Lab Midterm Study Guide
Lab Midterm Study Guide ANSC 1000
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Lab Midterm Study Guide Safety and Precautions – Lab 1 Highlighted – DEFINITONS Safe Animal Handling Hazards Uneven ground Weather/elements Facility: Doors, gates, etc. Animal Behavior Traveling to and from labs Proper Clothing Closed toed shoes (preferably boots) Jeans Not So Common Sense Rules If you find a gate closed, leave it closed; If you find a gate open, leave it open. You don’t want to let the animals loose or cut off their food/water supply. Always check the location of the livestock before opening any gate or door. Pay close attention to the instructions given by the instructor, TAs, and the university farm unit staff. Always leave yourself a way out when working with the animals. Livestock Behavior They are herd animals. They like to be together and will panic if they get separated from the herd. They are prey animals. They automatically see us as predators. They hear and see a lot differently than we do. Loud noises or quick movements can startle the animal. They have a fight or flight instinct. If they have an opportunity to run away, they will. But if they feel cornered or threatened, they will use some sort of force to get out of the situation that is making them feel threatened. Flight zone – An animal’s personal bubble; Varies depending on the size of the animal and how comfortable they are with people. The natural instinct of animals is to move away from humans. Breaking an animal’s flight zone so that they will be comfortable being around humans has to be done very calmly and quietly. Point of balance – Usually around the shoulder area; affects the movement of the animal General Animal Handling Video Your presence affects the animal and the person who is exhibiting. Approach the animal in a manner so that you do not frighten them. Small children can often 2 pose a problem around livestock. They tend to have quick and jerky movements that can alarm the animal. Most animals are not prone to kick unless they are startled or agitated. It is important to remain calm and not to frighten the animal you are working with. To avoid injury, you should always walk very close to or very far away from the rear in case the animal decides to kick. Walking closely with reduce the power of the kick. Walking far enough away will result in the animal not being able to reach you. Another area to be cautious of is their head. It is an animal’s natural instinct to jump up or run forward if they are scared. If you are ever holding on to a lead rope or any sort of restraint and you lose your balance, let go. Cattle Video Cattle are responsible for 61% of injuries that occur on a farm. 80% of cattle handling injuries involve extremities such as legs, arms, hands, and fingers. 50% of injuries that occur in cattle handling are a result of human error. 3 Key Elements to Moving Cattle 1. Gather and move cattle quietly; if cattle get excited or scared, it could take 20-30 minutes for their heart rate to slow and for them to calm down. 2. Move them in small groups; always give the animals plenty of space to turn around in crowd pins. 3. Understand their behavior; understand and recognize their flight zone. Temple Grandin is an animal behavior specialist who is autistic. She discovered that she could relate very closely with animals. If an animal panics and rears up, back away from them. 3 Cattle are herd animals. They want to stay with the herd and will begin to get agitated or upset if they are separated for too long. Some cattle are very bad kickers. The cattle that seem to be the worst kickers are the ones that have been worked with dogs. This is due to the dog biting or nipping at their heels. One of the best ways to avoid kicking problems is to avoid using dogs. Cattle have a point of balance at the shoulder. This helps to influence which direction they will move when you are working with them. If you walk behind the point of balance, the animal will move forward. If you are in front of the point of balance, the animal will move backwards. Some farmers will twist a cow’s tail in order to get them to move forward. A mistake that people make is to keep twisting the tail after the animal has moved. You want to reward the animal for performing the desired movement by letting go or not continuing to twist the tail. Sheep Video Sheep are very gregarious, or they like to be together. This can be an advantage when attempting to catch them. You can push them into a corner and work them together. This is also useful when moving them from one pen or pasture to another. Sheep are very easily started which makes them more likely to jump or butt you. They are very sure-footed, meaning they handle different flooring very well. Rope halters are used for training the sheep as well and leading them. Swine Video Pigs have a very strong nose and jaw that can be used to knock you over. 4 They have a low center of gravity. Pigs are known to fight with one another. They establish dominance and can be aggressive towards other pigs when trying to maintain that dominance. They can also fight over food. It is never a good idea to break up a pig fight. Pigs have a very good sense of smell. However, they do not see very well. They also have a very good memory. Whips or pipes are used as steering devices on pigs. They are never used as weapons on the animals, only as a guide. Another piece of guiding equipment used on pigs is a sorting board. This helps to block the pig’s view and guides them in a certain direction. This is a very useful tool when loading the pigs onto a trailer or a scale. Horse Video 1 Horses react to what they can see, hear, feel, and smell. They rely on all four of the senses to protect themselves. Horses have binocular and monocular vision. Binocular is when they use both eyes looking directly in front of them. Monocular vision allows the horse to see wide areas to the sides of themselves. They have two blind spots where they cannot see which are located directly in front of their head and directly behind them. Horses are color blind and see in shades of grey. This means that shadows, dark spots, changing surfaces, and blowing trash can startle them. It is important to approach horses at an angel so that they can see you. Horses have good wide angle vision but do not have good depth perception. This is the reason that horses will raise and lower their heads and point their ears in the direction they are looking to focus better on objects. 