PSYC 2400 Exam One Outline
PSYC 2400 Exam One Outline Psych 2400
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liana Sandell on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2400 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Letitia Naigles in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Psych 2400 Exam One Study Outline September 21, 2016 Liana Sandell “when” questions 1. Social: when does mother-child attachment develop? (somewhere between birth and 8 years) When is the sense of self developed? When are we able to play with peers? 2. Cognitive: When do we learn to talk? (it is earlier than children display) When do we learn to think? to problem solve? When do children see the world as adults do? 3. Things that emerge earlier are more likely to be innate (ex. personality inﬂuence), later emergence are more likely to be learned (ex. parental or peer inﬂuence) “what/how” questions 1. What inﬂuences development? o Personality? o Child rearing? (linguistic, social, cognitive inputs from peers, teachers, home etc.) “why” questions 1. Why is each achievement important for the whole child? 2. Are aspects of development isolated, or do they interact? o Do cognitive developments facilitate social ones? a. Means-end (do x in order to get y) enables making friends o Do social developments facilitate cognitive ones? a. Joint attention enables learning what words mean All of these questions 1. Are in some way(s) questions about nature vs. nurture o What is innate/inborn? a. The result of our genes, of being human, of being a speciﬁc human being o What is learned? a. The result of our environments, parents, peers Two general biological processes critical for child development 1. Good nutrition o Malnourished pregnant moms lead to babies who are smaller and develop more slowly o Malnourished babies and children lead to physical, social, cognitive development also being slower 2. Good sleep o Better sleep leads to alertness in the daytime which leads to better learning o Consolidation of learning takes place during sleep How do we discover what is innate and what is learned? •I (x) in the environment is thought to be necessary for child development o Deprivation: take x away from he child and see what happens a. Unethical example: Genie the child who was deprived of social interaction, affection, language, play, nutrition etc b. Ethically: compare children from different environments • Language will be one example c. Cross-cultural comparisons • Compare how much x occurs in different cultures • Attachment will be one example ex) Japanese vs. Italian d. Twin studies • Compare monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) 9 twins o Smiling will be one example How do we study human children? 1. observe: what do newborns do? How do children play/interact? What do toddlers say? Individual differences? Observer bias? 2. experiment: change local of observation, change type of objects/toys, change who is with the child/situation 4 parts to every study 1. Age/situation of child 2. What was done to the children/what were they asked to do? 3. What were the ﬁndings? 4. How do the ﬁndings relate to the question? Infancy Newborns (birth to 2 mo) 1. Humans are born way too early… o At one month old we have very few neurons that are not well connected o By 15 months the neurons are well connected which means babies are highly able to learn because the neurons can easily send messages to various areas of the brain o Our nervous and digestive systems are not developed, babies who may not have allergies throughout their lives often show allergies at this point o We have long childhoods 2. Why? o Their big heads: if babies were born when they were more developed their heads would be too big for delivery, the mom would die, and the baby would not survive The remarkable newborn 1. APGAR tests: internal wellbeing, this test scores how well the baby is doing physically 2. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Scale: records the babies reﬂexes, these speciﬁc reﬂexes eventually go away and are replaced by voluntary actions sometime between 1 and 3 mo o Moro: if there is a sudden downward shift the baby reﬂexes to grab something o Rooting: the precursor to sucking, if something touches the baby’s cheek they will move their head towards the touch o Grasping: touch palm/feet and the baby will latch on o Sucking: when things are put near the baby’s cheek the baby will root and then try to put the object in their mouth and suck o Stepping: if you hold the baby up above a surface and move the baby forward it will move it’s legs as if it’s taking steps o Newborn reﬂex video demonstrating the above reﬂexes Relating Reﬂexes and SIDS 1. 