sparked printed version.

■ Government sanctioned

■ Criticized for old news and boring writing style.

● Competition between Campbell (voice of colonial assembly) and William Brooker (supported governor), what ended governor’s licensing of press:

○ In 1917 the Massachusetts Bay Colony replaced Campbell with William Brooker as the postmaster but Campbell refused to give up the newsletter so Brooker created The Gazette was modeled after News-Letter and emphasized business news and featured copies from London newspapers

■ it had an even larger merchant circulation

○ So Two journalistic voices arose: Campbell and Brooker the voice of the governor

■ (Note: the voices are close in contents but there is extreme hostility between the editors - Brooker tried to bar Campbell from using the mail service and Campbell newsletter warned potential Gazette readers “I pity the reader for the new paper” it is not readable

○ This first newspaper competition is based on Brokers immediacy of news versus Campbell’s thread of occurrences (sequential news - must read all the news in order to understand the whole story, in this way the news tends to always be stale).

○ Brooker was the “ opponent of stale news”

○ The competition ends and 1721 Brooker is replaced by Phillip Musgrave and contentions between governor and assembly lead to end of Governor’s licensing of the press, but the governor just punishments instead

○ Note: neither paper had been exclusively a tool for one political stance printing info from contending sides

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● Newspaper content (based on readership demographics; residents’ lifestyle requirements; governmental info)

○ Editor's had to constantly worry about not offending the authorities. ○ Colonial info

○ foreign news

○ correspondence sent in by readers

○ Local individuals who dropped by The Print Shop to talk

Primary areas of media development: New York, Boston, Philadelphia ● Why these 3 specific early sites: huge populations and newspaper growth follows population growth; on trade routes; large #s of wealthy and educated white men ● why printing hub shifted from Boston to Philadelphia

○ population/commercial change: ​was because Philadelphia prospered as a media center after a shift in population in commercial importance

○ Doolittle press: ​the first American made printing press watchmaker Isaac Doolittle made the first Press on Us soil and built the mahogany press (verry expensive).

○ Ramage’s printing press: ​first durable and cheaper printing press. it came in three sizes: full size, mid sized screw press and table top foolscap press. ○ Immigration: ​it was a major immigration destination for German and Irish immigrants because there was the first language newspaper there by Ben Franklin.

● Printers’ status: Keeps changing as B Franklin prints boldly within the rules = colonial journalism

● changes in purpose [business (use of women, gov’t printing, equip. from England, outside printing jobs)

○ Few women printers were in the colonies before 1775

○ No official apprenticeships

○ All equipment and supplies for from England

○ Printer solicited additional income and capitalized on London's book publishing industry

○ newspaper ads for some books and books sales

○ State money contracts local news contracts

○ advertising (readers’ local connection, revenue, placement, graphics)] ■ advertising became entertaining and profitable had a connection to daily life and government use for legal notices and debt notices and

used Graphics to attract attention

■ Ads sold better next to controversial essays.

■ Increased ad costs and ad revenue

● professional vs. familial ties (family dynasties who took over the presses when the main guy died)

● Reasons for expansion: population growth, literate elite, commercial port

JOU 4004 Test I

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Franklin brothers ​James – beginning of newspaper content changes

● first controversial newspaper (New England Courant),

○ included editorials, wit, humor

○ opponents/controversial topics: controversial pamphlets and essays. Doesn't care about consequences, he wanted to make a point. It's a personal agenda. ■ Was not governmentally supported

■ Changes the face of news content with stories of crime and sex.

■ It established a paper as an organ of independent opinion

■ Noted ineffectiveness of inoffensive newspapers because they did no good.

■ He therefore starts the newspaper crusade. The newspaper needs a voice. He claimed impartiality, but it was really just his free expression. ■ Contributors: called Couranteers aka Hell-Fire Club​ because they were going to burn in hell. This pissed off a lot of people.

■ Attacked the Puritan Clergy, the Mather family - he hired John

Checkley as a religious writer in order to criticize the Mather's support of smallpox inoculations.

● Provided first known opportunity for women to be involved in printing newspaper ○ Widow Anne Franklin ran printing shop with daughter and sons James Jr. after J. Frank dies., until son-in-law Samuel Hall took over

○ Ben Franklin sends Anne 500 copies of Poor Richard for free to raise money ○ James Jr. apprenticed with Ben before beginning Newport Mercury (lasted to 20th century)

● Relationship with brother and how that affected newspaper content ○ initiated journalism crusade & provoked debate Ben – use of Silence Do-Good & other pseudonyms

● Competition/relationship with Samuel Keimer (Pennsylvania Gazette); and Andrew Bradford (The American Magazine vs. General Magazine)

● 1st magazine ad & 1st editorial cartoon

○ "The Busy-Body Papers" (32 editorials) on manners, morality, philosophy, character, scandal. To punish Keimer for stealing Franklin's idea was to make him lose his paper.

○ American Weekly Mercury: first newspaper in Pennsylvania by Bradford ○ Pennsylvania Gazette: most successful paper in all of the colonies.

○ newspaper innovations: neutrality to make money from everyone

○ advertising placement: published 1st mag ad "Franklin stove." ads near pop stories

● 1st foreign-language paper: Franklin creates first lending library and 1st foreign language (German) Philedelphia Zeitung, fails after 2 months w/50 subscribers. It will eventually dominate that niche (w/international news)

● sponsorships of others, paper mills

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○ sponsored South Carolina Gazette with Tomas Whitmarsh, then Louis & Elizabeth Timothy.

○ With william Parks started Va.'s 1st paper mill in Williamsburg. (made from cotton/fabric, it's imported = lets make it from trees instead).

● journalism respectability

● use of decorative illustrations: early printing didn't allow for elaborate design embellishments, so B Franklin was the most imaginative in using decorative devices, particularly ads.

● purpose of Poor Richard’s Almanack: for the common man.

○ Idea came from British paper.

○ 2nd to Gazette in profitability.

○ 3 different version tailored to New England, Middle Colonies, and South. Sold 10K copies/year.

○ Intended for the lower classes. It is hard for any empty sack to stand upright.

Sedition trials of William Bradford I (1692) and John Peter Zenger (NY Journal, 1734) Bradford: George Keith’s Christian Quakerism:

● Bradford promotes Keith’s Christian quakerism for 40 pounds per year (a series of pamphlets)

● he was then libeled by the Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania and he printed that the name of the governor Thomas Lloyd would stink and he accused Ministers of monopolizing their magisterial power as elitists and dictators

● Keith, Bradford, and three others were arrested for libelous information and this was from the circulation of 2 copies of pamphlets

Bradford defense:

● In his defense Bradford challenged two long-standing precedents:

○ The judge must find 1 libel is seditious and 2 that he printed it and it was the jury's job to do this.

