Exam 1 Review Guide
Exam 1 Review Guide JOU4004
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOU4004 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Bernell E Tripp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see History of Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide Exam is Tuesday Sept 27. Bring Pencil 50 multiple choice questions: Covers chapters 1 (pages 9-15), 2, 7 4 factors that change journalism 1. Technology 2. societal influence 3. economic pressures 4. commercialization 2 types of history: we study history to understand how and why the media developed 1. high level of literary, intellectual, and religious 2. low level f improvement/elevation of uneducated masses. 3 categories of interpretations of history based on interrelationships: ● Ideological: how political and social issues shape media ● Professional: how standards and practices change with media development ● Cultural: what goes on in US society, (the environmental impact) Role of first mass medium (books) on perception of knowledge ● University vs. Church: Promoted individual and non-conformist thinking and stimulated discussion and debate. ○ Impact of the printed word on communication: when written word came around only very educated aka lergymen could control the media. ○ Books changed the basic functions of knowledge infrastructure ■ Writing became critical to administration of power, property, and education. ■ By the 12th century universities moved learning outside the walls of monasteries which created a power struggle between the church and University faculty ● The written word is key here because text become an externalized and physical form of memory ● Gutenberg’s press mid 1400s (he perfected it, did not invent it): altered societal influence (which happens with each new technological invention. ○ Decentralized the sources of info: The information is decentralized aka information is no longer just in the hands of the Church JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ○ Increased dissemination of info: accelerated the Protestant revolt against the Catholic Church. ○ Was the basis of U.S. press development. ○ Gutenberg's printing press again created a shift in power because printed word became a new source of evidence and factual knowledge ○ It answered the demand for a middle ground between information and the elite. Printer William Caxton: First printer in England ● Chaucer’s anterbury Tales influenced: ○ Culture: it had a cross section of British society in one book. For the commoners, these were the first stories about who they were. ■ Criticized for providing a basis for civil unrest and disobedience of the poor because it gave them a reflection of society. ○ Literacy rates soared across Europe. ○ Language: it is credited with helping to unify England with a Common Language; at the same time, the use of Latin declined. ○ Printing industry: it was the first the first printed book in England and open the journalism door. ■ increased the importance of authors. ■ created a standardized system of indexes, page numbers, and tables of content ■ Commercialized the written word ■ Revolutionized book production ● Early control of press in England under Henry VIII (Early 1500s) ○ prior restraint: censorship before it can print. ○ seditious libel: harsh punishments for broken rules. ○ Must acquire a printer licensing ● British improvements on European newspaper format: ○ They were first developed in Britain by James I and Charles I and what started as “Weekly News sheets” in the 1560s. The first english-language paper was an Untitled new sheet in Amsterdam in the 1620s which translated European news from elsewhere. ○ Improvements: ■ England's first modern paper didn't happen until 1665 th xford Gazette by Henry Muddiman who was a government mouthpiece. ● Became the L ondon Gazette after city wide plague ended ● Was not yet technically a newspaper ■ Early 1700s there was an expansion of provincial newspapers ■ editorial notices addressed to readers created interactive relationships between writers and audience members JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ■ The Invention of the headline drew reader's attention by laying out in large type simple wood cut designs on the front page to promote later installments ● U.S. press developed based on provincial newspaper development ○ They promoted and encouraged exploration of the new lands by publishing excerpts of diaries to encourage travel ■ showed half-naked Savages in cartoons to represent and advertise for the new world ○ media expansion in the new world became tied to postal system and transportation routes Early printing in colonies: ● Printed books’ impact on