2-3 months, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) 2. Lipsitt’s theory o Reﬂexes diminish between 2 and 6 mo o Actions then become under voluntary control 1. Reﬂexive vs controlled crying if choking 2. Reﬂexive vs controlled waving is suffocating 3. Controlled is when the baby has to initiate the action o What if reﬂexes go before control emerges? 3. Study o Record activity levels and alertness of all babies born in RI in a given year o Record which babies died of SIDS o Babies who died of SIDS had lower levels of activity and alertness therefore fewer experiences to help the controlled actions emerge which lead babies to be more helpless when ‘threats’ occur o So pediatricians said, lets remove the threats! No blankets, crib bumpers, etc. Also put babies to sleep on their backs (babies now less motivated to learn to roll over) Outline: What young infants do 1. Behaviors, perception, temperament Behaviors of infancy 1. Orienting (head turn) to whatever infants like o important to infancy researchers because it tells us that babes are paying attention to their environment and it can be used as a diagnostic tool. it shows what stimuli are preferred, and that they can tell the difference between stimuli 2. Habituating to stimuli that have become boring o Usually captured by looking or eye gazes, can also be recorded with sucking o Shows what stimuli are discriminated: a. Show A, stimulus A becomes boring, baby looks away b. Show B, if B is different the baby will dishabituate (look or listen again) c. Requires memory of the previous stimuli Tastes and smells in infancy 1. Taste testing in 1 to 2 hour old infants o Give ﬂavored water (sweet, bitter, sour, or clear) o Record the amount of time the baby licks their lips (sucking time) o Sucking time longer for sweet than any other ﬂavors o Faces: lick lips for sweet, grimace for bitter 2. Smell in 2 day old infants o Fluid on gauze pads (water, amniotic, colostrum) o One pad placed on each side and record where the baby orients o Baby turns to either amniotic or colostrum over water Vision in infancy (part 1) 1. Fantz: 2 visual stimuli in succession, which stimuli will the infant watch the longest when they are 2 days old? o His original experiment wasn’t very precise, but his results still hold up today o Goal was to see if baby had any innate preferences o Babies preferred (looked longer at) the face over the checkered board o Babies prefer well-oriented faces over scrambled faces, and scrambled faces over checker board patterns o Babies look longer at contours and curves over sharp edges o Babies prefer contrast and symmetry 2. By 2 mo, babies do prefer faces (static) 3. On day 1 babies prefer their mom’s face over other female faces of similar age and color when faces are moving (babies are picking up on the ways their mother moves back and forth naturally, like a rhythm) Vision in infancy, (part 2) 1. Depth perception o Visual cliff—Walk and Gibson o 1-2 month old, no change in heartbeat o 3-5 months show moderate (not huge because this is not a fear response) increase in heart rate which implies that they can perceive depth o In class video: you don’t learn to be afraid of heights until meeting social inﬂuences. Babies perceive depth but are not yet afraid (only afraid if mom is afraid) Audition in infancy (part 1) 1. Phonetic discrimination at 1 month: o Ba, ba, ba, ba > habituation > dishabituation to pa 2. Preference for mom’s voice at 2 days (Mehler): o Play a tape of mom talking for the baby at 6 hours old o At 2 days old, play tapes of the baby’s own mom followed by a tape of a different mom on opposite sides of head, then record where the baby turns their head to for the longest amount of time o Babies consistently orient to their own mom (voice) o Does the baby really understand mom? No, but if actual phones (words) are ﬁltered out so there is just the melody of the mom’s voice, the baby still prefers the sound of their own mom, which shows the baby has learned and remembers. o 5 months in utero the auditory system is developed 3. Preference for dad’s voice at 2 weeks Audition (part 2) 1. By 4 months, babies can recognize their own name o A female tech articulates sentences including the baby’s name, plus sentences with similar names (ex. joan, jane) o Then play that tape that has the baby’s name on one side, and the other, similar name on the other side o Baby orients to the tape that says their own name Intermodal Perception 1. Classic Spelke study, with 4 month olds: o Watch 2 videos, hear only 1 audio o Game of peekaboo on one side, playing the xylophone on the second side o Audio matches only one video o Baby looks longer at video that matches audio 2. Especially important because babies can’t play the xylophone or peekaboo by themselves yet! This means they can link up what they see and hear Intermodal even younger 1. Morrongiello et al. study o 1 day old babies o See/hear rattling muppet A on Left and Right o Measure looking time and observe habituation o New trials: 