New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

environmental geology Exam 1 study guide

by: Felicia Hyde

environmental geology Exam 1 study guide Erth 230

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Erth 230 > environmental geology Exam 1 study guide
Felicia Hyde

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 1 - fundamentals of geology Chapter 2 - internal structure of earth and plate tectonics Chapter 3 - minerals and rocks
Shirin Leclere
Study Guide
Geology, EnvironmentalScience
50 ?




Popular in

Popular in Department

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Felicia Hyde on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Erth 230 at San Francisco State University taught by Shirin Leclere in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

Similar to Erth 230 at SFSU


Reviews for environmental geology Exam 1 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/24/16
Environmental Geology ERTH 230 – Fall 2016 EXAM 1 Study Guide (Ch 1-3 &5) Fundamental concepts: pop growth, sustainability, Earth as system/subsystems, Gaia, hazardous processes. Chapter 1 – Philosophy and Fundamental Concepts *Fundamental Concepts of Environmental Geology 1. Human Population Growth 2. Sustainability 3. Earth as a System 4. Hazardous Earth processes 5. Scientific Knowledge and Values 1) Concept 1: Human Population Growth  #1 environmental problem  Total environmental impact from people is estimated by the impact per person times the total number of people  Population growth compounds all environmental and geological hazards  Carrying capacity – the maximum # of people Earth can hold without causing environmental degradation that reduces the ability of the planet to support the population o Depends on per capita resource consumption o Education is shown to be the greatest hope for population control 2) Concept 2: Sustainability  “the environmental objective”  Sustainability – is the development that ensures that future generations will have equal access to the resources that our planet offers  Long-term implications (i.e. not short-sided solutions)  Requiring careful resources allocation, large-scale development of new technology for resource use, recycling, and waste disposal. 3) Concept 3: Earth as a System  Earth: A dynamic system  Two engines behind its dynamics: Internal a nd external heat sources  Four interconnected subsystems: Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere  Four subsystems can mutually adjust  System conditions: Open vs. closed systems i) Open system = Subsystems can mutually adjust to effect the overall system. ii) Closed system – system with boundaries restricting flow of energy and matter iii) System input-output analysis: type of systems analysis in which rates of input and output are calculated and compared. iv) System changes: Types of changes, rates of changes, scales of changes, etc. v) Uniformitarianism – “the present is the key to the past” & “the present is the key to the future” vi) Environmental unity: Chain of actions and reactions vii)Earth system (1) Gaia hypothesis: Earth is a living organism (2) Complex and interrelated subsystems (3) Global perspective on environment 4) Gaia Hypothesis:  Series of hypothesis: i) Life significantly affects the planetary environment ii) Life affects the environment for the betterment of life iii) Life deliberately or consciously controls the global environment  James Hutton (1785): Earth as a super organism i) Circulation of ocean currents with sediments and nutrients similar to blood in a animal.  James Lovelock: Gaia hypothesis i) Earth is an organism ii) Life significantly affect the planetary environment 5) Concept 4: Hazardous Earth Processes  Hazardous Earth processes and risk statistics for the past two decades i) Annual loss of life: About 150,000 (Haiti?) ii) Financial loss: >$20 billion iii) More loss of life from a major natural disaster in a developing country (2003 Iran quake, ~30,000 people)  Natural hazards = catastrophes  Hazard identification & Risk assessment (types, probability, and consequences of impact) i) Critical facility mapping and analysis ii) Economic impact analysis iii) Societal impact analysis iv) Total environmental impact analysis • Geologic Principles: Uniformitarianism, cross-cutting relationships, horizontality, know the three kinds of unconformity. Know the main geologic periods (Pre-Cambrian, Jurassic, Pleistocene, Holocene, and Anthropocene) (bonus for knowing the periods known as the age of fishes and the period when most of our coal was originally buried). Be comfortable describing whether a layer of rock is older or younger, higher or lower, • Horizontality: horizontal deposits of sediment by tectonic stress • 3 kinds of unconformity: nonconformity, disconformity, angular unconformity • Main geological periods: • Pre-Cambrian (era) – primitive life (first fossils), multi-cell org & oldest rocks!!! • Ordovician period – age of fish • Jurassic (in Mesozoic era) –age of dinosaurs • Pleistocene – age of early humans • Holocene – modern human & extinction event • Anthropocene – “the recent age of humans” • Describing layer of rock – older, younger higher or lower • Older = lower & younger = higher • Plate tectonics: what it is, why it happens (cause), and results (effect). Convection. Draw and label different boundaries (convergent, divergent, transform). Explain passive vs active margins. Subduction zone. Spreading centers. Hot spots. Relation between plate boundaries and presence of marine trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Know a location of each – Iceland = spreading center; Mariana Trench = ocean to ocean subduction, etc. Explain how San Francisco and Seattle differ; how the west coast and east coast of NA differ, how Hawaii and Yellowstone are similar. • Continental Drift: Know the general progression of hypotheses surrounding plate tectonics and continental drift. Know the main pieces of evidence and the names of the three Scientists mentioned in the lectures. • 3 main scientist: Alfred Wegner, Harry Hess, Robert Dietz • Seismic waves: P vs S waves and what they tell us about the interior of the earth. Case studies: Yosemite/Sierra Nevada range, San Andreas fault, Mount St. Helens, Krakatoa, Hawaii, Yellowstone, East African Rift Valley, etc (basic story & concepts) Minerals: • basics of an atom, isotopes, • know mineral groups and common example (silicates – quartz, carbonate – limestone, etc), • environmental issues with some minerals, (sulfur, acid rain, etc.) • weathering, • what is clay Igneous Rocks: rocks formed from solidification of magma (extrusive if they crystallize on earth’s surface or intrusive is they crystallize beneath the surface)  Intrusive vs extrusive  How to characterize igneous rocks? Specifically distinguishing basalt vs granite  How they’re related to plate boundaries and crustal types Sedimentary Rocks: a rock formed when sediments are transported, deposited, and then lithified by natural cement, compression, or other mechanism  Define weathering, erosion, and deposition o Weathering: wear away or change the appearance or texture of (something) by long exposure to the air. o Erosion: type of weathering in which surface soil and rock are worn away through glaciers, water and wind o Deposition: state of being deposited or precipitation  Geologic principles: be able to order layers 1. Horizontality 2. Superposition 3. Cross-cutting relations 4. Inclusions  Limestone vs sandstone vs conglomerates vs mudstone Metamorphic Rocks 1. Rock Cycle 2. Define and explain how they can be created • Metamorphic rocks – a rock formed from preexisting rick by the effects of heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids beneath Earth’s surface Labs  Draw and label diagrams – concepts that have come up repeatedly. • Unit conversion problems! • Basic metric conversions: millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer • Basic English conversions: inches in a foot, feet in a yard, feet in a mile • Roughly how many cm = 1 inch and how many meters = 1 yard • Understand how to calculate velocity (rate) and the relation between length and time. • Calculate distance and slope from a topographic map • Find points using lat/long and UTM coordinates


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.