control of knowledge: ○ Settlers valued the printed word and promotional materials were used to ■ lure audiences in and fundraise ■ Entertain (pamphlets) ■ Directions: Maps ■ Educate ■ Religious: Bibles and religious tracts ● America’s first book (Algonquin Indian Bible, John Eliot, 1661) ○ Fostered convert missions to puritanism ○ Gave the idea that America was God’s chosen country ● First printing press in colonies (Harvard College): It was used for Spiritual and religious writings and was a tool to reach people and Aid in the search for truth ● Increased Mather’s mock newspaper (need for print validation & newspaper as solution to false rumors) ○ He was the first to consider the power of the printed word. ○ False reports increased the need for printed validation so that rumors could be corrected and verbal declarations could be augmented it also fostered support for a trustworthy medium ○ It influenced public expectations of Truth in print and provided a foundation for the role of press in American society Understanding of power of printed word: ● Successful early newspaper operation requirements ○ distribution (methods): paper had to be on a trade route line. ○ population (readership demographics) large cities with wealthy educated (typically white) readers. ○ information (sources): eyewitnesses and travelers become the most important sources of local and Euro news. ● First newspapers and their success/failure (what caused them to fail or succeed) ○ Publick Occurrences and Benjamin Harris (why only one issue) ■ No subscribers. ■ Newspaper was to be produced "once a month, or, if any Glut of Occurrences happen, oftener." But was banned after the first issue. ■ No headlines, you couldn't tell easily where one story ended and where another began. ■ Content angered royal governor and his council. ○ Boston News-Letter in 1704 and John Campbell (postmaster): ■ People needed sequential news so later circulated "public news-letters" to postal officials, merchants, and other affluent colonists. This increased the demand sparked printed version. ■ Government sanctioned ■ Criticized for old news and boring writing style. ● Competition between Campbell (voice of colonial assembly) and William Brooker (supported governor), what ended governor’s licensing of press: ○ In 1917 the Massachusetts Bay Colony replaced Campbell with William Brooker as the postmaster but Campbell refused to give up the newsletter so Brooker created The Gazette was modeled after News-Letter and emphasized business news and featured copies from London newspapers ■ it had an even larger merchant circulation ○ So Two journalistic voices arose: Campbell and Brooker the voice of the governor ■ (Note: the voices are close in contents but there is extreme hostility between the editors - Brooker tried to bar Campbell from using the mail service and Campbell newsletter warned potential Gazette readers “I pity the reader for the new paper” it is not readable ○ This first newspaper competition is based on Brokers immediacy of news versus Campbell’s thread of occurrences (sequential news - must read all the news in order to understand the whole story, in this way the news tends to always be stale). ○ Brooker was the “ opponent of stale news” ○ The competition ends and 1721 Brooker is replaced by Phillip Musgrave and contentions between governor and assembly lead to end of Governor’s licensing of the press, but the governor just punishments instead ○ Note: neither paper had been exclusively a tool for one political stance printing info from contending sides JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ● Newspaper content (based on readership demographics; residents’ lifestyle requirements; governmental info) ○ Editor's had to constantly worry about not offending the authorities. ○ Colonial info ○ foreign news ○ correspondence sent in by readers ○ Local individuals who dropped by The Print Shop to talk Primary areas of media development: New York, Boston, Philadelphia ● Why these 3 specific early sites: huge populations and newspaper growth follows population growth; on trade routes; large #s of wealthy and educated white men ● why printing hub shifted from Boston to Philadelphia ○ population/commercial change: was because Philadelphia prospered as a media center after a shift in population in commercial importance ○ Doolittle press: the first American made printing press watchmaker Isaac Doolittle made the first Press on Us soil and built the mahogany press (verry expensive). ○ Ramage’s printing press: first durable and cheaper printing press. it came in three sizes: full size, mid sized screw press and table top foolscap press. ○ Immigration: it was a major immigration destination