1. Rattling muppet B on left and right, babies then dishabituate, so they can tell this is a different puppet (control) 2. Non-rattling muppet A on left, hear rattling noise on right side, babies also dishabituate. This shows the babies expected muppet A and rattling to be coupled together 3. suggests babies can link what they see and hear Temperament: Thomas and Chess 1. Followed 140 children from birth to adolescence 2. Early data based on parental report 3. Originally asked about how reactive or responsive the babies were ot emperament 4. Categories: o Activity: gross motor behavior o Regularity: predictability of biological functions o Approach/withdrawal: initial response to new stimulus o Adaptability: ease of modifying initial response o Threshold: intensity level of stimulus to evoke response o Reaction: energy level of response o Quality of mood: pleasant vs. unpleasant behaviors o Distractibility: effect of extraneous stimuli o Attention span: length of time activity is pursued 5. Findings: 3 kinds of babies: 1. Easy (playful, regular): 40% 2. Difﬁcult (negative, unadaptive): 10% 3. Slow to warm up (start as difﬁcult, become easy): 15% a. Additional kind of baby ‘discovered’ by Kagen: 4. Inhibited (low threshold to new stimuli) 3%, likely to be shy when older b. Temperament video Temperament and behavior 1. Notice that it’s babies’ behavior that indicates their temperament distinctions 2. Distinctions last for many years… o Original Thomas and Chess study: a. Difﬁcult babies more likely to have problems with school and family, easy babies less likely to have problems oN Papageorgia et al. study: a. 7 month olds tested on looking at lots of different scenes b. Differed on number and duration of ﬁxations c. Parents rated same kids at 4 years on self control (“can wait for new activities if asked to”) d. Kids with higher self control ratings had produced more long ﬁxations at 7 months What comes in early? 1. Temperament, way of interacting with the world 2. Ability to discriminate between basic smells and tastes 3. Growing visual acuity, face preferences 4. Developing depth perception 5. Ability to discriminate sounds on their intonation (melody) 6. Growing ability to pick out short sound bursts (names) 7. Good ability to coordinate senses The mental world of infants (part 1) 1. Objects geordi’s visor video (taken down) 2. Theories of object organization o Empiricists: as you move around you deduce what changes and what doesn’t change in order to distinguish objects from backgrounds o Nativists: you just know objects from backgrounds when you’re born, or shortly after 3. Piaget’s interactionist theory o Start with end state and see where are infants headed? (Objects exist even when outside of our visual, perceptual ﬁelds) o Stages of development o Learning ONLY via interaction with objects (Without arms a baby will interact with their legs, they may or may not be delayed developmentally because of that, that is an example of a deprivation study) Piagetian methods of learning 1. Assimilation o Outside stimuli adapted to inside knowledge state o Can be understood only as far as inside schemas can handle them 2. Accommodation o Inside knowledge state adapts to outside stimuli o Inside schemas change as they understand more of outside stimuli What “knowing about objects” gets the child • To think about objects when they are not around shows representation o Representation gets you memory (ex. remember how an object looked) o Representation gets you planning (ex. how to ﬁnd the object in the future) o Representation gets you categorization (ex. which objects are similar) Piagetian stages of object permanence 1. 1 and 2 mo: objects not separate entities, they are part of their surroundings, birth to 4 months 2. 3 mo: No search for invisible objects, 4-8 months, at this point babies are now able to reach for objects on their own (ex. train in tunnel) 3. 4 mo: A-not B search behavior (ex. apple under cloth) A not B baby video Piagetian Stages of object permanence continued 1. Stage 5: A not B in invisible displacement (12-18 months) 2. Stage 6: Search for objects everywhere shows object permanence (18-24 mo) 3. Stages 1 and 2: birth to 4 mo 4. Stage 3: 4-8 mo 5. Stage 4: 8-12 mo Baillargeon drawbridge study 1. 3-4 mo 2. Show drawbridge moving, all babies habituate 3. Then: o Group A: see block, drawbridge covers block and stops o Group B: see block, drawbridge covers and moves “through” the block 4. Who dishabituates? a. If Piaget is right, group A dishabituates because the block is out of sight and so it should be forgotten 5. But, group A remains habituated, they remember the block 6. And, Group B dishabituates, they remember the block too and they wonder why the drawbridge doesn’t stop 7. Object concept VOE ramp study Baillargeon video youtube 8. babies remember the existence of the block even when it’s out of sight (for usually between 5 and 10 seconds) Parrot “Peekaboo” Study 1. 