5 When you are on the side of a horse, it will keep track of where you are by pointing the corresponding ear in your direction. Talking to a horse when you step out of its sight is a good idea to help the horse know where you are at all times. Another good way to let the horse know where you’re at is by touching it. Keep a hand on the horse as you move around it to help it know you are still around. Horses can feel vibrations through the ground and will be aware of something approaching before you are. A Horse’s 4 Primary Senses 1. Sight 2. Hearing 3. Touch 4. Smell Horses can also be ticklish in certain areas such as the stomach and the end of their mane. This is important to remember when grooming them. A horse’s flight zone and line of motion are very similar to that of a cow. Their line of motion is the point you have to cross in order to get them to move forward or backwards. If a horse feels threated, it has many different defense mechanisms at its disposal. Horses have very powerful jaws and can bite. It is wise to avoid their mouths. They can also use their front legs to administer a kick to whatever is threatening it. The same goes for their hind legs. Precautions 1. Stay out of range of the mouth 2. Don’t stand directly in front or behind the horse 3. If you have to be close to the horse, remain close to the body 6 Horses establish a pecking order, a type of dominance. Horses that are on the bottom of the pecking order usually are submissive and stay out of the way of the other horses. Horses have a good memory. This can be a good or bad thing during training depending on the experiences given to the horse. If it was a good experience, the horse will remember that and be willing to take part in the training again in the future. If the horse has a bad experience, it will be even harder to deal with next time. Factors of Behavior Breeding background; What the foal’s mother was like Their environment Exposure to other horses Experiences with other people Individual traits Beef Cattle Breeds and Equipment – Lab 2 Breeds of Cattle What is a breed? Breed – A group of organisms having common ancestors and certain distinguishable characteristics. Breeds share similar traits such as size, shape, color, and behavior. When animals of the same breed are bed together, the offspring will show these traits. They will look, act, and perform like their parents. Sire Traits vs. Dam Traits 7 Dam traits – traits that come from the maternal figure. These traits are often related to raising healthy offspring. Ex. Fertility, milk production, calving ease, care. Sire traits – traits that come from the paternal figure. These traits are related to growth, size, and muscling. Ex. Rate of gain, feed efficiency, ribeye area. Both sets of traits relate to the breed as a whole. They are not to be confused with the gender of the individual. Beef Cattle Terminology Group Herd Adjective Bovine Genus and species Bos taurus or Bos indicus Act of Parturition Calving General Term for Young Calf Young Male Bull Young Female Heifer Mature Male Bull Mature Female Cow Castrated Male Steer Types of Cattle Bos taurus – Developed to perform in temperate climates. They are primarily from Great Britain and Western Europe. They are selected mostly for beef or milk production. Bos indicus – Developed to perform in hot, tropical climates. They are primarily from India and South Asia. They are primarily used for draft power and beef. Bos taurus 8 The British breeds were the first type brought into the United States. Exotic or Continental breeds can be referred to either way. Exotic is not from Great Britain while Continental is from the European continent. This includes dairy-type cattle. British Breeds These British breeds developed in Great Britain. They tend to have a smaller frame and are a lighter weight breed of cattle. Their average weight can be anywhere from 1,000 – 1,500 lbs. This breed also matures at a younger age which allows them to be marketed earlier. They have a high fertility rate and an easy calving process. They also have a good productive life. These breeds have less muscling than the Exotics. In crossbreeding programs, they are used as dam or maternal breeds. Angus The Angus originated in Scotland. They are usually black in color because black is the dominant gene. The red coats are recessive. These cows are naturally polled, meaning they have no horns. A mature Angus cow can weigh anywhere from 1,150 – 1,250 lbs. This particular breed is the most popular beef breed. You will often hear people refer to them as “Black Angus.” 9 They have desirable characteristics such as a high carcass quality, they add marble quickly, they have a high fertility rate, good milk production, and an easy calving process. They are also very dark pigmented around their eyes which helps to prevent cancer eye. The Angus is a highly desirable breed in crossbreeding programs. Some undesirable characteristics include a slightly nervous or high strung demeanor. They are also not overly cold tolerant. However, neither one of these traits are a serious problem. This breed has difficulty with bulls in breeding programs. Their dark coats can be problematic in hot, sunny climates. Male Angus 10 Female Angus Red Angus The Red Angus originated in the United States. They have the same characteristics as the Angus. They are red in color due to a recessive gene. Red x Red = Red Red x Black = Black Male Red Angus 11 Female Red Angus Hereford The Hereford originated in England. They have a red body with white extremities such as the face, chest, pasterns, switch, and crest. They were originally horned. However, over time, polled animals were selected for and now there are both polled and horned Herefords. A mature cow weighs around 1,150 lbs. A Hereford’s desirable characteristics are they do well on open ranges, they are hardy in cold weather, and they have a moderate size. Bulls tend to have excellent libido. This breed is also known for a high fertility rate with limited feed. They also generally have a good disposition. Some undesirable characteristics of this breed is low milk production, udder structure problems (large teats), do not marble well, lay on wasteful external fat, and 12 have light coloring around the eyes which increases their chances of cancer eye. Male Hereford (Horned) Female Hereford (Horned) 13 Polled Hereford This breed of Herefords originated in the United States. They carry the same genetic traits as Herefords, except they are bred to be polled (have no horns). They have a larger frame than standard Herefords but contain less muscling. They also tend to have a more pendulous (loosely hanging) sheath. Male Polled Hereford 14 Female Polled Hereford Shorthorn The Shorthorn breed originated in England. They are typically red, roan, or white in color. They can either be horned or polled. If they are horned, their horns are short and curl downward. A mature Shorthorn cow weighs around 1,050 lbs. They are generally used as a “utility” type animal. The Shorthorn breed was the first popular breed in United States but it has gradually been declining. 