for German and Irish immigrants because there was the first language newspaper there by Ben Franklin. ● Printers’ status: Keeps changing as B Franklin prints boldly within the rules = colonial journalism ● changes in purpose [business (use of women, gov’t printing, equip. from England, outside printing jobs) ○ Few women printers were in the colonies before 1775 ○ No official apprenticeships ○ All equipment and supplies for from England ○ Printer solicited additional income and capitalized on London's book publishing industry ○ newspaper ads for some books and books sales ○ State money contracts local news contracts ○ advertising (readers’ local connection, revenue, placement, graphics)] ■ advertising became entertaining and profitable had a connection to daily life and government use for legal notices and debt notices and used Graphics to attract attention ■ Ads sold better next to controversial essays. ■ Increased ad costs and ad revenue ● professional vs. familial ties (family dynasties who took over the presses when the main guy died) ● Reasons for expansion: population growth, literate elite, commercial port JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide Zenger: Cosby, Van Dam, application of sedition laws, arrest, defense strategy, outcome of trial Zenger: Changed the way the colonists viewed the truth ● New Governor William Crosby replaced Rip Van Dam, the acting governor of the time. ○ Crosby Sued Van Dam and changed the Supreme Court to Court of Equity with 3 appointed justices and no jury ○ the populist party opposed Crosby so there was no arbitrary power for government officials ○ Led by James Alexander attorney ○ 1733 he was ask to publish a newspaper that supported the populist party - Morris's version and what is happening under Cosby (Bradford's Gazette supported cosby): ● Bradley stipulated guilty based on libel law. He turned to the Jury and confessed to Zenger's crime: empowering the Jury to make a decision here. "We are confessing because everyone knows it's true." Encouraging Jury to resist (inspired opposition to colonial authority) Est. contrary idea: that people have the right to criticize political leaders. Encouraged a revolutionary spirit. ● Justices ruled favorable 2-1; dissenting justice, Chief Justice Lewis Morris, printed his opinion against Cosby in NY weekly Journal. ● Cosby removed Morris and replaced with James DeLancy, approving Justice Theories of Zenger’s participation in criticism of Cosby; “letters from prison” & public support garnered ● Three theories about who wrote and published: ○ Zenger himself wrote and published ○ James Alexander published as a scapegoat ○ Anna his wife wrote and published Justice: paper contin to be printed by wife anna. also "letter's from prison" generated support. precedents established: ● Court rules not guilty. Put hamilton on their shoulders to go to the bar. Zinger goes back to Jail, to be quietly let go later. ● paper must tell the truth ● MORAL precedents, not legal yet ● Jury can decide guilt/innocence ● truth can be used as a defense, also can be intent. Economic/Political Resistance Economic restrictions: ● Impact on press circulation/operation because of 1758 postal system changes (no free transport of papers): Taxation without Colonial representation starts with the Press. ○ change is made under Ben Franklin as Joint Postmaster General of the crown along with William Hunter of Virginia: they make it profitable for Britain by JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ● Patriots ○ Advocated for press to present only one side of a story to create unity. ○ Promoted freedom from Britain and the need for self-governance, even if innocent people were hurt (at all costs) ○ Informed the people that their rights were in jeopardy. ○ Attempted to unite colonists through fear of the Intolerable (or Coercive) Acts ○ Concerted effort to resist ● Loyalists ○ Advocation of an impartial press (presents both sides out of self-defense: closer to what franklin was doing: closer to good reporting) ○ Promoted obedience - gradual freedom through Britain and its constitution ○ Inform citizens that submission to authority was for the public good. ○ Called for liberty in thought and expression (but radical expression was dangerous) under the protection of British rule. Boston TP emphasized participatory role of press in pushing against British government. Significance of British response to revolutionary spirit: ● How Br. retaliation rallied the colonists: Confirmed colonials’ worst fears of British denial of constitutional liberties ● Restrictive reaction to Coercive Acts (Intolerable) 1774: ○ Boston Port Act: closed Boston Port until colonists paid for