○ He was the first person to make this contention

Trial outcome:

● The jury was deadlocked on the first trial: there was no name or place of publication on the pamphlet that they found in his office so while waiting the second trial New York Governor needed an official press 4 state so Bradford was released for duty with state government

● The charges were dropped and Bradford was released by the new government. ● The jury failed to convict by the second trial but he had to leave New York anyway and he went on to start the New York Gazette in 1725.

Precedents established in Bradford trial: This established the consideration that jury to decide for seditious behavior this would not be challenged again until 40 years later in the Zenger trial

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Zenger: Cosby, Van Dam, application of sedition laws, arrest, defense strategy, outcome of trial

Zenger: Changed the way the colonists viewed the truth

● New Governor William Crosby replaced Rip Van Dam, the acting governor of the time. ○ Crosby Sued Van Dam and changed the Supreme Court to Court of Equity with 3 appointed justices and no jury

○ the populist party opposed Crosby so there was no arbitrary power for government officials

○ Led by James Alexander attorney

○ 1733 he was ask to publish a newspaper that supported the populist party - Morris's version and what is happening under Cosby (Bradford's Gazette supported cosby):

● Bradley stipulated guilty based on libel law. He turned to the Jury and confessed to Zenger's crime: empowering the Jury to make a decision here. "We are confessing because everyone knows it's true." Encouraging Jury to resist (inspired opposition to colonial authority) Est. contrary idea: that people have the right to criticize political leaders. Encouraged a revolutionary spirit.

● Justices ruled favorable 2-1; dissenting justice, Chief Justice Lewis Morris, printed his opinion against Cosby in NY weekly Journal.

● Cosby removed Morris and replaced with James DeLancy, approving Justice Theories of Zenger’s participation in criticism of Cosby; “letters from prison” & public support garnered

● Three theories about who wrote and published:

○ Zenger himself wrote and published

○ James Alexander published as a scapegoat

○ Anna his wife wrote and published Justice: paper contin to be printed by wife anna. also "letter's from prison" generated support.

precedents established:

● Court rules not guilty. Put hamilton on their shoulders to go to the bar. Zinger goes back to Jail, to be quietly let go later.

● paper must tell the truth

● MORAL precedents, not legal yet

● Jury can decide guilt/innocence

● truth can be used as a defense, also can be intent.

Economic/Political Resistance

Economic restrictions:

● Impact on press circulation/operation because of 1758 postal system changes (no free transport of papers): Taxation without Colonial representation starts with the Press.

○ change is made under Ben Franklin as Joint Postmaster General of the crown along with William Hunter of Virginia: they make it profitable for Britain by

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standardizing the postal status of newspapers and by stipulating specified rates for delivery between cities it generated revenue for the government and Shrink circulation areas

● Proclamation of 1763:

● Significance of Stamp Act of 1765

○ Advertisements taxed 2 shillings and all printed material must be printed on stamped paper.

○ Alternatives for publishers: 1) pay stamps (traitor who bows down to british authority 2) not pay it = Jail 3) stop printing = beat up traitor

● Tea Act of 1773

○ Designed to win over colonial tea consumers by driving down prices. East India Company granted trade monopoly; given a tax break. Without middlemen, could sell at lower prices, no new tea tax in colonies only at source. This is seen as Parliament's attempt to trick colonies into accepting its authority to tax colonists.

○ British retaliation Intolerable acts: British Retaliation in conjunction with the patriotic media rallies the colonists with, not the tea parties themselves ● 3 factions of pre-revolutionary editors (Rivington, Dickinson, Adams) and their responses to taxation led to political resistance. 

○ Rivington’s Loyalists

○ Dickinson’s conservative moderates

○ Adams patriots

● Persuasive journalism and Samuel Adams’ propaganda campaign: 25 pen names; how did this provide an advantage to Patriot faction over other 2 factions ○ Created an illusion of a huge following

○ Smear campaigns

● purpose of campaign: Persuasive Propaganda

● 5 press content objectives for patriot supporters

○ a) justify the course advocated - revolution.

○ b) Advertise advantages of victory, nothing of defeat.

○ c) arouse emotions, inclu hatred of political enemies.

○ d) Neutralize logical opp arguments, even if by harassment. ○ e) Simplify issues for the common man. (FAST AND LOOSE WITH THE TRUTH)

● Significance of Benjamin Edes/John Gill and the Boston Gazette in the pre-Revolutionary War period Edes' role in Boston Tea Party (emphasized press’ participatory role)

○ Are members of Loyall Nine and Sons of Liberty

○ They also published boycotts/petitions from John Dickinson's "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" (1767-68)(to persuade people on either side of the Atlantic of the economic folly and the unconstitutionality of ignoring the rights of Englishmen living in the colonies, aimed at Whig businessmen, not pro-revolt)

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● coverage of Boston Massacre and trial:

○ John Adams as prosecutor

○ Great claim to fame in Gazette (Edes and Gill).

○ Adams (Grand Incendiary of Province and Vindex the Avenger)helps publish A short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre in Boston, 90 anti British eyewitness accounts to refute charges that Bostonians were the aggressors and to build up public pressure against the Br military.

○ Paul Revere’s Engravings/Poems: letters to Gazette defended C Attucks for supposed attacks with club, demanded Revere's woodcuts of 5 coffins for Br Victims

■ Revere's poem was based on an artist Henry Pelham's on site

depiction revealed 3 weeks later

○ Boston Massacre: American's heckled, threw snowballs and then rocks at new soldiers and one shot an American. Preston's writings thanked officials for fair treatment and justice. Preston's letter in the London Chronicles complains that boston deliberately stirred contempt, sought execution

● battle with John Mein (Boston Chronicle).

○ Criticism of John Mein and Boston Chronicle for pro-british stance. ○ The newspaper attacks Mein when he printed a London article that spoke out against The Golden Child Will Pitt, an American Wigg favorite.

○ Mein retaliated by attacking Edes and was fined 70 pounds

○ The mob’s reaction was that they attacked in the street and Mein shot an innocent bystander and leaves town.

○ The Gazette gains ground as a major newspaper

"​Journal of Occurrences" (1768-69):

● By an unknown author in diary form addressing the following issues: ○ Celebrated to repeal Stamp Act

○ Condemned Townshend Duties as intolerable

○ Accusations against British soldiers

■ Claimed British officers and soldiers were whipped or executed for desertion by blacks

■ Claimed British soldiers mistreated boston citizens

● significance in using emotion to promote rebellion

○ Appeared (whole or in part) in at least 14 newspapers and periodical (Claimed that soldiers raped an old woman: they’re building a divide amongst journalists and citizens: philosophy of the free press that grows out of this divide​)

Pre-Revolutionary War Press: A Press Divided​: philosophy of a free press grew out of the media’s attempts to define a relationship between England and the colonies

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● Patriots

○ Advocated for press to present only one side of a story to create unity. ○ Promoted freedom from Britain and the need for self-governance, even if innocent people were hurt (at all costs)

○ Informed the people that their rights were in jeopardy.

