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PSY 1010 Exam 2

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

PSY 1010 Exam 2 PSY 1010

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Kaitlyn Meinzer

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General Psychology Exam 2
General Psychology
Mark Alicke
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Mark Alicke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
TEST 2 Study Guide • State of Consciousness ◦ Experimental psychology began as the study of conscience experience ◦ Wilhelm Wundt had people report personal mental states with the technique of introspection ‣ Describes sensation and emotions ◦ Watsons "psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist" ridiculed consciousness because it could not be studied objectively ◦ Concerns with consciousness returned in the 1960s as the cognitive revolution occurred in psychology ◦ At the same time, physiological psychologists became interested in altered states of consciousness such as in sleep and dreams, daydreaming, hypnosis, drugs and dissociation • The Functions of Consciousness ◦ Attention ‣ Focusing of mental resources ◦ Awareness ‣ Levels of wakefulness ◦ Self-Reelection ‣ The ability of a system to access its own internal states ‣ This capacity for self-reflection, the ability to reflect thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is perhaps the most distinguishing feature of human consciousness ‣ Evolutionary advantages for those who could self reflect • Compare past and present • Project into the future • Construct hypothetical situations • Create and convey fictions • The hard problem of consciousness ◦ The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience ◦ When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subject aspect ◦ There is something it is like to be conscious organism ◦ This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field ◦ Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of a stream of conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience • Levels of Conscious Awareness ◦ 1. Focal Awareness ‣ What you are consciously attending to ◦ 2. Preconscious Awareness ‣ Things we are "keeping track of," but not consciously • Walking • Ticking of the clock • Song on the radio ◦ 3. Unconsciously ‣ Sleep, coma, anesthesia ◦ 4. Dynamic Unconscious ‣ Available only in disguised form or with great deal of effort and interpretation • Hatred or dislike • Socially- unacceptable motives • Sleep and Dreams ◦ Ou bodies experience periodic physiological changes throughout a 24- hour cycle ◦ Circadian rhythm ‣ Biological clock ◦ About every 90-100 minutes, we pass through five different sleep stages • Sleep waves become slower and deeper at each stage ‣ Awake but Relaxed • When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps). A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity. ‣ Sleep Stages 1-2 • During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high- amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. ‣ Sleep Stages 3-4 • During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps). ‣ Sleep Stage 5 • Brain waves looks more like stage 1 (REM) • Heart rate increases • Breathing becomes irregular • Rapid eye movement • After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state. • Paradoxical because the person is physiologically alert but deep sleep • 80% of the time people report dreaming during REM • REM periods get increasingly longer throughout the night • 20-25% of sleep is in REM ◦ Brain Waves and Sleep Stages ‣ Alpha Waves • Slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain ‣ Delta Waves • Large, slow waves of deep sleep ◦ Why do we sleep ‣ We spend one-third of our lives sleeping. ‣ If an individual remains awake for several days, immune function and concentration deteriorates and the risk of accidents increases. ‣ Sleep Deprivation • Fatigue and subsequent death. • Impaired concentration. • Emotional irritability. • Depressed immune system. • Greater vulnerability. • Conserve Energy • Restoration and Growth ◦ Increased production of proteins ◦ Pituitary releases growth hormone during deep sleep • Brain Plasticity (Flexibility) ◦ Enhance synaptic connections ◦ Consolidate memories ◦ What we dream ‣ Negative Emotional Content: 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. ‣ Failure Dreams: People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. ‣ Sexual Dreams: Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30. ◦ Theories of dreams ‣ 1. Freud-wish fulfillment • Manifest and latest content ‣ 2. Physiological Function • Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. Neural networks of newborns are quickly developing; therefore, they need more sleep. ‣ 3. Activation-Synthesis Theory • Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams • make sense