tea, which was almost 10,000 pounds. ■ American response: ● America supports boston from Nova Scotia to boston (food/money) ● Sets up committee of correspondence: provides info in and around boston, they were journalists but they later become spies in revolutionary war ● “Suffer in the common cause.” ● Formulates a plan of resistance known as Solemn League and Covenant, to boycott British goods. ○ Massachusetts Government Act: Restricted town meetings to one per year = no time to revolt ○ Administration of Justice Act: Allowed royal governor to transfer British officials to England for trial for offenses committed in the line of duty (with little likelihood of conviction). ○ Second Quartering Act: Authorized army to requisition uninhabited private buildings to quarter troops wherever needed ■ Uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns, or other buildings ■ Buildings had to be relinquished within 24 hours. JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ○ Quebec Act 1774: greater rights to French inhabitants. Formed an ally against colonies. ■ Est. French civil law; british law to be used only in criminal cases ■ Extended Quebec boundaries to Ohio and Mississippi rivers ■ Est. a new govt with no elective assembly and recognized catholicism. ■ American colonists saw this as further attempt to deny rights ■ Won admiration of Quebec religious leaders and the goodwill of Canadian subjects. ● newspapers’/colonists’ reaction to isolation of Massachusetts ○ Few advocated independence, but unified to defend against colony’s destruction ■ From london, Franklin writes ct to enforce obedience in the american colonies” satire, writes about different policies that britain makes, talks about how britain is worried. ○ Forced to consider consequences of being part of the British empire ■ Sept 1774, representatives from 12 colonies gather in philly to discuss how they can resist without revolt ● Continental congress appeal to king george III for redress from 1774-75 they waited for a response to repeal the acts ○ By the war’s beginning, most americans shared common political ideologies ■ Colonists personally knew the journalists and believed all written words as truth: Interconnectedness between them and the community Publishing obstacles during Revolutionary War: ● Shortage of supplies/labor: America is fighting the mouth that feeds them ○ Effects: Paper and ink shortage: ○ Solutions: ■ trying to make new paper but settle for substitutes ■ pleas and drives to save and donate rags ■ Washington smuggling: secret importation of paper from Europe for military use ■ Ink/paper substitutes: shoe polish (boot black), soot ■ Changed printing formats: increased paper prices b/c of scarcity of rags, change in ad prices and revenue, paper size was smaller and they useless of it. Now less and less people can afford it (elite and merchant classes- general population will have to rely on word of mouth and circulation) ○ Continental Congress: offers of money to start paper mills in Maryland and the Carolinas, ● Access to news/transmission of news (limitations ○ Militia system limited skilled printing press operators. JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ■ Almost half of continental army were militia men. ■ Many relied on continental congress, governors and state legislatures for financial support and for information ● Secret meetings of Continental congress revealed only to select printers (if you weren’t one of those, you were lifting information from other papers) ○ Irregular arrival of official messages, no breaking news really (broadsides posted in and around the city), postal riders, travelled to outdated info ○ Inaccurate reports because the news was based on word of mouth and rumors. + each publisher wanted to be the first so they often didn’t check their sources ○ Attacks on opposing newspapers hindered exchanges ● Military censorship ○ Restricted access to colonial legislatures’ edited releases ○ You can only publish positive info about continental congress (you need their support!) ○ No liaison for official info about the war, so you’re guessing about which version of the info is the truth ● Working conditions ○ Shortage of labor- someone to actually run it ○ Periodic attacks on patriots by loyalist opposition (within and around your community) ○ James Rivington - leader of the loyalists, ○ Raids by br. Soldiers - first thing soldiers do is destroy the newspaper ● Mortality rate of papers. (beginning of war about 70 newspapers, 35 survive by end of war in 1783) ○ Some change throughout the war ○ Businesses cut advertising for lack of trade goods bc no money ○ Deprived of income from imports/books from england ○ Less subscriber