15 A few desirable characteristics of Shorthorns are easy calving, a good disposition, a moderate size, and a good cross for other breeds. Some undesirable characteristics are a patchy finish (patchy fat deposition), they have light muscling, and poor carcass quality. Male Shorthorn (Polled) (roan color) Female Shorthorn (Polled) (roan color) 16 Commercial Crossbred Cattle Ex. Angus x Hereford = results in a calf with a black body (from Angus) and a white face (from Hereford). This is a terminal cross for the market. This cow is often called “Black baldy” or “Brockle face.” Exotic/Continental Breeds These breeds were developed in Continental Europe. 17 They tend to have a larger frame and a heavier weight. They can weight anywhere from 1,200 – 1,400 lbs. They mature later and as a result of this, it takes longer for them to reach the market standards. They have heavy muscling and a high carcass yield. These breeds also have low fertility, higher calving problems, and less marbling. They are typically used as the sire or paternal breed in cross breeding. Charolais The Charolais are a breed that originally came from France. These cows tend to be creamy white in color and can be horned or polled. A mature cow weighs around 1,550 lbs. This was one of the first exotic breeds introduced in the United States. Charolais are desirable for their heavy muscling, rapid growth rate, and desirable yield grade. Some downfalls that come with this breed are a low fertility rate, low milk production, and calving difficulties. Over the years, selective breeding has helped to reduce the calving issue. 18 Male Charolais (Polled) Female Charolais (Polled) 19 Simmental This breed of cattle originated in Switzerland. They can be yellow, red, or white with a white face and white stockings. They are a predominantly horned breed. There are some that can be polled. A mature cow can weigh around 1,500 lbs. This breed can be used for draft, milk, or meat production. Simmentals have nice characteristics like a high milk production (20 lbs per day), a rapid growth rate, and they work well as a sire or dam breed. Undesirable characteristics of the Simmentals are calving difficulty due to heavy birth weight and nutrition related fertility issues. They need to be managed more like a dairy breed instead of a beef breed. Male Simmental (Polled) 20 Female Simmental (Polled) 21 Limousin The Limousins originated in France. They are typically a golden red to a light yellow color. They can either be horned or polled. A mature cow can weigh close to 1,300 lbs. The Limousin is the most popular exotic breed in the United States. Some favorable characteristics of Limousins are the highest carcass yields, easy calving, and good as a sire or dam breed. Their smaller cow size is also desired in crossbreeding. Some poor characteristics of Limousins are a low average daily gain (ADG), a small scrotal circumference, and low milk production. The low ADG is not helped by crossbreeding that occurs. A small scrotal circumference contributes to low sperm production. Male Limousin (Polled) 22 Female Limousin (Polled) Gelbvieh (Gelp-fee) 23 This breed originally came from Austria and West Germany. They are typically yellow to golden red but can also be black. They can be either horned or polled. A mature Gelbvieh cow can weigh 1,300 lbs. Positive characteristics of this breed are rapid growth, good carcass characteristics, and a moderate size that works well as a dam for crossbreeding. They have good maternal traits such as high fertility rates, early maturing, and high milk production. Their genes also compliment other breeds well when they are being crossbred. Downfalls in the breed are calving difficulty due to heavy birth weight and a thick front end. People think that a heavy dewlap and neck are unattractive. Male Gelbvieh (Polled) 24 Female Gelbvieh (Polled) Bos indicus Bos indicus breeds are made up of Brahman and Brahman crossbreeds. Some positive things about these breeds are their heat and parasite tolerances. They have highly developed sweat glands which allows them to sweat more freely. Crossing British with Exotic breeds produces high heterosis (superior qualities) in these breeds. Undesired characteristics are a nervous disposition, tough meat (dark cutters, more connective tissue), and a pendulous sheath. They are also not adaptable to cold climates. 25 Brahman The Brahman breed originated in India and Southeast Asia. They are a white to gray color and usually horned. They have droopy ears, loose skin, and a deep sheath. There are several breed variants within the Brahman breed. Some favorable characteristics include easy calving, good dam or maternal breed, high degree of heretosis when crossed with British breeds, and they have the highest butterfat content of any beef breed. Some of the downfalls to this breed is low fertility which can be increased with crossbreeding, low growth rates, and light muscling. Male Brahman (Polled) 26 Female Brahman (Polled) Santa Gertrudis 27 The Santa Gertrudis first developed on the King Ranch in Texas. This was the first beef breed developed in the United States. They are mostly a red color and can be horned or polled. A mature cow can weigh up to 1,450 lbs. This breed is made up of 5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman. They can be referred to as “Gerts.” They are known for having a rapid growth rate, good milk production, and will work well as a sire or dam breed. A couple of setbacks to this breed is low fertility and lack of muscle relative to their large frame. Male Santa Gertrudis (Horned) Female Santa Gertrudis (Polled) 28 Brangus The Brangus is a breed that originated in the United States. They are generally black in color and are polled. A mature cow can weigh around 1,300 lbs. They are made up of 5/8 Angus and 3/8 Brahman. Good characteristics of Brangus cattle are good milk production, high fertility rates, and carcass traits more like the Angus than the Brahman. An undesirable characteristic is that they are