of this activity. ◦ Altered states of consciousness ‣ Drugs ‣ Hypnosis • A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggest to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feeling, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur • Franz Anton Mesmer claimed he had discovered the property of "animal magnetism" • Force of nature through which you could control another experience • Hypnotic Induction ◦ Fix Attention ◦ Suggestion (ex, sleepy) • People differ in hypnotizability ◦ Operation definition in the number of items experienced during a standard induction test ◦ Items range from imaging ones arm getting heavier to hallucinating a buzzing fly forgetting suggested events • Hypnotizability depends on ones ability for imaginative involvement ◦ Reading science fiction, physical adventurousness, mental flexibility ‣ Characteristics of Hypnotic Experience • Reality testing is reduced ◦ Ex, subject will converse with a hallucinated person in an empty chair • Enrich fantasy is evoked • Most who are easily hypnotized are susceptible to post-hypnotic suggestion ◦ Ex: Under hypnosis they are told to do something when they emerge from the trance (tap foot three times) • In posthypnotic amnesia people are told the they will not remember what happened under hypnosis until given a signal ‣ Controversial Claims • Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? ◦ Ex, put hand in batter acid, pour it on another person, quack like a duck ◦ Group Control • Can people be regressed to an earlier age (age regression) ◦ In one case a subject who spoke only german at age six and earned english later was age regressed to that time and answer no (Nein) when asked whether he understood english ◦ When the question was rephrased to him 10 times in English he indicated each time in German that he was unable to understand english ◦ while professing his inability to speak english, he continued responding appropriately in german to the hypnotists complex english questions • Can people under hypnosis recall forgotten memories? ◦ Witnesses whose memories are "hypnotically refreshed" are extremely unreliable • Is hypnosis therapeutic ◦ Some data suggest that hypnosis is effective in self-control (drugs, alcohol, obesity), but again, usually no better than control groups (such as relaxing and positive imagery) ‣ Theories of Hypnosis • Pavlov believed it was a form of sleep ◦ However: ‣ EEG is different in sleep and hypnosis ‣ Alert hypnosis • Psychoanalytic theory ◦ Partial regression in which the subject lacks the controls present in normal walking consciousness • Divided Consciousness or Dissociation theory ◦ Split or divided consciousness ◦ Hidden Observer ‣ Convert awareness of knowledge that is not acknowledged consciously • Social Influence Theory ◦ Role enactment ◦ Motivation to comply ‣ Hypnotically Recovered Memories • Most often-used techniques to uncover repressed memories are hypnosis and guided-imagery ◦ Spend time imagining you were sexually abused, without worrying about accuracy, proving anything, or having your ideas make sense ‣ Creates false memories ‣ Worst idea ◦ Critics argue that repression of truly traumatic memories is rare ◦ Intrusive thoughts are more common ‣ Symptoms as Indicators of Past Abuse • No single set of symptoms • Therapist reports • No scientific evidence supports this conclusion • Drugs, Alcohol, and consciousness ◦ Psychoactive Drug ‣ A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood ‣ Used in ancient times to due the pain of surgery ‣ Todays use of anesthetics in conjunction with surgery is only a liter over 100 years old ◦ Physical Dependence ‣ Physiological need for a drug ‣ Marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms ◦ Psychological Dependence ‣ A psychological need to use a drug ‣ For example, to relieve negative emotions • Dependence and Addictions ◦ Tolerance ‣ Diminishing effect with regular use ◦ Withdrawal ‣ Discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use ◦ Psychoactive Drugs ‣ Depressants ‣ Stimulants ‣ Hallucinogens ◦ Depressant: Alcohol ‣ Oldest and most widely used drug ‣ Does not required digestions before absorption into bloodstream ‣ Measurable impairment at about .05% blood concentration; legal level is most often set at .08% ‣ At .4% anesthetized to extent that a person could undergo surgery ‣ Between .5% and 1% the breaking centers in the brain or the action of the heart may be anesthetized, and the death will follow directly ‣ Body begins to dispose of alcohol immediately after it has been absorbed ‣ About 90%, disposed by metabolic process, mainly in the liver ‣ Intoxication • Alcohol accumulates if drinking exceeds the rate at which the alcohol can be metabolized ‣ Intoxication produces • Imbalance in body chemistry • Hangover effects ◦ Nausea, headache, gastritis, thirst, malaise ‣ Long-Term Use • Dementia • Cirrhosis • Psychological Development ◦ Theoretical Issues • Nature-Nurture (Heredity-Environment) ‣ 1. Intelligence: Nature or Nurture • Measurement of Heredity • Proportion of variance in test scores due to heredity • Must estimate two quantities ◦ Vt = total variation due to environment and heredity based on differences between pairs of fraternal twins ◦ Ve = environmental variance alone, based on differences between pairs of identical twins ◦ Vt - Ve = Vg--Variation due to genetic factors ◦ H = Vg/Vt proportion of variation in IQ in specific population due to genetic differences • Bouchard and McGue ◦ Monozygotic - "Identical Twins" ◦ Dizygotic - "Fraternal Twins" ‣ 2. Continuity vs. Stages ‣ Stability vs. Change ◦ Prenatal Development ‣ At nine weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus ‣ Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus ‣ By the end of the sixth month, a prematurely born fetus has a chance of survival ‣ By 33rd week, they can understand different rhyming patterns ‣ In one experiment • Pregnant women recited passages from children's stories out loud each day, beginning six weeks before due date • Some mothers read the Cat in the hat; others read the same story but with the Dog in the For substituted • Two or three days after birth, infants sucked on a pacifier that was wired to record sucking rates • The pattern of sucking determined whether they heard the story that was read, or a different version • Results showed hat infants preferred the familiar story ‣ During prenatal development, environmental factors affect he fetus via the transfer of nutrients and oxygen from the placenta ‣ Drugs and alcohol the mother consumes are transferred to the fetus ‣ (Teratogens) ‣ Cigarette smoke reduces blood oxygen and transfers nicotine ◦ Cognitive Development ‣ Jean Piaget ‣ Schemas • Mental model of objects and events • A mold you pour your experiences into ‣ Assimilation and Accommodation • The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding(schema) • The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation ◦ Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development ‣ Sensorimotor Stage • Babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are out of mind • Stranger anxiety ‣ Pre operational Stage • Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the pre operational stage--too young to perform mental operations ‣ Concrete Operational Stage • Given concrete materials, 6- to 7- years old grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back to forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities ‣ Formal Operational Stage • Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking • We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking ◦ Moral Development ‣ Kohlbergs moral ladder • As moral development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social network • Postconventional Level ◦ Morality of abstract principles; to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles • Conventional Level ◦ Morality of law and social rules; to gain approval or avoid disapproval ◦ Early Adolescence • Preconventional Level ◦ Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards ◦ Early Childhood ◦ Social Development ‣ Harlow Surrogate Mother Experiments ‣ Attachment Styles • Secure Attachment- 67% ◦ Seek contact with caregiver and stop crying • Avoidant Attachment- 20% ◦ Don't cry when caregiver leaves; avoid caregiver on return • Resistant Attachment- 10% ◦ Angry with caregiver on return • Disorganized Attachment- 5% ◦ Lack of emotion on return of caregiver ◦ Gender Identity and sex-typing ‣ Sex differences are one of the more popular "pop" psychology topics ◦ Biological Sex Differences ‣ Biological sex is largely determined by the twenty-third chromosome pair-the sex chromosomes ‣ XX - Female ‣ XY - Male ‣ Before seven weeks, male and females are indistinguishable ‣ Girls reach puberty at about 11, boys at about 13 ‣ On average, adult males are 5 inches taller, 30 pounds heavier, and have 40% more muscle, and 12% less fat ‣ The average man has a million more red blood cells in each drop if blood, absorbs 30% less alcohol into his blood stream, and has 10% more lung volume ‣ On average females live 5 years longer ◦ Social and Cognitive Sex Differences ‣ Sexuality • Men view the world in more sexualized terms ‣ Cognitive Abilities • Male high-school students score 34 points higher on the math SAT • Women perform better at grammar, spelling, an reading comprehension ‣ Physical Aggression • 89% of all people arrested for murder, assault and rape are male ‣ Each culture prescribes a set of gender roles- expectations about how men and women are supposed to behave ‣ Most people also have a gender-identity • A fundamental sense of being male or female, which does not always match biology


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