○ Attempted to unite colonists through fear of the Intolerable (or Coercive) Acts ○ Concerted effort to resist

● Loyalists

○ Advocation of an impartial press (presents both sides out of self-defense: closer to what franklin was doing: closer to good reporting)

○ Promoted obedience - gradual freedom through Britain and its constitution ○ Inform citizens that submission to authority was for the public good. ○ Called for liberty in thought and expression (but radical expression was dangerous) under the protection of British rule.

Boston TP emphasized participatory role of press in pushing against British government.

Significance of British response to revolutionary spirit:

● How Br. retaliation rallied the colonists: Confirmed colonials’ worst fears of British denial of constitutional liberties

● Restrictive reaction to Coercive Acts (Intolerable) 1774:

○ Boston Port Act: ​closed Boston Port until colonists paid for tea, which was almost 10,000 pounds.

■ American response:

● America supports boston from Nova Scotia to boston


● Sets up committee of correspondence​: provides info in and

around boston, they were journalists but they later become

spies in revolutionary war

● “Suffer in the common cause.”

● Formulates a plan of resistance known as Solemn League​ and

Covenant, to boycott British goods.

○ Massachusetts Government Act: ​Restricted town meetings to one per year = no time to revolt

○ Administration of Justice Act: ​Allowed royal governor to transfer British officials to England for trial for offenses committed in the line of duty (with little likelihood of conviction).

○ Second Quartering Act​: Authorized army to requisition uninhabited private buildings to quarter troops wherever needed

■ Uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns, or other buildings

■ Buildings had to be relinquished within 24 hours.

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○ Quebec Act 1774:​ greater rights to French inhabitants. Formed an ally against colonies.

■ Est. French civil law; british law to be used only in criminal cases

■ Extended Quebec boundaries to Ohio and Mississippi rivers

■ Est. a new govt with no elective assembly and recognized catholicism. ■ American colonists saw this as further attempt to deny rights

■ Won admiration of Quebec religious leaders and the goodwill of

Canadian subjects.

● newspapers’/colonists’ reaction to isolation of Massachusetts

○ Few advocated independence, but unified to defend against colony’s destruction

■ From london, Franklin writes “act to enforce obedience in the

american colonies” satire, writes about different policies that

britain makes, talks about how britain is worried.

○ Forced to consider consequences of being part of the British empire ■ Sept 1774, representatives from 12 colonies gather ​in philly to discuss how they can resist without revolt

● Continental congress appeal to king george III for redress from

1774-75 they waited for a response to repeal the acts

○ By the war’s beginning, most americans shared common political ideologies

■ Colonists personally knew the journalists and believed all written words as truth: Interconnectedness between them and the community

Publishing obstacles during Revolutionary War:

● Shortage of supplies/labor: America is fighting the mouth that feeds them ○ Effects: Paper and ink shortage:

○ Solutions:

■ trying to make new paper but settle for substitutes

■ pleas and drives to save and donate rags

■ Washington smuggling​: secret importation of paper from Europe for military use

■ Ink/paper substitutes: shoe polish (boot black), soot

■ Changed printing formats: increased paper prices b/c of scarcity of rags, change in ad prices and revenue, paper size was smaller and they useless of it. Now less and less people can afford it (elite and merchant classes- general population will have to rely on word of mouth and


○ Continental Congress: offers of money to start paper mills in Maryland and the Carolinas,

● Access to news/transmission of news (limitations

○ Militia system limited skilled printing press operators.

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■ Almost half of continental army were militia men.

■ Many relied on continental congress, governors and state

legislatures for financial support and for information

● Secret meetings of Continental congress revealed only to select

printers (if you weren’t one of those, you were lifting information

from other papers)

○ Irregular arrival of official messages, no breaking news really (broadsides posted in and around the city), postal riders, travelled to outdated info ○ Inaccurate reports because the news was based on word of mouth and rumors. + each publisher wanted to be the first so they often didn’t check their sources

○ Attacks on opposing newspapers hindered exchanges

● Military censorship

○ Restricted access to colonial legislatures’ edited releases

○ You can only publish positive info about continental congress (you need their support!)

○ No liaison for official info about the war, so you’re guessing about which version of the info is the truth

● Working conditions

○ Shortage of labor- someone to actually run it

○ Periodic attacks on patriots by loyalist opposition (within and around your community)

○ James Rivington - leader of the loyalists,

○ Raids by br. Soldiers - first thing soldiers do is destroy the newspaper ● Mortality rate of papers. (beginning of war about 70 newspapers, 35 survive by end of war in 1783)

○ Some change throughout the war

○ Businesses cut advertising for lack of trade goods bc no money

○ Deprived of income from imports/books from england

○ Less subscriber income, less paid-circulation readers

■ Fewer newspapers

■ Revolutionary press considered most well read press because of pass arounds - more people were reading without paying

■ Total circulation was about 40,000 on the books, off the books nobody knows

Patriots use of propaganda during war:

● Patriot cause was weakest in South because of Br. occupation of south carolina.

● North had Committees of Correspondence to report on Br. activities ○ Forced to maintain loyalties to rebel throughout war, to stay safe they: ■ Moved printing presses around the north to avoid troops

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■ Shutdown papers until end of conflict

■ Became publishing chameleons​ by changing sides depending on which troops were coming in.

● Accounts were designed to stir up the anger of colonials ​and generate disgust towards the british. Examples:

○ Freedom Journal in Philly accused Br of desecrating graves.

○ Death of minister’s wife during connecticut fighting was in the news for a long time:

■ First news story (she was shot in her house)

■ 2nd (shot in the house with her children)

■ 3rd (shot in her house while breastfeeding her baby)

● Isaiah Thomas and Massachusetts Spy

○ The most incendiary publication of the Revolution (the actual battle) ■ Prior to war, anonymous columnists spoke to colonists as

independents tied to the Br. only by a “voluntary” legal contract

■ British authorities tried and failed several times to shut down the paper. ■ Among the first to realize that revolt would become a shooting war, so he moved his printing press to worcester Mass shortly before battles at lexington/concord

● First on site war report: witnessed first shots at lexington.

(no one has written as passionately as he did in this in the

spy. He said that the Br. killed women, children, women in

childbirth, and old people).

○ Spy account appeared after others so it was not the first, Boston News-Letter printed first account on 4/20/1775

○ First colonial newspaper designed specifically for “middling” classes. (the avg soldier - volunteers).