primarily a dam breed. Male Brangus (Polled) 29 Female Brangus (Polled) 30 Beef Cattle Equipment Identification Branding Irons Freeze branding iron – Short handle, smooth surface; will not show up on dark skinned animal; permanent form of identification. Hot branding iron – Long handle, iron grooves; contains gabs in the metal that will close when it is heated Freeze branding iron (top picture – 2 short irons; bottom picture – the letters ‘U’ and the small ‘A’) 31 Hot branding iron – (top – long iron; bottom – big ‘A’) Ear Tags Allflex Ear Tag – plastic ear tag that comes in two pieces; an Allflex Ear Tagger gun is used to put these in the ear; different colors depend on the farmers; this is a temporary form of identification. These ear tags can get ripped out. Allflex Ear Tagger 32 Allflex Ear Tag Metal ear tag – sits close to the edge of the ear; this is a more permanent method of identification. These can also get ripped out. Metal Ear Tag and Metal Ear Tagger (Ear Tag Pliers) 33 Ear tattoo – A tattoo gun with a piece of metal containing needles that ink is applied to and it is stamped on the inside of the ear; this method is permanent but over time, becomes hard to see. Tattoo Method Paint stick – Used to write numbers of the side of animals; temporary identification. Paint Stick 34 Restraint Collar – can be used for identification, temporary; used for restraint Collar Rope/Chain Halter – An adjustable restraint that is placed up under the chin and behind the ears; can be used for leading 35 Chain (top) Rope (bottom) Nose tongs – Placed on the septum of the nose and hooked to desired holding area; very effective. Nose Tongs 36 Handling Hot shot – electric rod used for handling or moving an animal; this causes a lot of stress Hot Shot Flags/sorting sticks – Used to separate, move, or sort animals; low stress; not used for hitting or striking animals Flags/Sorting Sticks Bullwhips – Used to make noise to motivate the animal to move, not for whipping Bullwhip 37 Castration Elastrator – A device used to stretch out a rubber band, place it around the testes, and let the rubber band go. This cuts off circulation and the testes will eventually fall off; this is a bloodless method Elastrator Newberry Castration Knife – Used to cute the testes off; Very messy, requires cleanup, and testes must be disposed of Newberry Castration Knife 38 Emasculation – A device used to crush the tubes inside the testes; bloodless Emasculation California band – A band that is placed around the testes and a metal clip is adjusted to tighten the band while cutting off blood flow; bloodless California Band 39 Dehorning Electric dehorner – This device is used on small horns; Once it has heated it, it is placed on the horn to cauterize it which stops the horn from growing Electric Dehorner Hot dehorner – Heated by fire; used to burn off small horns 40 Hot Dehorner Scoop dehorner – A piece of equipment used to dig and cut out small horns Scoop Dehorner Barnes dehorner – A piece of equipment that cuts off the horn at its base; used for large horns 41 Barnes Dehorner Health Balling gun – A device that delivers medication, vitamins, etc. by placing it in the animal’s mouth. Balling Gun 42 Rumen magnet – A magnet that is swallowed by the animal to collect any metal that the animal might have picked up while grazing to avoid any puncture wounds inside the stomach Rumen Magnet Drenching gun – A device with a hose on one end that is placed into the liquid medicine while the opposite end is placed in the animal’s mouth to administer the medicine Drenching Gun Colostrum Supplement – A supplement that is mixed with warm water and given to the animal to ensure that they are receiving the proper nutrients Colostrum Supplement 43 Electrolyte supplement – Another supplement administered to animals to make sure they are getting the proper nutrients Electrolyte Supplement 44 Trocar – A device used to pierce the side of the animal to allow gas to escape; A last effort for bloating Trocar California Mastitis Test – A test for a cow’s milk where each teat on the udder is milked into the well and the indicator is added to check for clumping California Mastitis Test 45 Reproduction CIDR Applicator – A device that is inserted in the vagina with a shot of progesterone to prevent ovulation; It is to be removed whenever the individual desires CIDR Applicator Estrus Detector (Estrotect) – A heat detector that is placed on the tail of the female and whenever she is mounted, the silver will be scratched off to reveal the bright color beneath; this helps to determine and keep track of the animals that are ready or that have possibly been fertilized Estrus Detector (Estrotect) 46 Scrotal tape – A tape that is used to measure the circumference of the scrotum Scrotal Tape Obstetrical Chain and Handle – Used in the scenario that a cow is having trouble calving; It is wrapped around the front feet of the calf to help pull the calf out; can possibly break the legs of the calf Obstetrical Chain and Handle 47 Weight Tape – A tape used to measure the rib cage or order to get an estimate of how much the animal weighs Weight Tape 48 Beef Production and Management Cattle by the Numbers Country Number of Cattle (million head) Brazil 213 India 211 U.S. 93 China 83 Ethiopia 53 World Total 1,426 State Number of Cattle (million head) Texas 3,910 Missouri 1,820 Oklahoma 1,805 49 Alabama (#15) 671 Beef Cattle Production Commercial operations are where animals are bred and raised for slaughter. o cow-calf: operator raises calf from birth to weaning (5 – 9 months of age) o stocker-yearling: producers raise the calf from weaning to 600-850 lbs primarily on a roughage diet. o Feedlot: The animal is fed a high energy feed to finish at a desirable slaughter weight and degree of finish. Purebred or seedstock o This I similar to the cow-calf operation. However, they primarily sell bulls to commercial producers or other purebred producers. They also sell heifers to other purebred producers and can sell semen for artificial insemination purposes. Economically Important Traits Reproductive performance Weaning weight Post-weaning growth Feed efficiency Carcass merit Longevity (functional traits) Conformation Freedom from genetic defects Reproductive Performance These are the traits of highest economic importance. Goals: o 90% or above calf crop weaned 50 o Have each cow to calve every 365 days o Calving season ~60 days Have good reproductive traits, high fertility, have low heritability (20%) Birth weight and scrotal circumference are highly heritable