6 month olds 2. Small stage with curtains, babies face is ﬁlmed throughout 3. Person A appears, says “peekaboo” and baby smiles happily, repeat a few times 4. Person B appears, says “peekaboo” and baby frowns, doesn’t smile 5. The baby expected person A to appear again, baby “knows” person A still exists 6. Babies between 4 and 6 months show object permanence Infant memory: bad or good? 1. Diamond’s study: varied delays in A not B o Piaget: 5 second delay between hide and search, 8 month olds fail o Diamond: 0 second delay between hide and search, 7 month olds pass o Diamond: 2 second delay between hide and search, 7 month olds fail o Diamond: 10 seconds between hide and search, 10 month olds fail o This suggests the formed representations are weaker based on age rather than all or nothing 2. Maybe it’s an inhibition problem? a. Inhibition video, baby reached for A and B but his grab for A was stronger/more direct and reached that cloth ﬁrst Test of inhibition: Monkeys 1. Adult rhesus monkeys pass A not B test 2. Make lesion in prefrontal cortex (one site responsible for self control) 3. Adult monkeys now look like 7 month old humans and fail the A not B test 4. If lesion in parietal lobe or hippocampus no effect on results, so not just an effect of getting a lesion 5. Conjecture that prefrontal cortex in 7 month old humans is not mature enough to inhibit the A not B response, BUT knowledge that the object tis under B DOES exist for the baby A not B with looking measures? • Diamond: o Film 7 month olds experiencing A not B o They reach for A, but they look at B o This supports the inhibition explanation o This also demonstrates the importance of eye gaze measures for studying child development o This is a closer indication to what the baby is currently thinking (than the hand movement) Why do researchers rely so much on infant eye gaze? 1. Eye gaze reveals the infant’s current state of knowledge o Visual acuity o Intermodal coordination o Object permanence 2. Eye gaze also reveals some of the infant’s future development Infants differentiate which kinds of agents have goals 1. Moriguchi et al. (based on earlier Woodward studies) o Agents: grasping hand, backhand, mechanical claw o 8 month olds o Babies watch ABC sequence and their eyes are tracked o Backhand and mechanical claw: the baby’s eyes go to goal objects after the agent arrives (c) They look at the agent until the agent picks a toy, meaning they don’t think of the backhand or the claw as agents that have a goal (to pickup a toy) o Grasping hand: baby’s eyes go directly to the goal object before the agent arrives (c) They believe that this agent has a goal and that the agent will go to a toy Eye gaze revealed… 1. Babies easily assume/predict that some agents (grasping hands) have goals 2. Other agents (backhands, mechanical claws) are not automatically assumed to have goals 3. Moriguchi et al. noticed a lot of variability in the babies 4. Some babies in the mechanical claw condition DID look at the goal before the claw arrived there, but most did not Follow up study 1. Moriguchi et al. contacted the families of these same babies when the kids were 4 years old 2. Asked parents to ﬁll out a survey, one question was how often does your child play with an imaginary friend? 3. 4 year olds who played with imaginary friends more frequently had been babies who looked at the goal more quickly in the claw conditions 4. eye movements at 8 month suggested that some babies attribute goals to inanimate objects were related to behavior at 4 years old Rovee-Collier Studies on infant (long-term) memory 1. Task: baby’s foot is tied to mobile. Baby will kick foot and make the mobile move. Baby has learned to kick their foot in order to make the mobile move. 2. Learning to kick YouTube video 3. If the baby’s foot is untied, babies kick anyway. They remember the kick- move mobile connection! 4. How long do they retain this memory? Every baby remembered for 24 hours! 5. 2-3 month olds: retain memory for 1 week 6. 6 month olds: retain memory for 2 weeks 7. Memory is situation speciﬁc: if sheets or bumper or mobile are changed, the kicking stops and the baby doesn’t remember the connection 8. You have to see the stimuli the same way in order to remember Early social development Emotions: crying • 3 kinds of cries in babies during ﬁrst year of life: hunger, pain, “mad” o Adults reliably distinguish these in terms of timing and loudness: a. Hunger: slow and gradual cry b. Pain: sudden onset c. Mad: Loud and rhythmic, typically if hunger cry is not taken care of o But, these are more physiological responses than emotional ones, especially at ﬁrst Emotional crying 1. 