■ Thomas became most important pulb. Of rev. War period

■ Preserved copies of his paper and war accounts, as well as of

exchange papers. This is how becomes the first media historian. =

American antiquarian society.

■ Responsible for keeping the revolutionary spirit alive for years to come

Publishing pamphlets

● Reasons for publishing:

○ Sought outlets to publish for profit as “purveyors of public opinion” ■ Key method of propagandistic writing, generates support for warring factions (note: this is where the editorial originates)

○ Provides primary outlet for editorial commentary

○ Easy access to information: often reprinted in entirety in newspapers (some just fill their papers with pamphlets or some newspapers actually just printed in pamphlet form, easy to transport and share)

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○ Pamphlets became a critical medium for public discourse

● "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine (first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain) - new rhetoric for revolution (replaced letters from a penn farmer) ○ 1776, robert bell is printer - bell used neutrality for profit. (collects rebuttals from loyalists - mostly upper classes - and creates Large Additions to Common Sense)

○ Predicts separation of America and britain and directly attacked king and british gov’t. (set a standard)

○ Written for common people like Isiah Thomas’ newspaper

○ Established a plan for a gov’t system and appealed to colonists to serve as role models of freedom throughout the world. “When we win”

■ Bold words and bold approaches

○ Reached hundreds of thousands

● "Large Additions to Common Sense" by Robert Bell (rebuttals)

○ When the 25th edition of Common Sense came out, Bell and later Thomas and William Bradford printed an unauthorized second edition.

● Paine provided additional battle cry with “The American Crisis”​ (response to ’76 defeat in NY and looting NJ)

○ Series of pamphlets that bolstered the lagging patriot support after defeat in NY and looting in NJ.

Post-Revolutionary War: By 1790s, 91 papers with 50000 circulation (only 8 dailies) 1800 234 papers and 24 dailies, 140000 circulation more than 5 M copies that year ● Creation of first North American dailies, as semi-weeklies, tri-weeklies & weeklies ● lower postal rates [Postal Act of 1792/1794 (free mailing of newspapers between editors; cheaper rates to mail papers to other states; mail of magazines & pamphlets)];

○ Small town newspapers had more subscribers in outlying communities ○ Subscription rates explode: 2704$ per year in our money, for a daily 75,920$ ■ Avg weekly income in cities: 5$ per week

● Subscriber list: bus and mercantile classes

● Editors are poor, traded papers for food and other goods.

● Higher advertising rates

○ Advertising growth - inclusion of ads increases

■ Rates increased to recoup losses

■ Percentage of ads increased

● Go from revolutionary spirit to everyone conforming

● Contents: small amounts of pol foreign and national news, columns of advertising; letters/ essays from local contributors; political arguments taken from other publications; editorials by editor or contributor

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● Isiah Thomas’ Royal American Magazine (boston 1774.1775) was the first to use illustration regularly, mainly by Paul Revere.

● Most successful magazine: Robert Aitken’s Pennsylvania Magazine est in philly jan 1775-1776

● Changes in readership demographics by 1790s

○ Increased numbers and variety - religious, women, children, partisan, literary -, served sophisticated readers

■ Readership: political and commercial elite

● Circulations: urban and rural; postal acts of 1792 and 1794

create official postal service, cheaper rates to mail papers and

other states, allowed mail of mags and pamphlets,

Magazine Development:

● Isaiah Thomas’ Royal American Magazine: (boston 1774.1775) was the first to use illustration regularly, mainly by Paul Revere.

○ Pushed polit ideology

○ Set standards for heavy use of illustrations, song lyrics/music, gen. Interest items.

○ 1st to use illustrations regularly (set content standard)

● Robert Aitken's Pennsylvania Magazine

○ Most successful: Circulation exceeded all prev mags

○ Thomas paine, editor

○ Monthly war reports, but no strong patriotic tone

○ Most original material, less reliance on Br. publication, writings by Ben Franklin and other founding fathers.

○ most others not profitable until after war);

● The Columbian Magazine (one of longest-running)

○ Published by 5 phillys in book/printing industry

○ Essays of entertainment and science without sacrificing decency and virtue. ​- theater and classic, music, art, bowling, cricket, croquet, horseback riding, sets the stage for #1 sport in first half of 19 century bicycling. Science: recent inventions, environment,

○ Reprinted works by george washington, ben franklin, and thomas jeff. ○ Included numerous fold-out illustrations and charts: become mainstays in women’s magazines - patterns to sew

■ Lasted almost 7 years, one of the longest-running mags of the


● Nathaniel Willis (1827), founded Youth’s Companion, Boston.

● Increased mag numbers (1783-1800) 71 new mags created and many targeted general readers / specialized audiences, more emphasis and rebuilding civilization (children and women the readers they cater to)

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Press’ 2 types of persuasive power:

1. ability to inform the public

2. Outright influence of journalists’ opinions: journalists are among their community

Partisan Press:

● why the beginning of first “Dark Period” of press development:

○ Newspapers became political and ideological instruments.

■ Journalists are biased and tools of the politicians: they’re in the hip pockets of the politicians

● Importance in development of politics & 2-party system

○ Partisanship: critical for financing and information access: Press provides forum to access public opinion. Press is viable.

■ Urban (partisan): financed by govt contracts, pol parties and


● Federalists: supported by strong national gov.t

○ Federalists: press as unfortunate political necessity.

Who was generating public opinion (elite) and what was

pub opinion

○ Gazette of the United States - John Fenno

○ Porcupine Gazette - William Cobbett

● Anti Federalists (republicans): supported state gov't and checks

on national govt

○ Antifederalists: press is an ally​ because it’s a way to

keep a public forum open to check the government.

Public opinion was generated by the “middling class”

○ National Gazette - Philip Freneau

○ Aurora - Benjamin Franklin Bache

■ Rural (non partisan): boosted new cities, local news

○ Purpose: regarded press as means of spreading pol doctrines and to build political cohesion and nationalism

● Significance of 1796 election and backlash for Adams: 1796 Election: first partisan election

○ One of the more scurrilous newspaper attacks: Newspapers provided a public forum for mudslinging and propaganda

○ Parties directly addressed voters, rallying supporters through posters, handbills, papers and mass rallies

■ T Jefferson’s Anti-fed supporters accused VP John Adams and

Federalists of desiring return to monarchy

● Federalists: Uclass; foundation for growing commercial

economy in NE - merchants, creditors and urban artisans

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● Identified themselves as friends of order, considered

Republicans as dangerous radicals bringing anarchy to america.

■ Adam’s supporters accused Jefferson and republicans of preying on the fears of the people for votes and on undermining rel and morality

● Democratic republicans: Jeffersonians / Antifeds segments of

upper and middle classes; famers; german and scots-irish; key

leaders were wealthy southern tobacco elites

● Viewed themselves as “friends to equal rights” considered

federalists to be aristocrats endeavoring to lay the foundations

of monarchical govt.