Improving Reproductive Performance Improve the animal’s environment by making sure they have adequate nutrition and ensure good herd health Select bulls based on breeding soundness exams Crossbreeding to obtain heterosis for percent of calf crop weaned Use bulls with light birth weight (decreased dystocia) Use bulls with a large scrotal circumference Weaning Weight and Post Weaning Growth Weaning weight reflects the milking and mothering ability of the cow as well as the pre-weaning growth rate of the calf. This is often expressed as a 205-day weight, adjusted for the age of the calf and dam. Post-weaning growth is from weaning to finish weight. This can occur on pasture and feedlot cattle. The growth is measured in pounds gained per day. 205-day weaning weight + post-weaning weight = 365- day weight o 365-day weight is called yearling weight o post-weaning weight = 160 x ADG Feed Efficiency and Carcass Merit Feed Efficiency is pounds of feed required for one pound of gain To obtain FE, animals must be fed individually. This is generally not economically feasible. o Can select for rate of gain to improve feed efficiency 51 Carcass merit is measured by quality and yield grades o Quality: Prime, choice, select, standard, and utility; measures palatability characteristics o Yield: U.S. grades 1-5: 1 being the best and 5 being the worst; measures amount of fat, lean, and bone in the carcass Age significantly affects tenderness Longevity and Conformation Longevity measures the length of productive life Important when replacement heifer costs are high o choose heifers that you think are going to have a long life in your herd Bulls remain in a herd for 3-5 years, and cows may be in the herd for up to 12 years or more o Bulls are removed sooner to prevent inbreeding o Cows are culled for poor reproductive performance cull – remove, send to slaughter Conformation is the form, shape, and visual appearance of an animal o Relationship of form and function o Look at traits relating to skeleton, udder, eyes, and teeth Genetic Defects Double muscling- enlargement of muscles Dwarfism – smaller cattle Mule foot (Syndactyly)- hooves solid rather than cloven Palate-pastern syndrome (Arthrogryposis) o Pastern tendons contracted and upper mouth is not fused Marble bone disease (Osteopetrosis) o Marrow cavity of bones filled with bone tissue Hydrocephalus o Fluid accumulates in brain; bulging forehead 52 Mule foot, palate-pastern syndrome, marble bone disease, and hydrocephalus increase mortality rate in cattle Double Muscling Belgian Blue and Piedmontese breeds Increased incidence of dystocia – abnormal or difficult birth High yields of lean, tender cuts Possibly a more tender source of meat due to thinner muscle filaments This is a natural defect in the cow, not something that humans do to the cattle Selecting Cattle EPDs – expected progeny differences Used by breed associations to monitor individual performance or offspring performance Report: birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, ribeye area, intramuscular fat, etc. Compare individual EPDs relative to breed averages The graph below is from the Hereford association o 150 lbs on the graph means 150 lbs over average weight 53 Replacement Heifers Select for heifers that will: o Conceive early in the breeding season (helps shorten the calving season) o Calve easily o Give a flow of milk supply consistent with feed supply o Wean heavy calves Commercial Producers & Heterosis Most crossbreeding programs take advantage of heterosis (hybrid vigor) o Performance of offspring is greater than the average of the parents Program need to be adapted to which breeds are available, producer’s feed supply, market demands, and environmental conditions 54 o Example: Brahman cattle are heat and insect resistant, therefore having higher productivity in the U.S. Gulf Region Feeding Cattle are ruminants: stomach has four compartments o Rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum o Microbes ferment feed (breakdown feed for the cattle to use) Balanced rations o Undernourished animals are more vulnerable to disease o Animals consuming roughages do not typically gain as fast as those on high-concentrate diets o There is more energy in high concentrated diets for the cattle Cows and heifers should be in moderate body condition at calving; not too thin and not too fat o If the cow is too thin at calving, it will require a lot of energy to take care of the calf o Being too fat can cause problems with dystocia o Cattle will start to deposit fat in the brisket area when they start gaining excess weight BCS – body condition score 55 Teeth Incisors absent from upper jaw; hard palate on upper jaw; premolars and molars on both. The absence of incisors on the upper jaw allows them to rip forage and grind it with their back teeth 56 Cow-Calf Management Producers want to generate profit from their operation • Analyze the following criteria: o Calf-crop percentage weaned (90%+ target) o Average weight of calves at weaning Wean at 5-9 months Weaning weight ~500 pounds o Annual cow cost (dollars required to keep cow each year) Management for Optimum Weaning Weight Calves born early in the calving season are heavier o Heavier weaning weight is ideal because they will sell faster • Amount of forage available as well as the quality (nutrient value) influences weaning weight Use of growth stimulants to nursing calves o Implant beneath skin of ear o Allows cows to grow a little more efficiently Creep feed calves provides access to high quality feed Genetic selection for good milk production Crossbreeding Stocker-Yearling Production Cattle that have been weaned Factors affecting cost and return: o Being able to market them in a consistent sized lot o Marketing (both purchasing & selling of cattle) o Gaining ability of cattle Light weight, thin but healthy, good frame = potential Amount and quality of forage & roughage Available o Intensity of grazing (number of animals per acre) Health of cattle Need to be aware of current market prices 57 o Make sure you’re not overspending so you don’t make a profit Need to understand the loss of weight of the cattle from the time of purchase to the time the cattle are delivered to their farm o This weight loss is “Shrink” (range 3% -12%) o Takes some time to recover this shrink Feedlot Cattle Management Lots of pins and feeding troughs Finish to market wt. of ~1,000-1,350 lbs. Primary factors involved are: o Investment in facilities o Cost of feeder cattle o Feed cost per pound of gain o Marketing Identification