income, less paid-circulation readers ■ Fewer newspapers ■ Revolutionary press considered most well read press because of pass arounds - more people were reading without paying ■ Total circulation was about 40,000 on the books, off the books nobody knows Patriots use of propaganda during war: ● Patriot cause was weakest in South because of Br. occupation of south carolina. ● North had Committees of Correspondence to report on Br. activities ○ Forced to maintain loyalties to rebel throughout war, to stay safe they: ■ Moved printing presses around the north to avoid troops JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ■ Shutdown papers until end of conflict ■ Became publishing chameleons by changing sides depending on which troops were coming in. ● Accounts were designed to stir up the anger of colonials and generate disgust towards the british. Examples: ○ Freedom Journal in Philly accused Br of desecrating graves. ○ Death of minister’s wife during connecticut fighting was in the news for a long time: ■ First news story (she was shot in her house) ■ 2nd (shot in the house with her children) ■ 3rd (shot in her house while breastfeeding her baby) ● Isaiah Thomas and assachusetts Spy ○ The most incendiary publication of the Revolution (the actual battle) ■ Prior to war, anonymous columnists spoke to colonists as independents tied to the Br. only by a “voluntary” legal contract ■ British authorities tried and failed several times to shut down the paper. ■ Among the first to realize that revolt would become a shooting war, so he moved his printing press to worcester Mass shortly before battles at lexington/concord ● First on site war report: witnessed first shots at lexington. (no one has written as passionately as he did in this in the spy. He said that the Br. killed women, children, women in childbirth, and old people). ○ Spy account appeared after others so it was not the first, Boston News-Letter printed first account on 4/20/1775 ○ First colonial newspaper designed specifically for “middling” classes. (the avg soldier - volunteers). ■ Thomas became most important pulb. Of rev. War period ■ Preserved copies of his paper and war accounts, as well as of exchange papers. This is how becomes the first media historian. = American antiquarian society. ■ Responsible for keeping the revolutionary spirit alive for years to come Publishing pamphlets ● Reasons for publishing: ○ Sought outlets to publish for profit as “purveyors of public opinion” ■ Key method of propagandistic writing, generates support for warring factions (note: this is where the editorial originates) ○ Provides primary outlet for editorial commentary ○ Easy access to information: often reprinted in entirety in newspapers (some just fill their papers with pamphlets or some newspapers actually just printed in pamphlet form, easy to transport and share) JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ■ Charles Holt (Conn’s New London Bee Editor) 6 months/2hundred dollars for being “a wicked, malicious, seditious and ill disposed person” and criticising hamilton. ■ James T Callender - Aurora reporter and republican richmond examiner editor, period’s most notorious scandalmonger, using appeal of scandal, sensation and suspicion of the powerful. ● Supposedly supported professionally and financially by Jefferson to attack Feds ● Exposed Treasury Secretary Hamilton’s adulterous affair with a married woman (Hamilton confessed) ● Also charged him with attempted bribery of husband for his silence using insider secrets/treasury funds ● Accused Adams of being “mentally deranged” and a “hideous hermaphroditical character”; planning to crown himself king. ● Sentenced to 9 months and 200 fine for writing an anti-fed pamphlet: the prospect before us. ■ Luther Baldwin: f ined 150 for presidential commentary: drunk in a bar one night and washington was leaving the city and he said “idc if they fire cannons up his ass” ■ David Brown: most severe out of everybody. 18 months and $450 for a liberty pole wishing the president a speedy retirement. ■ William Duane: arrested twice under common law: Bache’s partner. Twice under sedition act; nearly indicted under the Alien act - most arrested journalist under provisions of Alien/Sedition Acts ■ The trial of Harry Croswell 1. 1803 NY gov Clinton had wasp editor Harry Croswell indicted for seditious libel for accusing VP jefferson of paying a journalist to attack opponents a. In lower court, croswell not allowed to subpoena the journalist to prove the truth b. Chief justice instructed jury only to determine if croswell had indeed printed the libel 2. Represented by A Hamilton in appeal a. Hamilton raised two important questions i. Could truth be given to justice ii. You could prove your intent. iii. Jury can decide (Judges were Federalists; judges selected juries.) 