■ Fed Alexander Hamilton also distrusted Adams, but was unable to block Adam’s official bid, Hamilton wanted to elect Thomas pinckney

of SC the federalist VP

● Adams swept new england and mid states, jeff south, adams won by 3 votes, and jefferson became VP

● Adams made decisions without consulting other highly placed and influential federalists

○ Popular with middle class

○ No state/local political bias or designated press backing; his cabinet was more loyal to hamilton than it was to him.

○ Beginning of first dark period of media evolution

● Parties’ concepts of creation of public opinion and relationship to press: They had to decide whose opinion determines public opinion, nobody cared about the opinion of the masses because they had no money and could not vote

Key federalist papers

● John Fenno =first administration organ

○ Gazette of the US 1789-98

■ Founded in NYC; moved to philly in 90 (two largest cities)

■ Contributors: Alexander Hamilton (gazette becomes voice of Ham who is the secretary of treasury) and VP John adams

○ Audience: political and commercial elite

○ Circulation: sent to party leaders and printers in all states

○ Content: house debates; foreign news; federalists platform: for the purpose of disseminating favorable sentiments of the federalists constitution and the administration

○ 1798- Fenno died of yellow fever, John ward Fenno takes over, but dies of yellow fever in 1802

● William Cobbett: Porcupine’s Gazette

○ In philly

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○ British journalist and pamphleteer: strongly opposed to the republican's political philosophy but his views were so strongly pro-British that even the Federalists were reluctant to claim him. Best writer of that period.

■ Condemned Americans for printing falsehoods and inciting violence towards british, emphasized importance of good relations with England and preferred washington over jefferson Feared jeffersonians would

lean US people into violence against country’s leaders.

○ Began to attack all political factions and all american people​. Not smart because federalists are funding him

■ Attacks federalists: Hamilton

○ Left for England in 1800 to avoid deportation after charged with libel ■ Comes back several times

Key Republican (anti-fed) papers

● Philip Freneau: National Gazette, came from literary background

○ 1791-93 in philly

○ Hired by Madison and Jefferson to attacked hamilton’s financial plans and countered hamilton’s voice for jefferson

○ Criticised federal monarchy attitudes. ‘

■ Upheld Jefferson’s repub principles

■ Condemned Washington’s foreign policy

○ Viewed as Jefferson’s diatribe sheet

○ 1793- Hamilton’s accuses Jefferson of paying Freneau with gov’t funds. ■ Jefferson reigned as Sec. Of state

■ Paper suspended because of finances, yellow fever epidemic in philly. ○ Jefferson later praised Freneau for having “saved our Constitution which was galloping fast into monarchy.” from people like hamilton.

● Benjamin Franklin Bache “Lightning Rod Junior” (Ben Franklin’s grandson): General Advertiser and Aurora

○ Primarily jeff/repub paper.

○ Angered by Fed’s treatment of Ben Franklin

■ 1st repub to question president’s performances in 1796

● Said washington’s farewell was cause for celebration rather than

a reason for disappointment.

■ Often considered the first to formulate radical political opinion in US and to form the foundation for the democratic party.

○ Assaulted twice and received death threats

■ Accused of being a french agent; charged with treason after printing letter he accused feds of hiding to avoid negotiating with french.

■ Charged with seditious libel in 1798 (same year as yellow fever), never punished because he dies of yellow fever.

○ Wife Margaret and Partner William Duane publish until 1822

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■ Duane picks up where Bache left off and is the most prosecuted under alien and sedition acts in this period.

Press changes after 1800 begun by these papers:

● National Intelligencer (Samuel Harrison Smith) (executive branch of gov’t ○ Served as a national anti-federalist representative and as a spokesman for the executive branch of government

○ Joseph Gales, Jr., hired as stenographic reporter to provide verbatim debates in congress ​and exchanged with newspapers throughout the nation ○ William Seaton offered analysis of Senate and House debates

● NY Evening Post (Alexander Hamilton)

○ William Coleman as correspondent: acclaimed public speaker and best educated journalist of the period, as correspondent/editor for commentary. One step further than smith and gales

○ Re-used type to produce more news & commentary for weekly, Herald, for out-of-town subscribers

Alien/Sedition Act

● General concept of 1798 Naturalization Act and Enemy Alien Act was to control Republican opposition by limiting allies passed by the Federalists.

○ 14 years of residency to vote

● Sedition Act of 1799 (most controversial)

○ Provisions: illegal to conspire to oppose the government:

■ Could not incite violence against govt or criticism

■ Fined of up to 5000 dollars or 5 years of imprisonment.

■ Could not write print utter or publish anything false or malicious about press, govt congress or incite hatred toward them

○ Outcome of key cases

■ Republican’s response to Va/Ky resolutions: an issued statement

answering the Alien and Sedition Acts in the form of the Virginia and

Kentucky resolves

● Rights of state gov’ts to nullify unfair Federalist prosecutions

● James madison and Jefferson felt that sedition Laws Violate 1st

Amendment rights

● Stressed the importance of communication in a free societ

● Madison drew up Va Res / Jefferson wrote Ken Res

● Jefferson pronounced the acts unconstitutional

● Deemed acts a threat to the power of the state

■ Benj Bache ​- name calling accused washington of nepotism; wasting public funds, needless seeking war with Fr. coveting a monarchy

■ Matthew Lyon​ (vt, the scourge of aristocracy and repository of

important political truth) spitting on Fed congressman (Roger Griswold)

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■ Charles Holt​ (Conn’s New London Bee Editor) 6 months/2hundred dollars for being “a wicked, malicious, seditious and ill disposed person” and criticising hamilton.

■ James T Callender - Aurora reporter and republican richmond examiner editor, period’s most notorious scandalmonger, using appeal of scandal, sensation and suspicion of the powerful.

● Supposedly supported professionally and financially by Jefferson to attack Feds

● Exposed Treasury Secretary Hamilton’s adulterous affair with a married woman (Hamilton confessed)

● Also charged him with attempted bribery of husband for his silence using insider secrets/treasury funds

● Accused Adams of being “mentally deranged” and a “hideous hermaphroditical character”; planning to crown himself king. ● Sentenced to 9 months and 200 fine for writing an anti-fed pamphlet: the prospect before us.