Visual ID o Human recording error and time delay Electronic ID o Coordinates source identification, animal movement & pathogen tracking (BSE or FMD) Market pays premium for traceability Allows backtracking for quality concerns Evacuation and relocation (natural disasters) Records performance data for herd automatically Tattoo o Herd number inside ear in case tags come out Branding o Freeze or hot brand o Substantiate ownership Prevention of Disease Productive animals are in good health o Mortality (death loss) versus morbidity (sick) 58 Proper record keeping – which cattle have been vaccinated and with what Proper nutrition Vaccinate for immunity o BQA – beef quality assurance; Give injections in the neck to avoid injection lesions. This is done because the higher quality of meat comes from the back end. Good sanitation practices o Clean up manure; keep areas well-drained Biosecurity Controlling disease within the herd o Vaccinate; low stress; keep records; use reputable feeds Purchasing replacement animals o Quarantine new animals to avoid passing anything they may have along to the rest of the herd. This also allows them to get used to the environment before they are introduced to the herd; purchase from reputable source Environmental and pest control o Footbaths; remove manure, pests and dead animals Disinfection o Choose one that will work on the pathogen of interest Visitors and Employees o Clean clothing, boots, vehicles; pets; travel out of the country Detecting Unhealthy Animals Visual observation o Loss of appetite o Listlessness 59 o Droopy ears o Separated from rest of herd Vital signs deviate from normal o Rectal body temp, respiration rate, heart rate Beef Cattle Evaluation (Handout) Anatomy Hook – hip cannon bone – can determine how tall an animal will be point of shoulder – can cause structural issues if too steep shape of poll – pointed = no horns 60 o can be used to determine if the cow had horned or not Handling This is the animal’s personal space. It is their natural instinct when a person comes inside this “bubble” to run away. The flight zone of an animal varies based on its level of docility. For instance, a dairy cow has virtually no flight zone, but range cattle can have an extremely large one. It can also vary depending on the calmness of the animal in that moment. If cattle become excited, it can take 20- 30 minutes to calm them down again. o If the cow figures out you are scared, they can turn their flight into fight. Never walk up to an animal from directly behind them. Cattle have pretty good vision until you are behind them. They cannot see you and may startle easily, increasing your risk of getting kicked. Approach the animal from the side, preferably at the shoulder so they can see you. This is the safest point to approach them at. If you are near the rear of the animal, stand close to it. If you were to get kicked, the force will be limited the closer you are. In other words, the kick will still hurt, but 61 will not cause as much damage to you if you are closer to the cow. Frame Sizes Frame score is determined by the hip height of the animal at a certain age o Large: Frame score if 6+ 1 o Medium: Score of 4 / –26 o Small: Frame score if 4 and below Muscling Score 62 A muscle score of 1 indicates a high level of muscling (beef cattle), while a 4 is given to an extremely light muscled calf (skinny dairy cow). Observe them from stifle to stifle and how they stand. o BCS (Body condition score) 1 – intensely skinny 5-6 – desirable 9 – very obese You can look by fat by observing the cow from top to bottom and front to rear. They usually begin laying down fat on the top first and work their way down and back. The brisket is a good fat indicator. o Tail head pons – fat deposits on the tail end Conformation Straight top line Width over loin and back; flat and straight on back Width between the legs o Rear legs: indicates muscling o Front legs: indicates skeletal capacity Well-muscled and balanced o Not too large on one side and not too small on the other 63 o Rear view: widest point between stifles o Square and thick through rump (how wide they are across loin muscle o Long and deep through quarter Hooks to pins = length of quarter Smooth over shoulders o Bulky shoulders are undesirable because they are bad for calving. The calf could also develop bulky shoulders Stand correctly over all 4 legs o Post-legged: too straight in rear legs (prone to stifle injuries) worst type of deformity; causes trouble getting up, walking, and calving o Sickle-hocked: too much curve at the hocks o Cow-hocked: too close at the hocks o Buck-kneed: buckled over at the knees o Calf-kneed: back at the knees (too straight) Not all leg abnormalities will hinder them from being productive animals 64 Relative Importance of Different Points of Evaluation Market Steers and Heifers 1.Desirable market weight (1100-1250 lbs); in the last few years, it has been averaging 1200-1500 lbs. 2.Muscling (amount, thickness, uniformity of thickness) o Most important 3.Trimness (lack of excess fat, Yield Grade) 4.Volume and capacity (width, length, depth) 5.Skeletal design (shoulder, top, hip) 6.Soundness and movement (feet and legs) o Not as important from a market standpoint Breeding Stock (Bulls and Heifers) 1.Size (frame size and length of body) o 2 ndin importance according to speaker 2.Volurd and capacity o 3 in importance according to speaker 3.Skeletal design o 1 in importance according to speaker o Bulls’ rear legs are extremely important during breeding season because he needs to be able to maintain all his body weight while mounting the female 4.Soundness and movement th o 4 in importance according to speaker 5.Trimness (lack of excess fat; muscling) o 5 in importance according to speaker o Bulls need excess fat during breeding season because they are not concerned with eating. o Females will have trouble getting pregnant 6.Reproductive soundness a)Bulls: testicular development (descension, circumference – how fertile, freedom from abnormalities – size and shape) The bigger the bull’s scrotal circumference, the faster their daughters will reach puberty 65 b)Heifers: udder development with respect to age (2 years+); the mother’s udder is a good reference Sheep Production and Management Sheep Terminology Group Flock Adjective Ovine Genus and Species Ovis aries Act of Parturition Lambing General Term for Young Lamb Young Male Ram lamb Young Female Ewe lamb Mature Male Ram Mature Female Ewe Castrated Male Wether By the Numbers Country Number of State Number of Sheep