3 months: crying becomes communicative, expressing anger, frustration, protest 2. Chen study: caregivers trigger crying! o Babies videotaped at home at 3, 6, 8, 12 months o Mom’s caregiving coded as: a. Involving caregiving or not (ex. feeding and diaper changes) b. Involving prohibition or not (ex. blocking child from doing something) o At 3-8 months, most crying is in response to caregiving o 9-12 months, most crying is to prohibitions o Once babies become mobile, moms MAKE more prohibitions o Babies’ crying shifts from being reactive to physical discomfort (caregiving) to being reactive to psychological discomfort (restrictions on movement) a. “mom, let me do this” is communicative crying Smiling 1. Development: o Newborns: GAS o 1-2 weeks: from external stimuli (tactile, auditory, NOT visual), big time lag between stimuli and smile o 3-4 weeks: from visual stimuli, shorter time lag o 8 weeks: SOCIAL SMILES 2. First smiles are a cognitive phenomenon, they become a social phenomenon: o Early on babies smile to non-human stimuli (bells, patterns, fabrics, etc. 3. Smiling occurs after some scrutiny of the stimulus->> MASTERY of the stimulus, understanding of the stimulus 4. Evidence for this? Smiling is not social at ﬁrst 1. Evidence: o Monozygotic twins are more similar in development pattern than dizygotic twins, so early smiling is governed by internal abilities rather than environment o If monozygotic twins were not more similar, that would mean social factors play a stronger role than genetics when it comes to early smiling 2. Evidence: o Children with down syndrome a. Their entire smiling pattern is slowed down b. There are longer lags between stimulus and smiles, takes longer to smile to complex stimuli shows that mastery of stimuli is harder c. Social smiling is around 8-9 mo d. Thus smiles emerge on cognitive timetable, not a social timetable Emotional display vs. Understanding 1. Babies can display interest, fear, disgust, joy, sadness, and anger by 5-6 months 2. Babies can distinguish these emotions visually by 8-10 months which shows the baby 1 kind of emotion face, wait until the baby habituates, show the baby another emotion face and see if they dishabituate 3. Why is there a lag between displaying emotions and distinguishing them visually? 4. Babies can distinguish happy vs. sad auditorily at 5 months o Fernald: orient speakers on baby’s left and right o Voices of German, Japanese, Italian, but all American babies o German approval voice on one side, angry prohibition German voice on the other side o Babies orient to the approval voice over the angry prohibition voice Later emotions: Fear 1. Preference for parents at 5-6 months o Shows person permanence 2. Stranger anxiety at 8 months 3. Fear of heights at 8 months 4. Why at 8 months? This is when babies begin to become attuned to their caregivers’ reactions. o Campos study: mom’s reaction to stranger and to heights guides the child’s reaction. Visual cliff 2 video. o 8 months marks onset of means-end Roots of mother-child interaction: exaggeration 1. What’s exaggerated? o Facial expressions o Vocalizations o Duration of gaze 2. The ﬁrst interaction: the gaze cycle a. 30-60 seconds long (very long) b. Patterns of turn-taking 3. Why does that baby break off its gaze? o Discrepancy theory—Kagan: the baby looks more and more at the person and gets more and more aroused. Overstimulation is ﬁrst cognitive, then social. 4. What if mom doesn’t break off the gaze? The baby will cry because it is over stimulated o Still face video: a. Still face is distressing to the baby in a healthy dyad b. Positive affect in baby that has an over stimulating mother. This is because the still face is a relief and baby has a chance to process c Still face very distressing to babies who’s mom is negative or depressed because distressed moms are not usually very attentive, babies see still face most of the time, mom is not very responsive or predictable d. early indication of infant socialization Social development and attachment: outline 1. Attachment is not bonding (humans don’t need to immediately be with their mother after birth in order to attach to them) 2. Attachment and the strange situation 3. Bases of attachment Attachment 1. The connection that child and caregiver have (enduring—based on multiple interactions over and over again) 2. Child will smile when they see caregiver 3. Child goes to caregiver when something goes wrong 4. Attachment person is the basis of whom you explore the world, look back to the caregiver to see what’s okay, secure base/anchor from which the baby will explore The strange situation 1. Around 12 months so baby is mobile and able to move around 2. Exploration in a new room (playroom) 3. Separation from mom (she leaves her purse behind, indicating that she will return) 4. Reunion with mom after 30 seconds to 1 min 5. Reaction to stranger (nice stranger) 6. Strange situation video
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