■ Luther Baldwin: ​fined 150 for presidential commentary: drunk in a bar one night and washington was leaving the city and he said “idc if they fire cannons up his ass”

■ David Brown: most severe out of everybody. 18 months and $450 for a liberty pole wishing the president a speedy retirement. ■ William Duane:​ arrested twice under common law: Bache’s partner. Twice under sedition act; nearly indicted under the Alien act - most arrested journalist under provisions of Alien/Sedition Acts ■ The trial of Harry Croswell

1. 1803 NY gov Clinton had wasp editor Harry Croswell indicted for seditious libel for accusing VP jefferson of paying a journalist to attack opponents

a. In lower court, croswell not allowed to subpoena the journalist to prove the truth

b. Chief justice instructed jury only to determine if croswell had indeed printed the libel

2. Represented by A Hamilton in appeal

a. Hamilton raised two important questions

i. Could truth be given to justice

ii. You could prove your intent.

iii. Jury can decide (Judges were Federalists; judges

selected juries.)

3. Competing arguments: hamilton: nothing could be considered libelous without considering the circumstances and whether publishing truth was from good motives. Attorney General Ambrose Spencer: libel isn’t punishable because it is false but because it is evil

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4. Court heavily divided on granting croswell a new trial

a. Prosecutor doesn’t move for judgement

b. Croswell not convicted

5. NY constitution later incorporates hamilton's points

a. Truth as evidence of proof of intent

b. Jury has right to determine the law.

● End of sedition Laws

○ Jefferson elected as president in 1800, law expired and he lets it.

■ Pardoned all convicted

■ Ended only federal laws; maintained state laws.

■ Jefferson believed only in protecting press from federal


■ Created a new definition of free speech/press: the rights of

Americans to think freely and to speak and write what they think,

but does not think the press should have unfettered rights.

● Political cartoons focus more on problems within colonies.

Political journalism creates itself out of this

● First pres cartoons appeared: ​Few critical of washington and

adams, Jefferson bore brunt of early neg presidential

political cartoons: drunkenness; friends with Devil, trying to

topple est govt, James Akin’s prairie dog, philosphic cock

3 major events affecting press freedom: what it means to have free speech, shaping what the restrictions were

1. Zenger trial

2. Adoption of 1st amendment

3. Federalist passage of alien/sedition acts

Decline of Party Press

War of 1812: Reps (supported war) vs. Feds (against war with Br.) over U.S. role in war reinforced purpose that papers played a strong pol role in determining direction of the country

● Most noteworthy political skirmish: anti-war stance. Baltimore Riot ○ Fed newspaper: Federal Republican in baltimore

■ 1812 press/supplies destroyed and building burned because they kept pushing for resistance

■ Reopened protected by General Light Horse Harry Lee

■ July 27 editorial claimed high ranking repub incited mobs

■ Mob attacked the house and one killed, several wounded, increased to 1500 people; later stopped by law before could use cannon on house.

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● Journalists surrendered to law and taken to jail for safety; mob

attacked jail and killed one federalist and maiming several other

for life.

○ No standard methods of coverage: News more domestic than foreign from official private letters, mainly eyewitness accounts. Relied heavily on major newspapers near battles

○ News was often late.

○ James Bradford, La editor/printer became 1st war correspondent​; enlisted in Jackson’s N.O. army: what goes on in a war. First time people see it.

■ Jackson demanded bradford clear all reports with him prior to publishing

■ Bradford refused; jackson jailed him. Bradford cleared by military judge

■ Jackson tried to court-martial the judge, but war ended.

Era of Good Feeling:

● As early as 1808, press noted decline of Federalist power and influence ○ Backlash from opposition to War of 1812

○ Change in Republican outlook in support of strong national government. ○ Editors expressed hope that partisanship would end

■ Politicians and editors took sides based on personalities or sectional issues

■ Political warfare became personal attacks on opponents.

○ Development of two new political parties. Losing the federalists:

■ Repub. Divided into:

● Wigs (conservative REpublicans and old-line federalists)

appealed to middle class.

● Jacksonian democrats: appealing to growing masses who could

vote. Also lower middle class who likes self made men

Age of Jackson (1824-1833):

Jacksonian Press Network:​ (Jacksonian-Demo press network vs. Whig press network); United States Telegraph and Washington Central Committee; Albany Argus, Edwin Croswell and “Albany Regency.”

● 1825 election of John Q Adams by the house of republicans produced a storm of protest from Jackson’s press supporters

● Jacksonian supporters filed papers with charges of corruption and personal attacks:1828 Election: personal attacks against Jackson: much of it true ○ Rachel Jackson was not formally divorced from first husband, bringing Jackson’s morals into question

○ Name Calling: military chieftain, ignorant and ferocious slavedealer ○ Jackson vowed to maintain influential editors’ support.

■ It worked

● Jackson’s Big Three: three of the largest papers in the area, shaped his identity ○ Argus of Western America in Frankfort, KY: Most influential

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■ Amos Kendall: ​organized Jackson’s platform into a viable campaign and developed his image as “farmer soldier.

○ US telegraph in washington

■ Duff Green:​ developed paper to prevent “theft of presidency” from Jackson again; served as Dem Party promoter; defected to VP John C. Calhoun

○ Washington Globe

■ Francis P. Blair: became national voice for Jackson’s programs; along with Kendall, served as personal adviser and helped shape official


■ Power of the party starts to dwindle.

■ Developed a network of newspapers: Jacksonian Press Network:

Fewer Demo papers than whig papers, but demo papers were more organized and coordinated with party mission

● Demos tied leading papers to state party organizations

● Demo papers integrated into party structure and used as mouthpieces of state parties ● Whigs remained largely independent

Whig Press Network: 

● Maintained majority of newspapers #s: network stretched through all states and every sizable town with large wig supporters

● Three major Papers: to oppose Jackson/demo network

○ Sam Bowle​’s Springfield in Mass Republican

■ Known for quality editorials

■ Considered best small-town paper in 19th century

○ James Watson Webb’​s NY courier and Enquirer aimed at mercantile class: ■ First to suggest wig as party name

○ Thurlow Weed’s ​ Albany Evening Journal: national spokesman for whig views ■ With William Seward with NY tribune. Editor Horace Greeley controlled NY politics and national Whig strategy

Journalistic changes, 1800-1833:

● Growth and geographical expansion

● Growth in types of papers: dailies

● Better production methods and increased circulation ​through higher literacy rates ● Better content: editorials on specific issues and separate from news items ● First recognizable correspondents​: beginnings of bilines.

● Emphasis on national news and politics over Euro news

● More topics​: literature, agriculture, religions, essays, briefs, local non-political news. ○ Special sections for women, children (they can read and they are the future of american society- cooking and first aid, parables and knowledgeable things and riddles to stimulate thought)

● Developed into specialized mags: 1816- 1st Religious paper: the Christian Recorder. 1827 Public Nathaniel Willis becomes editor of juvenile mags​ with Youth’s Companion, Boston

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Characteristics of press development, 1690-1840:

● Pre revolutionary war: financing, sponsorship and donations.