Sheep (million (1,000 head) head) China 139 Texas 440 India 74 California 265 Australia 73 Wyoming 225 Iran 49 Utah 225 Sudan 39 Alabama Not Reported World Total 1,094 -------- -------- Use of Wool Can absorb considerable amounts of moisture while maintaining warmth Highly resistant to fire 66 Does have a tendency to shrink when wet Can be itchy Wool Terms Fleece – wool shorn at one time from all parts of the sheep o Shearing – the process of removing the fleece Staple length – the length of the wool fibers Fineness – the diameter of wool fibers o A hank is 560 yards of yarn – measures fineness Crimp – waves or kinks in the wool fiber o Caused by hard and soft cell material in the cortex o Number of waves/unit of length o Desirable characteristic - the more crimp the better Classes and Grades Class: Staple length Grade: Fineness (average diameter of the individual fibers) The American (or Blood) System o Looks at percentage of Merino blood in the animal Merino – standard of fineness for wool, not used very frequently o Fine, 1⁄2-blood, 1⁄4-blood high, 1⁄4-blood low o Not very exact Spinning Count System o Number of “hanks” of yarn that can be spun from one pound of clean wool o Larger numbers (or more hanks) means finer wool o 80s = fine; 36s = course The Micron System o Individual fibers are measured o Under 20 microns = fine; over 36 microns = course Comparison Points Open face vs. Closed face 67 o Does wool grow around and below the eyes? o Yes: closed face o No: open face Tight fleece vs. Open fleece o Measure of how easy it is to separate the fibers down to the skin o If they are hard to separate: tight o If they are easy to separate: loose o Tight fleece is desirable because keeps deep fleece clean Production Farm-flock – smaller operation o Primarily in the Midwest and West Coast o Usually result in more lambs per ewe Range-flock o Western states o Public and private rangelands o Predators including coyotes Meat: finish at 90-120 days weighing 120-130 Both systems found in the U.S. just depends on what part of the country you are in Characteristics Most important trait for meat breeds: 90-day weaning weight 68 actualweaningweight−bir×90 +birthweight 90 Day WW = ( weaningage∈days ) o Example: If a lamb weighs 10 lbs at birth and 100 lbs at 100 days 100lbs−10×90 +10lbs=91lbs 90 Day WW = ( 100days ) Lamb vs. Mutton Lamb: under 1 year of age Mutton: over 1 year of age Break joint - lamb o Found in the front shanks o 2 pieces: considered a lamb o Fused to 1: “Spool Joint” and considered mutton Break Spool Joint Joint Wholesale Cuts Breeding Breeding season mainly in the fall o Late summer to midwinter 69 Reach puberty around 5 months Estrus cycle is 17 days long – the time from one heat to another heat o Estrus: 1-2 days Gestation: 147 days o 1-2 breedings a year Lambs/year varies greatly between breeds o Anywhere from 1/year to 3-4/year Ram has the greatest concentration of sperm of farm animals o 2-3 million/1 mL of ejaculate Factors that Affect Reproduction Selection and crossbreeding o Crossbred ewes are more likely to conceive as lambs than purebreds Mature ewes (4-7 years) are more fertile Decreased day length = increase in % of ewes in estrus Higher temperatures = heat sterility in rams o Health o Nutrition o Disease o Parasites The Breeding Season Ewes can be hand mated or pasture mated Pasture mated o a ram is placed in a pasture with a flock of ewes that are in heat Hand mating o Requires teaser rams o Usually castrated rams or rams wearing an apron o Identify ewes in heat Remove wool from dock and vulva region of ewes prior to breeding season 70 Paint sticks used to identify ewes that have been mounted in pasture Identification Tattoos o Purebred stock, mostly Plastic ear tags Metal ear tags Paint branding (temporary) o Required for use on Federal rangelands o Similar to hot branding cattle, but iron is just dipped in paint. o Shoulders or juncture of neck and shoulders after shearing o Growth of wool keeps brand on the outer tips o Paint is lanolin-based and soluble in wool-processing chemicals o Will fade and must be redone after shearing Ear notching Genetic Abnormalities “Undershot” – the lower jaw is too long “Overshot” – lower jaw is too short Cryptorchidism Entropion o Inverted eyelids 71 o Eyelashes in direct contact with the cornea o Eventually can cause blindness Rectal prolapse – intestines come out of the anus Spider Lamb Syndrome o Skeletal deformities - long, bent limbs, twisted spines, flattened rib cages, long necks Nutritional Problems White Muscle Disease o Selenium and/or Vitamin E deficiency o Affects skeletal and cardiac muscle o Can treat with Se, but if cardiac muscle is affected, it will already have incurred damage Grass tetany o Magnesium deficiency o Animal will act nervous, stare into space o Occurs most commonly in spring when lactating ewes are on lush pasture Signs: restlessness, over- alert, excitability, aggressiveness o Treatment: injection of calcium and magnesium, although not always effective Diseases Overeating Disease o Caused by 2 strains of Clostridium perfringens o Present in healthy animals, but grow out of control when an extreme diet change occurs o Signs: stop eating, lethargy, diarrhea, kicking their stomach, laying on one side, with legs extended and head thrown back near withers o Treatment: probiotics, electrolytes, and antisera (neutralizes the toxins produced by bacteria) Tetanus o Can infect animals through wounds from castration, docking, or vaccination o No satisfactory treatment 72 Foot rot o Lameness, reduced weight gain, decreased milk and wool production o Treatment: trim feet, bathe with ZnSO 4 o Prevention: vaccines exist, as well as maintaining clean, dry areas for the animals Sore mouth (orf) o Similar to herpes o Formation of pustules and scabs on the lips, nostrils, eyelids, teats, udders, and feet o Reduces feed efficiency, lambs may refuse to nurse o Treatment is ineffective, but you can vaccinate Pregnancy toxemia – more common in an ewe carrying twins o Results from inadequate nutrition late in gestation o Blood glucose levels are too low o Treatment: oral propylene glycol, calcium, insulin, and electrolytes can improve survivability if caught early o Prevention: ensuring ewes are of adequate BCS (~3) at the time of pregnancy and her plain of nutrition is maintained Breed Identification Rambouillet Most popular sheep breed in the US Cream to white in color with wool on legs Rams usually horned Larger of the sheep breeds Dual-purpose breed Strong flocking instinct Hardy; can