3. Competing arguments: hamilton: nothing could be considered libelous without considering the circumstances and whether publishing truth was from good motives. Attorney General Ambrose Spencer: libel isn’t punishable because it is false but because it is evil JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide 4. Court heavily divided on granting croswell a new trial a. Prosecutor doesn’t move for judgement b. Croswell not convicted 5. NY constitution later incorporates hamilton's points a. Truth as evidence of proof of intent b. Jury has right to determine the law. ● End of sedition Laws ○ Jefferson elected as president in 1800, law expired and he lets it. ■ Pardoned all convicted ■ Ended only federal laws; maintained state laws. ■ Jefferson believed only in protecting press from federal intervention ■ Created a new definition of free speech/press: the rights of Americans to think freely and to speak and write what they think, but does not think the press should have unfettered rights. ● Political cartoons focus more on problems within colonies. Political journalism creates itself out of this ● First pres cartoons appeared: ew critical of washington and adams, Jefferson bore brunt of early neg presidential political cartoons: drunkenness; friends with Devil, trying to topple est govt, James Akin’s prairie dog, philosphic cock 3 major events affecting press freedom: what it means to have free speech, shaping what the restrictions were 1. Zenger trial 2. Adoption of 1st amendment 3. Federalist passage of alien/sedition acts Decline of Party Press War of 1812: Reps (supported war) vs. Feds (against war with Br.) over U.S. role in war reinforced purpose that papers played a strong pol role in determining direction of the country ● Most noteworthy political skirmish: anti-war stance. Baltimore Riot ○ Fed newspaper: Federal Republican in baltimore ■ 1812 press/supplies destroyed and building burned because they kept pushing for resistance ■ Reopened protected by General Light Horse Harry Lee ■ July 27 editorial claimed high ranking repub incited mobs ■ Mob attacked the house and one killed, several wounded, increased to 1500 people; later stopped by law before could use cannon on house. JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide Characteristics of press development, 1690-1840: ● Pre revolutionary war: financing, sponsorship and donations. ○ Price varied (mail vs postings/readings). ○ Distribution: postings, mailed to elite. ○ Working conditions/technology : few printing presses and limited access and supplies. ○ Staff size 1-3 (usually family or apprentices). Readership is white literate males. ○ Contents-:gov’t documents, sermons, traveler’s accounts, foreign news and little local news ● Post war 1820: Financing - party affiliation, some advertising ○ Price jump 4-8$ ○ Distribution centralized drops, postings, mail service ○ Working conditions and technology: more private pritning presses and American-made; direct access to gov’t news; exchanges with other newspapers; correspondents ○ Staff size: 4-5 employees added ○ Readership: party members, elite, po ● Press evolution ○ Early colonial press: period of discovery ○ Revolutionary press: early participatory journalism ○ Partisan PRess: evolution of political activism ○ Diversified Press: varied audiences, multiple purposes ■ Penny press: commercialism of the written word ■ Frontier Press: developing American identity ■ Abolitionist Press: advocacy journalism, public forum ■ Ethnic/women’s press: specialized ● Three Primary Presses of 1800s in Antebellum period: ○ 2-pronged goal of early 19th century press ■ To gain freedom from outside influences: the first major issue of press freedom that the US had faced since the Rev war ■ A struggle to maintain traditional civil rights and liberties such as free speech and fair trial. ○ To address increasing threat of internal war over slavery ○ 3 divergent presses: ■ Mainstream Press: penny press/frontier press ● Commercialization of industry: ○ Emphasis on appeal to mass audience, cheaper papers ○ Entertainment element ● Followed westward expansion: ○ Expanded to meet the demands of increasing populations in urban areas JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ○ Followed population shifts westward ● Survival depended on growth/prosperity of subscribers and advertisers ● Provided opportunities for various specialized newspapers in Frontier Press. ○ As society changes, press changes. ● Penny Press is completely different: financed by advertising (1830s-60s). Price 1 cent to 6-8 cents. Distribution: hawkers (extra extra read all about it) and more drop areas. Working conditions and technology: greatly improved and printing much more efficient; increased availability of supplies: ink and wood pulp paper. Staff size- 10 or more, plus correspondents and stringers. Injuries becoming common. Readership is the masses huge circulations. Contents: sensational (crimes, scandal etc) daily news, science, departmentalized news. ■ Abolitionist Press: issue-based press ■ Ethnic/Women’s press: based on reader commonalities ● THE RACE FOR NEWS: COMPETITION AND INNOVATION ○ Factors of Communications Revolution 1. The reading public: greater literacy, more variety in publication types 2. Communication systems have changed tremendously: working postal system and carrier pigeon Corps - if you take a homing pigeon to where it actually lived and it would fly home. a. Magnetic telegraph in 1844: g rowth of small-town dailies 3. Transportation improvements: a. Pony express service on main travel routes b. Railroad service is growing i. Information access/distribution ii. Special locomotives. iii. Has its drawbacks c. Steamships: foreign news much faster. 4. Production improvements: a. Steam press/automatic printing i. Cylinder press ii. Type revolving press iii. Doubled speed possible from Stanhope Press b. Perfection of paper-making with wood pulp 5. Results of Improvements a. Increase in timely stories and more frequent papers b. Increase in on site reporting: fewer clipped items. End of Partisanship: JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ● Decline of administrative newspaper- peaked with Jackson ○ “Preferred newspaper” used by president to publicize official news ■ “Executive patronage” meant govt printing contracts and other lucrative awards ■ Though independent, maintained “official paper” status ● National Intelligence first 2 decades of 19th century ○ In return Intelligencer editors held treatment of news to a high standard ○ Used by other papers as source of government announcements and news from capital ○ Created wider public reach for president and party leaders. ■ Administrative newspapers began to lose influence after Jackson’s administration because ● Fights over distribution of Congressional contracts : printing contracts diminish ● More newspapers used own Wash. Correspondents ● Deep party rifts caused by issues of slavery and sectionalism made it impossible for the administrative newspapers to please both sides in internal party conflicts ○ Partisanship becomes a personal decision for editors ○ Emphasis on political spin of parties at state level ● Advent of the penny press: Better production methods and increased circulation because of higher populations and literacy rates ○ Editors professed independent from political parties because they could not depend on parties’ constant support. ○ Less political press provided opportunities to redefine concept of news. ■ Diversification of overall press: Opportunity to address key nonpolitical/internal issues ● Sensationalistic James Gordon Bennett and the NY HErald (most controversial in 1835) ○ Detailed accounts of crime scenes ○ Herald rose to prominence due in part to coverage of April 1836 murder of prostitute Helen Jewett and subseq. Trial of clear/lover Richard Robinson aka Frank Rivers ■ Murder occurred ■ Jewett murder and robinson trial created pattern for how ■ Much info was fabricated ● Herald (upperclass): Robinson as innocent victim set up by police and brothel madam, Rosina Townsend. . ● Body set on fire after she was hatched with a hatchet. ● Sun (working class): Robinson as known murderer who had killed other lower-class women. JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ● Herald Published: ○ Lurid descriptions of murder scene (her room in her upscale brother; 3 wounds to head. ○ Beautiful body descriptions (builds on the erotisism of murder) ■ Similar coverage tactics: six crime pamphlets publ in the months following the murder: why Jewett became a prostitute ● Various local lithographs of Jewett and Robinson by local artists, depicting: Jewett on bed in various states of undress, Roninson fleeing her room, holding hatchet. ■ Exclusive stories about Jewett and Robinson: ● Jewett jealous of Robinson’s engagement ● Robinson embezzled money; afraid Jewett would tell ■ June 2, 1836: robinson tried for murder and 6,000 people attend. ● 5 day drama of helen’s supporters vs Richard’s supporters. ● All evidence pointed to Robinson ○ Hatchet and cloak tied to him ○ Identified as her only client that night ○ Whitewashed stains from fence on pants ○ Roommate refuted alibi. ● Robinson acquitted after half hour deliberation ○ Prosecution witnesses were prostitutes ○ Defense team bribed manhattan grocer for alibi ○ Left ny for west; died not long after ● Penny Press profits from Jewett case. ○ Sex, crime, scandal become prime topics for front-page news coverage. ○ Herald circulation and news volume grew so dramatically that: presses broke down after 1st week after murder, forced to move to larger quarters before trial start ○ Competitors mimic Bennett’s news practices; created standard crime-coverage procedures ○ Decades later, stories continued to appear in the papers. ● First interview comes ou ■ Moral War of 1840: battle between the church and the press ● Church wants to hit bennett where it hurts ● Bennett compromises: I’ll tone it down, stop using offensive language (no more talk of beautiful bodies/legs/limbs or undergarments) and uses paper to send best reporters to cover Church events ○ Blamed by historians for introducing newspaper competition: competition with Greeley (battle carrier JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide pigeon corps), caused emphasis on speed, accuracy, and facts. ○ Implemented sports, business, and women’s news ○ Invented the interview 1836: madame Rosina Townsend was first direct interview in US journalism, appearing in Bennett’s paper, as part of the Jewett/Robinson scandal. ○ First use of foreign Correspondent and Washington beat correspondent: ■ Robert sutton (polished reports to suit congressmen) ■ Bennett built up a staff of foreign correspondents to compete with the commercial press. - what’s going on in Europe and how it will benefit American businesses. ○ Horace Greeley and NY Tribune (most moralistic, non sensationalistic) 1841 ■ Devoted space to politics, soc reform, literary and intellectual endeavors and news ■ More throough coverage of pol/ec issues ● Nonpartisan focus ● Adhered to Whig principles, although ran as 1872 anti-grant liberal Republican and Democratic presidential candidate ■ By eye of Civil War, Tribune had a total circ of a quarter of a million ● Later behavior raised widespread doubts about his judgement; ○ Fool ○ Crank ○ During his presidential campaign. ● Weird fads: the issue du jour. ■ Emphasis on education and important events/issues info ■ Stay away from sensationalism: editorial commentary on most prominent 19th century issues ● Changed ideas/perspectives often ○ Utopian comms, dietary fads, pol ○ Regarded as ecentric and odd, in both his personal appearnace and his reformist ideas ● Contradictory moral values bother his readers ○ No police courts, murder trials, or theater (questionable women attended these) in newspapers. ○ Used patent medicine ad revenues to expand papers ■ What’s in medicine: morphine, opium, belladonna, alcohol #1 incredient ● Created Q-and-A interview format based off Bennett’s interview JOU 4004 Test I Ora R Knopik Study Guide ● Hired first female foreign correspondent, Margaret Fuller ○ Set stage for use of females in newspapers ■ Henry Jarvis Raymond and the NY Times (most extensive coverage area non sensationalistic) 1843 ● Appealed to quiet, conservative readers ○ Wanted paper to stand midway between Greeley (the moralist/reformer), and Bennett, the cynic/non moralist ● Wider coverage area for newspapers ○ City news (especially public meetings) ○ market/stock news ○ Political news ● Emphasizes good reporting and maintaining political independence. ● More coverage on foreign affairs and how it influences US ● Championed the “public good” ● Not the same degree of circulation as the others yet. ● Well respected and will be one of the huge factors who supports Lincoln ● Penny Press Innovations ○ Changes in Writing Style and content ■ sensationalim/human interst (Features) ■ Local news ■ Neutral reporting of facts ■ Specialization in personnel and news writing ● First consistent use of reporters and foreign correspondents including mark twain and karl marx (greeley) ● First use of beat coverage ● First syndicated women’s column (Jane Croly’s “jennie June” for Bennett’s Herald) stems from first female editor. ● First female correspondent and first female full-time employee at mainstream paper Margaret Fuller -she actually used her real name, unlike most others because it was still taboo- for Greeley’s Tribune ■ Sportswriting ■ On-The-Scene reporting and interviewing ■ More stories for the common man/working class ○ Changes in Appearance ■ Larger papers (blanket sheets 30X24 - the sign that you had made it) ■ Greater use of large headlines and “deck headlines:” multiple lines to your headline ■ Use of more illustrations because of the effective technology ○ Changes in Ads ■ Larger the newspaper/newshole greater the opportunity for ads
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