○ Price varied (mail vs postings/readings).

○ Distribution: postings, mailed to elite.

○ Working conditions/technology : few printing presses and limited access and supplies.

○ Staff size 1-3 (usually family or apprentices). Readership is white literate males.

○ Contents-:gov’t documents, sermons, traveler’s accounts, foreign news and little local news

● Post war 1820: Financing - party affiliation, some advertising

○ Price jump 4-8$

○ Distribution centralized drops, postings, mail service

○ Working conditions and technology: more private pritning presses and American-made; direct access to gov’t news; exchanges with other

newspapers; correspondents

○ Staff size: 4-5 employees added

○ Readership: party members, elite, po

● Press evolution

○ Early colonial press: period of discovery

○ Revolutionary press: early participatory journalism

○ Partisan PRess: evolution of political activism

○ Diversified Press: varied audiences, multiple purposes

■ Penny press: commercialism of the written word

■ Frontier Press: developing American identity

■ Abolitionist Press: advocacy journalism, public forum

■ Ethnic/women’s press: specialized

● Three Primary Presses of 1800s in Antebellum period:

○ 2-pronged goal of early 19th century press

■ To gain freedom from outside influences: the first major issue of press freedom that the US had faced since the Rev war

■ A struggle to maintain traditional civil rights and liberties such as free speech and fair trial.

○ To address increasing threat of internal war over slavery

○ 3 divergent presses:

■ Mainstream Press: penny press/frontier press

● Commercialization of industry:

○ Emphasis on appeal to mass audience, cheaper papers

○ Entertainment element

● Followed westward expansion:

○ Expanded to meet the demands of increasing

populations in urban areas

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○ Followed population shifts westward

● Survival depended on growth/prosperity of subscribers and


● Provided opportunities for various specialized newspapers

in Frontier Press.

○ As society changes, press changes.

● Penny Press is completely different:​ financed by advertising

(1830s-60s). Price 1 cent to 6-8 cents. Distribution: hawkers

(extra extra read all about it) and more drop areas. Working

conditions and technology: greatly improved and printing much

more efficient; increased availability of supplies: ink and wood

pulp paper. Staff size- 10 or more, plus correspondents and

stringers. Injuries becoming common. Readership is the

masses huge circulations. Contents: sensational (crimes,

scandal etc) daily news, science, departmentalized news.

■ Abolitionist Press: issue-based press

■ Ethnic/Women’s press: based on reader commonalities


○ Factors of Communications Revolution

1. The reading public: greater literacy, more variety in publication types 2. Communication systems have changed tremendously: working postal system and carrier pigeon Corps - if you take a homing pigeon to where it actually lived and it would fly home.

a. Magnetic telegraph in 1844: growth of small-town dailies

3. Transportation improvements:

a. Pony express service on main travel routes

b. Railroad service is growing

i. Information access/distribution

ii. Special locomotives.

iii. Has its drawbacks

c. Steamships: foreign news much faster.

4. Production improvements:

a. Steam press/automatic printing

i. Cylinder press

ii. Type revolving press

iii. Doubled speed possible from Stanhope Press

b. Perfection of paper-making with wood pulp

5. Results of Improvements

a. Increase in timely stories and more frequent papers

b. Increase in on site reporting: fewer clipped items.

End of Partisanship:

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● Decline of administrative newspaper- peaked with Jackson

○ “Preferred newspaper” used by president to publicize official news ■ “Executive patronage” meant govt printing contracts and other

lucrative awards

■ Though independent, maintained “official paper” status

● National Intelligencer​, first 2 decades of 19th century

○ In return Intelligencer editors held treatment of news to a high standard ○ Used by other papers as source of government announcements and news from capital

○ Created wider public reach for president and party leaders. ■ Administrative newspapers began to lose influence after Jackson’s administration because

● Fights over distribution of Congressional contracts : printing

contracts diminish

● More newspapers used own Wash. Correspondents

● Deep party rifts caused by issues of slavery and

sectionalism made it impossible for the administrative

newspapers to please both sides in internal party conflicts

○ Partisanship becomes a personal decision for editors

○ Emphasis on political spin of parties at state level

● Advent of the penny press: ​Better production methods and increased circulation because of higher populations and literacy rates

○ Editors professed independent from political parties because they could not depend on parties’ constant support.

○ Less political press provided opportunities to redefine concept of news. ■ Diversification of overall press: Opportunity to address key

nonpolitical/internal issues

● Sensationalistic James Gordon Bennett and the NY HErald (most controversial in 1835)

○ Detailed accounts of crime scenes

○ Herald rose to prominence due in part to coverage of April 1836 murder of prostitute Helen Jewett and subseq. Trial of clear/lover Richard Robinson aka Frank Rivers

■ Murder occurred

■ Jewett murder and robinson trial created pattern for how

■ Much info was fabricated

● Herald (upperclass): Robinson as innocent victim set up by

police and brothel madam, Rosina Townsend. ​.

● Body set on fire after she was hatched with a hatchet.

● Sun (working class): Robinson as known murderer who had killed other lower-class women.

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● Herald Published:

○ Lurid descriptions of murder scene (her room in her

upscale brother; 3 wounds to head.

○ Beautiful body descriptions (builds on the erotisism of murder)

■ Similar coverage tactics: six crime pamphlets publ in the months following the murder: why Jewett became a prostitute

● Various local lithographs of Jewett and Robinson by local artists, depicting: Jewett on bed in various states of undress, Roninson fleeing her room, holding hatchet.

■ Exclusive stories about Jewett and Robinson:

● Jewett jealous of Robinson’s engagement

● Robinson embezzled money; afraid Jewett would tell

■ June 2, 1836: robinson tried for murder and 6,000 people attend. ● 5 day drama of helen’s supporters vs Richard’s supporters. ● All evidence pointed to Robinson

○ Hatchet and cloak tied to him

○ Identified as her only client that night

○ Whitewashed stains from fence on pants

○ Roommate refuted alibi.

● Robinson acquitted after half hour deliberation

○ Prosecution witnesses were prostitutes

○ Defense team bribed manhattan grocer for alibi

○ Left ny for west; died not long after

● Penny Press profits from Jewett case.

○ Sex, crime, scandal become prime topics for

front-page news coverage.

○ Herald circulation and news volume grew so dramatically that: presses broke down after 1st week after murder,

forced to move to larger quarters before trial start

○ Competitors mimic Bennett’s news practices; created standard crime-coverage procedures

○ Decades later, stories continued to appear in the papers. ● First interview comes ou

■ Moral War of 1840: battle between the church and the press ● Church wants to hit bennett where it hurts

● Bennett compromises: I’ll tone it down, stop using offensive language (no more talk of beautiful bodies/legs/limbs or

undergarments) and uses paper to send best reporters to cover Church events

○ Blamed by historians for introducing newspaper

competition: competition with Greeley (battle carrier

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pigeon corps), caused emphasis on speed, accuracy,

and facts.