withstand heat and cold Fine-wool Will breed out of season Slow maturing 73 Medium staple length Rambouillet Merino Cream in color Can be horned or polled When horned, horns are present in both sexes and curl around, close to the head Most popular breed in the world Finest and softest wool of any sheep Originated in Spain Merino Dorset White in color 74 Have wool on legs Can be horned or polled o When horned, horn curl resembles Rambouillet Good mutton type Heavy milk production Very fertile Popular in farm flocks in the US Dorset Suffolk Black head and legs free from wool Largest breed (in size) in the US o Ram 300-400 lbs Most popular breed in US Popular terminal sire used in market lamb production Excellent mutton type Medium light fleece o Only problem: black fibers Prolific ewes Longevity is less than other breeds, can’t handle harsh environments Suffolk 75 Hampshire Open faced Usually dark brown to black face and legs Do have wool on head and legs Large breed with rams weighing 250-350 lbs. Common terminal sire in market lamb production Advantages and disadvantages similar to Suffolk Slightly hardier Produce a little more wool Growth rates and prolificacy slightly less Hampshire Southdown 76 Closed face White in color Compact and “blocky” in appearance Excellent carcass quality Used commonly in “hot house” lamb production One of the oldest breeds Southdown Cheviot very alert appearance very open faced Small, low-set, well-proportioned Hardy and able to withstand harsh conditions Cheviot Polypay 77 “Many incomes” developed by the US Sheep Experiment Station Dubois, ID in the 1970’s o 4 breed cross o Targhee x Dorset and Rambouillet and Finnsheep Medium in size, white, prolific Superior in lamb production and carcass quality Ewes are very good mothers Polypay Columbia Dual-purposed breed Lincoln x Rambouillet o Also from the Sheep Experiment Station 1st breed to be developed in the US Developed for range conditions White, open faced with wool on legs Medium wool, heavy fleece Good carcass conformation Good mothers Hardy Columbia 78 Targhee Very similar to Columbia Lincoln-Rambouillet ewe mated back to a Rambouillet ram o Ewes had some Corriedale blood, as well o Dubois, ID Fine wool with tighter fleece than Columbia and slightly shorter staple length Medium-large Hardy with good flocking instincts Good market lambs Targhee Finnsheep 79 Originated in Finland White, although there are some black ones Open face with no wool on legs Small to medium in size Poor carcass conformation Medium wool Very prolific – 2-4 lambs each lambing Early puberty Finnsheep Sheep Handling and Evaluation (Handout) Handling Hold sheep with your left hand under the chin, grasp if necessary. Your right hand should hold the dock or flank. NEVER pull, grasp, or grab sheep by their wool. o This could bruise muscles and damage the carcass A sheep’s skin is different from cattle or hogs; it is more difficult to remove. Sheep have a protective layer of tissue between the pelt and the muscle called the “fell” which is easy to separate when removing the pelt. Grabbing the wool separates the “fell” from the muscle, causing bruising/damage due to blood vessels being torn. 80 Evaluating Sheep Looking for: muscling, trimness (degree of fat cover), depth and length of muscling, and structural soundness (especially in breeding stock). You usually have to feel sheep to evaluate muscling and trimness. To do this: o Keep fingers together o Feel/press with pads of fingers; do not jab or poke the wool. o Do not create “holes” in the wool; dirt, trash, and water in the wool will result in it being discounted. o The pads of your fingers are sensitive to touch, so you can feel differences in degree of finish. Examining muscling and degree of finish: o Examine fat covering over top o Check width over rump, loin, spring of ribs o Depth of twist 81 o Thickness and muscling of leg by measuring circumference at the stifle o Brisket – depth and firmness o Structurally sound – stand straight and sound on all legs o Check the mouth Overshot jaw (parrot mouth): upper jaw protrudes out Undershot jaw: lower jaw protrudes out Order of Importance for Evaluation Market Lambs (Wethers and Ewes) 1. Desirable market weight 2. Muscling (amount, thickness, and uniformity) 3. Trimness (lack of excess fat, yield grade) 4. Volume/Capacity 5. Skeletal design 6. Soundness and movement Breeding Stock (Rams and Ewes) 1. Size (frame and length of body) 2. Volume/Capacity 3. Structural correctness 4. Muscling 5. Trimness 6. Breed character and fleece quality a. Fleece quality is a major consideration in wool breeds and gets less serious scrutiny in meat breeds 7. Soundness and movement 8. Reproductive soundness (+ or -) a. Rams – testicular development b. Ewes – udder development i. (+ or -) means that the individual is either sound (+) and meets expectations/qualifies to be kept or does not meet expectations (-) and should be culled, regardless of superiority of other traits 82 Determining Age Ruminants: no upper incisors, hard dental pad on top; incisors on bottom. Born with milk teeth, which are narrower than permanent teeth and spread apart as lamb approaches 1 year of age. 1 year – 1 pair of permanent incisors 2 years – 2 pairs of permanent incisors 3 years – 3 pairs of permanent incisors 4 years – 4 pairs of permanent incisors o Said to be “solid mouthed” with all four pairs Up to four years, it is easy to tell age. After that, it is difficult to tell age. Some general guidelines: o Approximately 4-6 years – teeth will spread apart. An ewe is referred to as a “spread-mouthed” ewe. o Approximately 6-7 years – teeth loosen, break, and fall out. An ewe is referred to as a “broken- mouthed” ewe. Range-flock operators sell broken-mouthed ewes because it is difficult for them to get adequate nutrition under range conditions in order to nurse a lamb without losing weight and body condition. Some farm flocks will buy these ewes. In farm situations, nutrition and management is better. The farm flock operator will get 2-3 lamb and wool crops from the ewes and sell them for slaughter. An ewe used in this manner is called a “short-term ewe.” Approximately 10 years – all teeth fall out. Called “gummers.” 83 Notes from the Speaker Contrary to popular belief, sheep can be productive in the deep south. They just have to adjust. When he and his family moved their entire sheep farm here from California, he had trouble at first. Within the first 6 weeks, every lamb he had was dead due to parasit
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