○ Implemented sports, business, and women’s news

○ Invented the interview ​1836: madame Rosina

Townsend was first direct interview in US journalism,

appearing in Bennett’s paper, as part of the

Jewett/Robinson scandal.

○ First use of foreign Correspondent and Washington

beat correspondent:

■ Robert sutton (polished reports to suit


■ Bennett built up a staff of foreign correspondents

to compete with the commercial press. - what’s

going on in Europe and how it will benefit

American businesses.

○ Horace Greeley and NY Tribune (most moralistic, non sensationalistic) 1841 ■ Devoted space to politics, soc reform, literary and intellectual endeavors and news

■ More throough coverage of pol/ec issues

● Nonpartisan focus

● Adhered to Whig principles, although ran as 1872 anti-grant liberal Republican and Democratic presidential candidate

■ By eye of Civil War, Tribune had a total circ of a quarter of a million ● Later behavior raised widespread doubts about his judgement; ○ Fool

○ Crank

○ During his presidential campaign.

● Weird fads: the issue du jour.

■ Emphasis on education and important events/issues info

■ Stay away from sensationalism: editorial commentary on most prominent 19th century issues

● Changed ideas/perspectives often

○ Utopian comms, dietary fads, pol

○ Regarded as ecentric and odd, in both his personal

appearnace and his reformist ideas

● Contradictory moral values bother his readers

○ No police courts, murder trials, or theater

(questionable women attended these) in newspapers.

○ Used patent medicine ad revenues to expand papers

■ What’s in medicine: morphine, opium, belladonna,

alcohol #1 incredient

● Created Q-and-A interview format based off Bennett’s


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● Hired first female foreign correspondent, Margaret Fuller

○ Set stage for use of females in newspapers

■ Henry Jarvis Raymond and the NY Times (most extensive coverage area non sensationalistic) 1843

● Appealed to quiet, conservative readers

○ Wanted paper to stand midway between Greeley (the

moralist/reformer), and Bennett, the cynic/non moralist

● Wider coverage area for newspapers

○ City news (especially public meetings)

○ market/stock news

○ Political news

● Emphasizes good reporting and maintaining political


● More coverage on foreign affairs and how it influences US

● Championed the “public good”

● Not the same degree of circulation as the others yet.

● Well respected and will be one of the huge factors who supports Lincoln

● Penny Press Innovations

○ Changes in Writing Style and content

■ sensationalim/human interst (Features)

■ Local news

■ Neutral reporting of facts

■ Specialization in personnel and news writing

● First consistent use of reporters and foreign correspondents

including mark twain and karl marx (greeley)

● First use of beat coverage

● First syndicated women’s column (Jane Croly’s “jennie June”

for Bennett’s Herald) stems from first female editor.

● First female correspondent and first female full-time employee

at mainstream paper Margaret Fuller -she actually used her real

name, unlike most others because it was still taboo- for

Greeley’s Tribune

■ Sportswriting

■ On-The-Scene reporting and interviewing

■ More stories for the common man/working class

○ Changes in Appearance

■ Larger papers (blanket sheets 30X24 - the sign that you had made it) ■ Greater use of large headlines and “deck headlines:” multiple lines to your headline

■ Use of more illustrations because of the effective technology

○ Changes in Ads

■ Larger the newspaper/newshole greater the opportunity for ads

JOU 4004 Test I

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

■ Different types of ads (open advertising policy)

■ Daily ad copy changes: becomes major factor during this time.

● Before you paid for that same ad to run on a regular basis

■ Increased ad revenue and costs

○ Procedural Changes

■ Street hawkers sell by the issue and cash subscriptions

● Urban circulation

● Street sales

■ Breaking news/extra editions.

○ Greater use of technology for press expansion

■ Indust tech

■ Transp technology

■ comm advances

■ Illustration techniques

○ Expanded audiences (attracted new groups of readers)

■ Masses

■ Middle classes

■ Women and children

○ ABility to disseminate information quickly.

○ Creation of AP (1846):

○ news becomes a commodity in the Penny Press Period: you buy and sell words/information

-Penny Press

Elements of Penny Press phenomenon: technological changes, literacy rate, Usage of postal system; transportation methods; printing advances; creation of Associated Press (Harbor News Association); news as a commodity

Benjamin Day and The Sun (1st successful); Moon Hoax of 1835 (elements of the series), Richard Locke, effect on Sun circulation, emphasis on entertainment news James Gordon Bennett and the NY Herald (most controversial); Helen Jewett/ Richard P. Robinson murder trial (coverage tactics; competition between Herald & Sun) and significance to crime coverage; Moral War of 1840

Horace Greeley and the NY Tribune (most moralistic)

Henry Jarvis Raymond and the NY Times (most extensive coverage area)

Changes in Writing Style and Content and Newsgathering

● Sensationalism:

○ Human interest

○ Local news

● Neutral reporting of facts:

● Specialization in personnel and newswriting

○ first female personnel

JOU 4004 Test I

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

○ sportswriting, on-the-scene reporting

○ 2 types of interviews:

● Change in appearance (larger papers, greater use of headlines)

● New types of advertising, daily ad copy changes, street hawkers

Creation of popular culture

● The newspapers had begun to produce murder trial transcripts, criminal’s bios, pirate tales, and westerns to their audiences (middle class and frontier readers) ○ Penny papers offered crime stories, gossip columns, editorials, stock tables, and sports pages

○ Childrens magazines, scientific journals , literary reviews, womens magazines, religious periodicals, comics.

○ Societal emphasis on pop entertainment, humor and theatre

● dime novels ​(“domestic novels”): coined in 1980 but they came about in the 1820s. ○ Developed in Oswego NY

○ Printers Erastus and Irwin Beadle and Author Anne Stephens: Malaeska, The Indian Wife

● Women writers were the most popular because in their fictional accounts they wrote about the trials and triumphs of young women​ in the face of hostile environments during the Civil War period while still upholding feminine values (duty, tenderness, and self sacrifice).

○ Earliest was authored by Rowson’s Charlottes Temple and talked about seduction, betrayal, illegit birth

● Significance of social commentary

○ Provided psychological/social descriptions of drunken husbands who abused their wives, men seducing and abandoning young women, and callous employers exploiting ill-paid seamstresses and maids

○ Provided details of the Pre-civil war in America - teenage prostitution, urban poverty and class division.

○ These social comments were absent from works of respected writers ● Working-class ​was the target audience and the writings reflected changing diversity in the American lifestyle.

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